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sii 



-4-/^ 



The American 
Review of Reviews 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



\ 



Volume LIII 



January-June, 1916 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY: 
New York : 30 Irving Place 



INDEX TO THE FIFTY-THIRD VOLUME OF 

THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

JANUARY-JUNE, 1916 



Articles on the European War 'will be found listed under the heading of **fFar, The,*' <while other 
articles dealing more specifically nvith the internal affairs of the various nations involved, are indexed 
under the names of those countries, A connected account of the vuar, and a list of its principal events 
during the six months covered in this tndex, vuill be found, respectively, in the articles listed under the 
titles, **Strategy of the War** and in the ''Chronological %elord of Events in the War,** both under the 
heading ''War, The,** 

Pp. 1-128, January; pp. 129-256, February; pp. 257-384, March; pp. 385-512, April; 

pp. 513-640, May; pp. 641-768, June. 



Abbott. Lyman, at 76, 80. 

Adach4 Kinnosuke. China's vast resources, 210. 

Adams. Cyrus C. Northern Mexico, 421. The 

antarctic continent, 600. 
Aeroplane Industry, Development of, 280. 
Aeroplane of to-day, The, 304. 
Aeroplane; see also Aviation. 
Agriculture, American, Financing, 461; 579. 
Agriculture; see also Farming. 
Aliens, Our treatment of, ^11. 
American Can Company and the courts, 405. 
American International Corporation. Formation 

of. 21. 
Angell, James B., and the growth of the State 

universities. 623. 
Animals that live in trenches, 362. 
Antarctic continent. The, 600. 
Armenians, The fate of the, 230. 
Army: See United States; Army. 
Asia Minor should be developed by Germany, 8. 
Australian military system, 449. 
Austria's danger from.G<*r?nany, 359. 
Aviation advanced by :tiie War, 280. 
Aviation: Aerial flghtlAg -taclics, 361. 
Aviation: See also Aer6plane. 

Babcock, Dr. Stephen M., inventor of the butter- 
fat' test, 608. 

Baker, Newton D., Secretary of War, 392; 733. 

Balkan railway lines, 236. 

Barker, L. F. Mistaken methods in science teach- 
ing, 464. 

Batchelor, BronsOn. Japan's challenge to Eng- 
land, 455. 

Benedict XV., Pope, and his attitude toward the 
war, 481. 

Benedict XV., Pope, and his part in a peace con- 
gress, 747. 

Berlin's new subway, 620. 

Bimetallism again, 624. 

Blake, Warren Barton. The rebellion in Ireland, 
697. 

Blayney, Thomas Lindsey, Our administration of 
the Philippine Islands. B3. 

Body, The child's and the adult's, 105. 

Books, The New, 113, 242, 372, 498, 626, 753. 

Boy Scouts, The, 96. 

Burpee, Lawrence J. Our Canadian-American 
high court. 181. 

Business conditions: See United States, Economic 
Conditions. 

California land-grant bill In Congress, 663-664. 
Canada, A political truce In, ^. 
Canada, Military preparedness in, 260. 
Canadian- American Joint Commission, 147; 181. 



Canada's gains from the war, 358. 

Carmen Sylva, 606. 

Cartoon Department, 30, 156, 28G, 411, 548, 679. 

Central America, United States' attitude toward, 

145. 
Child labor bill in the senate, 277. 
China: 

American money and Japanese brains in, 452. 

Forests of, Restoring, 337. 

New monarchy in, 22; 91; 205. 

Political and economic affairs in, 148. 

The language question in. 487. 
Christianity, The world's new turning to, 717. 
Civil service trial boards, 458. 
Civilization and its relation «to climate, 303. 
Colleges for public service, 135. 
Collins, Paul V. Financing American agriculture, 

461. 
Collins. Paul V. Rural credlt.s. 579. 
Colombia, Proposed treaty with, 147; 191; 274. 
Congress: See under United States. 
Conventions, celebrations, and other gatherings of 

1916, 598. 
Cooperation among consumers during the war, 

576. 
Copper, Advance in, 404; 535. 

Danube river. Course of the, 237. 
Daylight-saving in Europe. 668; 715, 726. 
Defense, National: See United States; also Mili- 
tary training. 

East, The smouldering, 176. 
Education : 

A modern school, 465.- 

Moonlight schools in Kentucky, 23J. 

Science teaching. Mistaken methods in. •164. 

Sense-training in high-schools and academies, 
489. 

Fabrb, the Virgil of insects. 111. 

Farm credit bill in the senate, 276. 

Farming and a world crisis, 461. 

Farming Appalachia. 329. 

Fasslg, Percival. The waste by floods, 203. 

Ferris, Chester. The Los Angeles example of 
citizenship training, 81. 

Financial News, 126, 254, 382. 510, 638, 766. 

Flexner, Abraham. A modern school, 465. 

Floods, The waste by, 203; 281. 

Folksong, Revival of interest in, 370. 

Foreign relations: See United States: Foreign re- 
lations. 

Foster, Paul P. New ports and railways of Rus- 
sia, 709. 

Frederick, J. CJeorge. America's business boom, 
43. 



Copyright, 1916, bt Thx Revisw of Reviews Co. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LIIi 



iii 



Garrison. Secretary of War, and the Philippines, 

18. 
Garrison, Secretary, Resigrnation of, 266-2G8. 
Garrison, Secretary. Military policy of, 353. 
Gasolene. Rise In price of, 150. 
German Attack on India, Possibility of, 67. 
German economic ereneral staff, 228. 
German-Americans and Gterman literature, 3«>9. 
Germany: Berlin's new subway. 670. 
Grermany, Internal conditions of, 4. 
Goodrich, Rear-Admiral Caspar F. What shall 

we do for our boys?, 570. 
Government. United States: See United States, 

Government. 
Great Britain: 

Britain as an arsenal, 356. 

Compulsory military service in, 148; 260. 

Bngrland. The recruiting in, 5. 

England's neglect of science and the penalty, 
103. 

Knglish leadership, A French criticism of, 220. 

Japan's challenge to England, 455. 

Parliamentary affairs, 260. 538. 
Greece. Position of. as to the war. 9-12; 541. 
Grinnell, Alton G. Preparedness of the army 
medical department, 341. 

Halifax, Development of the po-t of. 737. 

Ham, Clifford D. Americanizlnj? Nlcaraugua, 185. 

Health Insurance, A New York p.oject for, 365. 

Herrlck. George F. Turkey's call to America, 346. 

Holland. Imperialism of, 238. 

Holland's neutrality, Germany and, 484. 

Hornbeck, Stanley K. New monarchy for old 
(China), 205. 

Huldekoper. Frederic L, The Swiss and Aus- 
tralian military systems, 449. 

Hunger, Mental effects of, 486. 

Illiteracy In America, 94. 

Immigrant, Educating the, for Citizenship, 79-81. 

Immigration policy, our, A crisis In, 735. 

India, Arts and ideals of, 618. 

India: Spirit of the Hindu Stage. 617. 

Indiana's centenai^, 668. 

Indiana's centenary pageant, 683. 

Industrial betterment. The movement for, 104. 

International law. The new, Elihu Root on, 481. 

Ireland, Rebellion in, 666-667; 697; Leaaers of the 

rebellion. 751. 
Italian industry and commerce, "Nationalizing," 

480. 
Italy's territorial prospects, 97. 
Italy's tourist trade, 479. 

JAPANESB-American amity, 22. 
Japanese exclusion question, 659-660. 
Japan's challenge to England. 455. 
Jews in the eastern war zone, 610. 

Kaempppert, Waldemar. The aeroplane of to- 
day, 304. 
Knaufft. Ernest. Two great pageants, n93. 
Kurds, the, Character and customs of, 347. 

I^ABOR conditions: 
Coal industry, the, Labor troubles In. 662. 
Eight-hour day, from the manufacturer's stand- 
point, l07. 
Labor disputes In various parts of the country. 

668. 
Miners' wage demands, 277. 
Railroad wage questions, 277; 663. 
Lamm, L. M. Utilizing lumber waste, SS8. 
Latin- America and the war, 221. 
Leading Articles of the Month, 91. 216; 350. 475. 

603. 725. 
Literary criticism, American, an English view of, 

966. 
Los Angeles, Training immigrants for citlzen.'^hlp 

in. 81. 
I*uml>er decline in the North-we.st, {KX. 
Lumber waste. Utilizing. 588. 



297638 



McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury, Comment on 
annual report of, 18. 

McDonagh, Thomas, a leader in the Irish rebel- 
lion, 751. 

Macdonald, James B. Scene of the coming sea 
fight. 705. 

Macdonald, James B. The Anglo-Russian cam- 
paign in Turkey, 439. 
Maps and Diagrams: 

Adriatic Sea, showing Italy's relation to the Bal- 
kan campaign, 318. 

Africa, colonial possessions in, 5. 

Antarctic continent, as now known, 601. 

Antarctic regions, as formerly known, 601. 

Balkans, railroads in, 236. 

Business death rate diagram, 218. 

Business, Retail, In United States, for 1915 as 
compared with 1914. 217. 

Danube River, Course of. 237. 

France, War front in, 312. 

Galicia. Russia's war front in, 316. 

Gallipoli Peninsula, 174. 

Human energy. Distribution of, on the basis of 
climate, 364. 

Mesopotamian field of war, and the Suez Canal, 

172. 
Mexico, Northern, the region of the pursuit of 

Villa, 423. 
Mexico: Route of American expedition. 531. 
Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea, 175. 
Nicaragua, with proposed canal route and Unit- 
ed States naval bases. 186. 
North Sea and the Baltic, scene of a possible 

naval engagement, 706. 
Persia, Principal caravan routes in, 69. 
Rumania and her neighbors. 72. 
Russia: New ports and railroads of, 711. 
Russia: Trans-Siberian railroad route, 710. 
Sault Ste. Marie Canals, 723. 
Suez Canal and railroad approaches to It, 177. 
Turkey, Fighting areas and strategic railways 

in, 440. 
Turkey, Railroads In, 68. 
IJkrainia, 486. 

I'nlted Stages: diagram of retail business condi- 
tions for 1915 as compared with 1914, 217. 
Verdun battle-ground and strategic points in 

vicinity, B67. 
Verdun, Position of, on western battle line, 427. 
Verdun, and surrounding forts and towns, 427. 
Marks, Marcus M. Civil service trial boards, 468. 
Maxey. Edwin. The pending treaty with Colom- 
bia. 191. 
Medical conquests abroad, American, 146. 
Metchnikoff's tribute to Count Wltte. 728. 
Mexico: 
American army In. (Pictures), 554. 
An. unsolved problem, 529. 
Border scenes, (pictures), 416. 
Carranza government. Recognition of, 23. 
From Diaz to Carranza, 1%. 
Scene of our army's hunt for Villa, 421. 
Turmoil in, 146. 

Villa, Punitive expedition against. 388-390; 529-633; 
658. 
Military systems of Switzerland and Australia, 

449. 
Military training at Plattsburg. 225. 
Military training camps. Progress of. 270, 652-653. 
Military training: Citizens drilling throughout the 

country, 270. 
Military training for our citizens. Desirability of, 

134-136. 
Military training for the American boy. 570. 
Military training In our land-grant colleges. 134. 

201. 351. 
Military training In the United States, Squandered 

opportunities for. 265-266. 
Military training laws passed in New York. 652. 
Mllltla, United States: See Ignited States: Mllltia 
Mirza. Youel B. The Kurds: Their character and 

eii.stoms. 347. 
MIrza. Youel H. The Persia Af to-day. 712. 
Missions, World, in the second year of war, 232. 



1 



iv 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF RE^IEIVS 



Mitchel, Mayor, and his administration' of New 

York City, 495. 
Mohammedan pilgrimages to Mecca, and Indian 

revolts, 235. 
Munitions business. 20. 

National Guard: See United States: Militia. 

Navy: See United States: Navy. 

New York City, Mayor Mitchel's administration 

of, 495. 
New York legislature. Work of, 642. 
New York. New Haven, and Hartford Railroad 

directors on trial, 150. 
New York postmastership, and President Wilson, 

142. 
Nicaragua, Americanizing. 185. 
Nicaragua, Proposed treaty with, 274. 

Obituary, 29, 155, 285. 410. 547, 675. 
Oregon land-grant bill in Congress 663-664. 
Osborne, Thomas Mott. on trial. 151; 542. 
Osborne. Thomas Mott. the prison reformer, 476. 

Paobant of Indiana's Centenary. 683. 
Pageants: The Newark celebration and the Shake- 
speare masque in New York. 593. 
Panama Canal slides. General Goethals on, 106. 
Pan-American Scientiflc Congress, 144. 
Pan-Americanism and Pan-Hispanism. 625. 
Papacy, The. and the war, 481; 747. 
Paper stock. Scarcity in, 404. 
Pershing, Brigadier General John J., A sketch of, 

419. 
Persia of to-day, 712. 
Persia under Russian influence, llit. 
Philippine Islands: 

Abandoning the, 271-273: evacuation voted down 
in the House, 659. 

American health work in. 621. 

Our administration of. 83. 
Plattsburg rookie speaks. A, 225. 
Politics: 

Conventions, National, Dates and places of, 23. 

Congressional politics. 261. 

Democratic convention plans and problems, 654- 
655. \ 

Democratic future leadership, 522. 

Democrats and the single-term issue, 522. 

Hughes, Justice, and the nomination. 275. 

Hughes considered as a presidential candidate, 
726. 

Politics in a presidential year, 141. 

Pork barrel Politics, 263. 

Preparedness as an issue. 526. 

PresidenUal Politics. 275 

Progressive party plans. 646-647. 

Republican primaries and leading camlldatos, 

623-526. 
Republican prospects. 143. 
Republican situation on eve of convention, 64:J- 

660. 

Roosevelt as a candidate, 725. 

Wilson as a candidate, 141; 725. 

Wilson enters Ohio primaries, 276. 

Wilson the only Democratic candidate. 622. 
Pope. The: See Benedict XV. 
Portraits: 

Abbott, Ljrman, 76. 77. 

Acuna, Jesus, 632. 

Adams, John T., 646. 

Addams, Jane. 114. 

Aguilar, Candldo. 632. 

Almeida, Antonio Jose d', 741. 

Anderson, Grace Jenkins. 596. 

Andreve, Guillermo. 533. 

Angel. Lawrence. 135. 

Angell, James B., 623. 

Anthony, D. R. Jr., 133. 

Asbury, Bishop Francis, 499. 

Asquith, Herbert Henry, BHtish Premier, 639, 
686. 

Athertoh. Gertrude. 606. 

Austria: Archduke Frederick of. 641. 

Babcock, Stephen M.. 606. 

Baker, Newton D., 3i»l, 382, 664. 733. 



Barbier. Jean-Pierre, 608. 

Barrett, John, 130. 146. 

Baumgarten, General, (France) 403. 

Begbie. Harold. 231. 

Benedict XV., Pope, 481. 

Benson, Admiral William S., 395. 

Berg, Lieutenant, of the Appam, 279. 

Bernstorff, von. Count J. H., 400. 

Bertie, Lord, 686. 

Bethmann-Hollweg, von. Theobald, Chancellor, 

4. 539. 
Bigelow, Poultney, 113. 
Birrell, Augustine, 667. 
Blue, Admiral Victor, 395. 
Borah. Senator William E., 650. 
Boris, Crown Prince, of Bulgaria, 166. 
Bourgeois, M., 686. 
Boy-Ed, Captain Karl, 17. 
Braisted, Surgeon-General William C, 395. 
Brandeis, Louis D., 284. 
Bratiano, John. Premier, of Rumania. 74. 
Breckinridge, Henry S., 268. 
Briand, Aristide, 686. 
Brown. Col. William C, 546. 
Bulgaria: Crown Prince Boris of, 166. 
Bulgaria: King Ferdinand of, 26, 541. 
Burlan, Baron Stephan, 14. 
Burpee, Lawrence J., 184. 
Burton, Theodore E.. 647. 
Cadorna, General Luigi. 686. 
Caperton, Rear- Admiral William B., 653. 
Carmen Sylva, 606. 
Carpenter, Edward W., 133. 
Carranza, Venustiano, 23, 390. 
Carson, Sir Edward, 067. 
Carvalho, Mesquita de. 741. 
Casement, Sir Roger. 698. 
,Castelnau. Gen. NoCl de Curl^res de. 658, 080. 
Catt. Mrs. Carrie Chapman. 28. 
Cecil, Lord Robert, 657. 
Chagas, Senhor, 686. 
China: Yuan Shlh-K'ai, Emperor of, 22. 
Chouvaiev, General D., 691. 
Churchill, Winston (of England), 41. 
Clark, Champ, 263, 401. 
Clarke, James P.. 271. 
Coflln, Howard, 398. 
Connolly, James, 701. 
Constantine, King of Greece, 10. 
Coomaraswamy, Madame Ananda 618. 
Cooper, Elizabeth. 604. 
Costa. Alfonso. 741. 
Cummins, Senator Albert B., 647. 
Dall 'Olio. General. 686. 
Daniels. Josephus, 396. 664. 
Dargue, Lieut. Herbert A., 555. 
Davis, Richard Harding. 647. 
DePorest. Lee. 135.' 
De Gama, Domicio. 145. 
Delane. John T., 499. 
Dent, G. H. Jr.. 133. 
Dodd, Col. George A.. 546. 
Dodge, Gen. Grenville M., 155. 
Duncan, B. C, 646. 
Du Pont. T. Coleman, 54. 
Edison, Thomas A., 138, 651. 
Eliot, Charles W.. 489. 
Elliott, Edward C. 673. 
I5mmett. R. J., 136. 

England: King George and Queen Mary, 538. 
Bstabrook, F. W., 646. 
Pabre, Jean Henri. 29. 112. 
Fairbanks. Charles W., 644. 
Ferdinand, King of Bulgaria. 26. 641. 
Ferdinand, King of Rumania. 73. 
Ferguson. Gov, James E., 659. 
Fields, William J.. 138. 
Fletcher, Henry P., tt. 
Flexner. Abraham, 489. 
Flood, Henry D.. 401. 
Foraker. Joseph Benson. 498. 
Ford, Henry, and Mrs. Ford, 25. 
Francis, David R., 672. 
Frederick. Archduke, of Austria. 541. 
Frederick William. Crown Prince of Germany, 

686. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LI I I 



Premantle, Rear-Admiral Sir Edmund Robert, 

569. 
French, Sir John, 7. 

Funston, Major-General Frederick, 389, 658. 
Gallwitz, von. General, 296. 
Gantscheff, General, 166. 
Gardner, Obadiah» 183. 
Garland, Hamlin, 760. 
Garrison, Lindley M., 264, 733. 
Gates, Frederick T., 489. 
George V., King of England. 538. 
German Crown Prince, Frederick Wilhelm, 686. 
Gifford, W. S., 393. 
Glenn, Robert B., 183. 
Glynn, Martin H., 655. 
Goit, Joseph H., 135. 
Goodrich, James P., 646. 
Gordon, William, 133, 
Gorell. Lieut. Edgar S., 566. 
Greece: King Constantine, of, 10. 
Greene, Frank L.., 133. 

Gregory, Attorney-General Thomas Watt, 664. 
Grey, Sir Edward, 686. 
Griffin. Admiral Thomas D., 396. 
Guardia, Aurello, 533. 
Haeseler, von. Field Marshal Gen. Gottlieb, P. 

A. A. 403. 
Haig, General Sir Douglas, 7, 558. 
Hamarskjold, Knut HJalmar, 540. 
Harding, Warren G., 527. 
Hart, Albert Bushnell, 242. 
Hay, James, 133. 
Heiser, Victor George, 622. 
Helfferich, Karl, 25. 
Hewlett, Mrs. Maurice, 358. 
Hill, David Jayne, 135. 
Hill, James J., 53. 
Hilles, Charles D., 646. 
House. Edward Mandell, 657. 
Hubbard, John Flavel, 135. 
Hughes, Charles E., 275, 648. 
Hull, Harry E., 133. 
Hunt, Gov. George W. P., 659. 
Ihlen, Nils Claus, 540. 
Ingraham. William M., 672. 
Isvolsky, M., 686. 
Ivanoff, General, 26. 
James, Edmund J., 266. 
Jenkow, General, 166. 
Jllinsky, General, 558, 686. 
Joffre. General Joseph, 41. 558, 686. 
Jonescu. Take, Premier, 612. 
Jovanovitch, M.. 686. 
Kahn, Julius, 1S3. 
Kimura, K., 718. 

Kitchener, Horatio Herbert. Earl, 41. 538. 686. 
Kltchin. Claude, 401. 
Klutts, Whitehead, 184. 
Knudsen, Gunnar, 540. 
Kovess, von. General, 296. 
Lacaxe, Admiral. 686. 
Ladd, George Trumbull, 249. 
Lamar, Joseph R., 156. 

Lane, FVanklin K., Secretary of the Interior, 664. 
Lansing, Robert, 130, 145, 664. 
Ledwidge, Francis, 875. 
Lefevre, Ernesto T., 583. 
Liretti, Arthur, 630. 
Littlepage, Adam E., 133. 
Lloyd-George. David, 686. 
McCall, Samuel W., 763. 
McDonald, Gov. William C, 669. 
McGowan. Admiral Samuel. 395. 
McKean, Capt. Josiah S., 395. 
McKeller. K. D., 183. 
McKenzie, J. C, 133. 
McKinley, William, 753. 
MacGill. Patrick, 758. 
Machado, President of Portugal, 741. 
Mackensen, von, Field-Marshal Gen. August, 

166, 691. 
Magrath, Charles A., 183. 
Mann. James R., 18. 
Markiewicz, Countess, 701. 
Marks, Biarcus M., 459. 



Marshall, Thomas R., 130. 

Martin, Alvah H., 646. 

Mary, Queen of England, 538. 

Matsui, Mr.. 686. 

Menessier, General, 693. 

Mignault, Paul B., 183. 

Moffett, Cleveland. 136. 

Montenegro, King ot, with fa hilly, 296. 

Morgan, EM ward M., 142. 

Morgenthau, Henry, 671. 

Morln. John M., 133. 

Morone, General Paolo, 691. 

Moton, Robert R., 151. 

Murphy, Franklin, 646. 

Naidu, Sarojini, 606. 

Nicholaievitch, Grand Duke Nicholas, 435. 

Nicholas, Czar of Russia, 437. • 

Nicholas, iCing of Montenegro, and family, 295. 

Nichols, Samuel J. 183. 

Niedringhaus, T. K., 646. 

Noyes, Florence Fleming, 595. 

O'Beirne, Mr., 686. 

Obregon, General Alvaro, 532, 668. 

Olney, Richard, 133. 

Ordynski, Richard, 695. 

Papen, von. Captain Franz, 17. 

Parsons, Capt. C. E., 396. 

Pasitch. M., 686. 

Pattee, Fred Lewis, 252. 

Pearse. Padriac, First President. of the Irish 

Republic, 701. 
Peary, Rear Admiral Robert E., 742. 
Pechitch, Colonel. 568. 
Pell§. General, 558. 

Pershing, Brigadier-General John J., 419. 555. 
Petaln, General, 403. 
Pope Benedict XV., 481. 
Porras, General. President of Panama, 533. 
Porro, General, 658. 
Portugal, President Marchado, of, 741. 
Pound, Roscoe, 734. 
Powell. Henry A., 183. 
Quin, Percy E., 133. 
Rachitch, General, 686. 
Radoslavov, Premier, of Bulgaria, 541. 
Raemaekers, Louis, 745. 
Rainey, Henry T., 273. 
Rankin, Henry B., 754. 
Ratan Devi. 618. 
Rathenau, Walther, 229. 
Redfleld, William C, 19, 664. 
Redmond, John, 538, 700. 
Rels. Peseira. 741. 
Replogle, J. L.. 63. 
Reuterdahl, Henry, 136. 
Reynolds, James B., 646. 
Robeck, de. Vice Admiral, 569. 
Robertson, Gen. Sir William, 251, 686. 
Rockefeller, Percy A.. 53. 
Roosevelt, Fi^nklln D., 396. 
Roosevelt, Col. Theodore, 274, 504, 524. 630, 649. 
Root. Elihu. 645. 

Roques, General Charles, 403, 686. 
Rumania, Carmen Sylva, Queen of, 606. 
Rumania, King Ferdinand of, 73. 
Russia, Czar and Czarevitch of, 437. 
Sabin, Charles H., 53. 
Salandra, Antonio, Premier of Italy, 686. 
Salvlni, Tommaso, 368. 
Sandburg, Carl, 761. 
Scaveniue, von, Erik, 540. 
Scheldemann, Phillpp, 4. 
Schwab, Charles M., 54. 
Scott, Major General Hugh L., 269, 391, 658. 
Shallenberger, A. C, 138. 
Sheldon, George R., 646. 
Sherman, Lawrence Y.. 525. 
Sherrill, Charles H., 627. 
Shibusawa, Baron. 2. 
Simonds. Frank H.. 424. 
Slocum, Col. Herbert J., 646. 
Smith, Capt. William S., 111. 
Sonnino, Baron Sidney, 686. 
Sosa, Juan B., 533. 
Sosa, Ladislas, 633. 



\ 



Z 4- I J. 



The American 
Review of Reviews 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



« a 



\ 



Volume LIII January-June, 1916 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY: 
New York : 30 Irving Place 



INDEX TO THE FIFTY-THIRD VOLUME OF 

THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

JANUARY-JUNE, 1916 



Articles on ibe European War 'will be found listed under the beading of *'tVar, Tbe,** *while other 
articles dealing more specifically nvith tbe internal affairs of tbe *various nations involved^ are indexed 
under the names of those countries. A connected account of the 'war, and a list of its principal events 
during the six months co^vered in this tndex, fwill be found, respectively, in tbe articles listed under the 
titles, ** Strategy of the War'* and in the ''Chronological %,ehrd of Events in the War,'' both under the 
heading ''War, The." 

Pp. 1-128, January; pp. 129-256, February; pp. 257-384, March; pp. 385-512, April; 

pp. 513-640, May; pp. 641-768, June. 



Abbott. Lyman, at 76, 80. 

Adach4 Kinnosuke. China's vast resources, 210. 

Adams. Cyrus C. Northern Mexico, 421. The 

antarctic continent, 600. 
Aeroplane Industry, Development of, 280. 
Aeroplane of to-day, The, 304. 
Aeroplane; see also Aviation. 
AKriculture. American, Financing, 461; 579. 
Apiculture; see also Farming. 
Aliens, Our treatment of, 241. 
American Can Company and the courts. 405. 
American International Corporation. Formation 

of, a. 
Angell, James B., and the growth of the State 

universities. 623. 
Animals that live In trenches. 362. 
Antarctic continent, The, 600. 
Armenians. The fate of the, 230. 
Army: See United States; Army. 
Asia Minor should be developed by Germany, 8. 
Australian military systena, fi9. 
Austria's danger from.pmtnany, 359. 
Aviation advanced by She War, 280. 
Aviation: Aerial flghtlAg Gaelics, 361. 
Aviation: See also AerOplhne. 

Babcock, Dr. Stephen M., inventor of the butter- 
fat test. 606. 

Baker, Newton D., Secretary of War, 392; 733. 

Balkan railway lines, 236. 

Barker, L. F. Mistaken methods in science teach- 
ing, 464. 

Batchelor. BronsOn. Japan's challenge to Eng- 
land. 465. 

Benedict XV., Pope» and his attitude toward the 
war, 481. 

Benedict XV., Pope, and his part in a peace con- 
gress, 747. 

Berlin's new subway, 620. 

Bimetallism again, 624. 

Blake, Warren Barton. The rebellion in Ireland, 
697. 

Blayney. Thomas Lindsey. Our administration of 
the Philippine Islands, S3. 

Body, The child's and the adults, 105. 

Books, The New. 113. 242, 372, 498, 626, 753. 

Boy Scouts, The, 96. 

Burpee, Lawrence J. Our Canadian-American 
high court. 181. 

Business conditions: See United States, Economic 
Conditions. 

California land-grant bill in Congress, 663-664. 
Canada, A political truce in, 359. 
Canada, Military preparedness in. 260. 
Canadian- American Joint Commission, 147; 181. 



Canada's gains from the war, 358. 

Carmen Sylva, 606. 

Cartoon Department. 30, 156, 286, 411, 548, 679. 

Central America, United States' attitude toward, 

145. 
Child labor bill in the senate, 277. 
China: 

American money and Japanese brains In, 452. 

Forests of, Restoring, 337. 

New monarchy in, 22; 91; 205. 

Political and economic affairs in, 148. 

The language question in, 487. 
Christianity, The world's new turning to, 717. 
Civil service trial boards, 458. 
Civilization and its relation ^o climate, 363. 
Colleges for public service, 135. 
Collins, Paul V. Financing American agriculture, 

461. 
Collins. Paul V. Rural credits, 579. 
Colombia, Proposed treaty with, 147; 191; 274. 
(Congress: See under United States. 
Conventions, celebrations, and other gatherings of 

1916, 598. 
Cooperation among consumers during the war, 

576. 
Copper, Advance In, 404; 535. 

Danube river. Course of the, 237. 
Daylight-saving In Europe. 668; 715, 726. 
Defense, National: See United States; also Mili- 
tary training. 

East, The smouldering, 176. 
Education: 

A modern school, 465.- 

Moonlight schools in Kentucky, 23.*. 

Science teaching. Mistaken methods in, 464. 

Sense-training in high-schools and academies, 
489. 

Fabre, the Virgil of Insects, 111. 

Farm credit bill in the senate, 276. 

Farming and a world crisis, 461. 

Farming Appalachla, 329. 

Fassig, Perclval. The waste by floods, 203. 

Ferris, Chester. The Los Angeles example of 
citizenship training. 81. 

Financial News, 126, 254. 382, 510, 638, 766. 

Flexner, Abraham. A modern school, 465. 

Floods, The waste by, 203; 281. 

Folksong, Revival of interest In. 370. 

Foreign relations: See United States: Foreign re- 
lations. 

Foster, Paul P. New ports and railways of Rus- 
sia, 709. 

Frederick, J. George. America's business boom, 
43. 




COPTRIGHT, 1916, BT ThC REVIKW OF REVIEWS Co. 



INDEX TO yOLUME LI It 



Hi 



Garrison, Secretary of War, and the Philippines, 

18. 
Garrison, Secretary, ReeiKnation of, 266-208. 
Garrison, Secretary. Military policy of, 353. 
Gasolene, Rise in price of, 160. 
German Attack on India, Possibility of, 67. 
German economic general staff, 228. 
German-Americans and German literature. 3t>9. 
Germany: Berlin's new subway, 670. 
Grermany, Internal conditions of, 4. 
Goodrich, Rear-Admiral Caspar F. What shall 

we do for our boys?, 570. 
Government, United States: See United States, 

Government. 
Great Britain: 
Britain as an arsenal, 356. 
Compulsory military service in, 148; 260. 
England, The recruiting in, 5. 
England's neglect of science and the penalty, 

103. 
Knglish leadership, A French criticism of, 220. 
Japan's challenge to England, 465. 
Parliamentary affairs, 260, 538. 
Greece. Position of, as to the war. 9-12; 541. 
Grinnell, Alton G. Preparedness of the army 
medical department, 341. 

Halifax, Development of the po-t of, 737. 

Ham, Clifford D. Americanizing: Nlcaraugua, 185. 

Health insurance. A New York p.oject for, 365. 

Herrlck. George F. Turkey's call to America, 346. 

Holland, Imperialism of, 238. 

Holland's neutrality. Germany and, 484. 

Hornbeck, Stanley K. New monarchy for old 
(China), 205. 

Huidekoper. Frederic L. The Swiss and Aus- 
tralian military systems, 449. 

Hunger, Mental effects of, 486. 

iLi^iTERACT In America, 94. 

Immigrant, Educating the, for Citizenship, 79-81. 

Immigration policy, our, A crisis In, 735. 

India, Arts and ideals of. 618. 

India: Spirit of the Hindu Stage, 617. 

Indiana's centenai^, 668. 

Indiana's centenary pageant, 683. 

Industrial betterment. The movement for, lOi. 

International law. The new, Elihu Root on, 481. 

Ireland, Rebellion in, 666-667; 697; Leaaers of the 

rebellion, 751. 
Italian Industry and commerce, "Nationalizing," 

480. 
Italy's territorial prospects, 97. 
Italy's tourist trade, 479. 

JAPANESE-American amity, 22. 
Japanese exclusion question, 659-660. 
Japan's challenge to England, 455. 
Jews in the eastern war zone, 610. 

Kaemppfert, Waldemar. The aeroplane of to- 
day, 304. 
Knaufft. Ernest. Two great pageants, 593. 
Kurds, the, Character and customs of, 347. 

Labor conditions: 
Coal Industry, the. Labor troubles In. 662. 
Eight-hour day, from the manufacturer's stand- 
point. l07. 
Labor disputes In various parts of the country, 

668. 
Miners' wage demands, 277. 
Railroad wage questions, 277; 663. 
Lamm. L. M. Utilizing lumber waste, 5K8. 
Latin- America and the war, 221. 
Lbadino Articles of the Month. 91. 216,- 350. 475. 

603, 725. 
Literary criticism, American, an English view of, 

<ifno. 

Lo« Angeles, Training immigrants for citizenship 

In. 81. 
I.,umber decline in the North-we.«<t, r-S3. 
Lumber waste. Utilizing. 588. 



o 



McAdoo. Secretary of the Treasury, Comment on 
annual report of, 18. 

McDonagh, Thomas, a leader in the Irish rebel- 
lion, 751. 

Macdonald, James B. Scene of the coming sea 
fight, 705. 

Macdonald, James B. The Anglo-Russian cam- 
paign in Turkey, 439. 
Maps and Diagrams: 

Adriatic Sea, showing Italy's relation to the Bal- 
kan campaign, 318. 

Africa, colonial possessions in, 5. 

Antarctic continent, as now known, 601. 

Antarctic regions, as formerly known, 601. 

Balkans, railroads In, 236. 

Business death rate diagram. 218. 

Business, Retail, In United States, for 1915 as 
compared with 1914, 217. 

Danube River, Course of, 237. 

France, War front in, 312. 

Galicla, Russia's war front in, 316. 

GalllpoU Peninsula, 174. 

Human energy, Distribution of, on the basis of 
climate, 364. 

Mesopotamlan field of war, and the Suez Canal, 

172. 
Mexico, Northern, the region of the pursuit of 

Villa, 423. 
Mexico: Route of American expedition, 531. 
Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea, 175. 
Nicaragua, with proposed canal route and Unit- 
ed States naval bases, 186. 
North Sea and the Baltic, scene of a possible 

naval engagement, 706. 
Persia, Principal caravan routes in, 69. 
Rumania and her neighbors, 72. 
Russia: New ports and railroads of, 711. 
Russia: Trans-Siberian railroad route, 710. 
Sault Ste. Marie Canals, 723. 
Suez Canal and railroad approaches to It, 177. 
Turkey, Fighting areas and strategic railways 

in, 440. 
Turkey, Railroads in, 68. 
Ukralnia, 485. 

Ignited States: diagram of retail business condi- 
tions for 1915 as compared with 1914, 217. 
Verdun battle-ground and strategic points in 

vicinity, S67. 
Verdun, Position of, on western battle line, 427. 
Verdun, and surrounding forts and towns, 427. 
Marks, Marcus M. Civil service trial boards. 458. 
Maxey, Edwin. The pending treaty with Colom- 
bia, 191. 
Medical conquests abroad, American, 146. 
MetchnikofT's tribute to Count Wltte, 728. 
Mexico: 
American army in, (Pictures), 654. 
An. unsolved problem, 529. 
Border scenes, (pictures), 416. 
i.^'arranza government. Recognition of, 23. 
From Diaz to Carranza, 196. 
Scene of our army's hunt for Villa, 421. 
Turmoil in, 146. 

Villa, Punitive expedition against, 388-390; 529-533; 
658. 
Military systems of Switzerland and Australia, 

449. 
Military training at Plattsburg, 225. 
Military training camps, Progress of, 270, 652-653. 
Military training: Citizens drilling throughout the 

country, 270. 
Military training for our citizens. Desirability of, 

134-135. 
Military training for the American boy, 570. 
Military training In our land-grant colleges, 134, 

201. 351. 
Military training In the United States, Squandered 

opportunities for, 265-266. 
Military training laws passed In New York. 652. 
Mllltia, United States: See Ignited States; Mllltia 
Mirza. Youel B. The Kurds: Their character and 

eiKstoms. 347. 
Mirza, Youel B. The Persia of to-day, 712. 
Missions, World, In the second year of war, 232. 



97638 



Iv 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REI^EIVS 



Mitchel, Mayor, and his administration' of New 

York City, 495. 
Mohammedan pilerrimages to Mecca, and Indian 

revolts, 235. 
Munitions business. 20. 

National Guard: See United States: Militia. 

Navy: See United States: Navy. 

New York City, Mayor Mitchel's administration 

of. 496. 
New York legislature, Work of, 642. 
New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad 

directors on trial, 150. 
New York postmastership, and President Wilson 

142. 
Nicaragua, Americanizing. 185. 
Nicaragua, Proposed treaty with, 274. 

Obituary, 29, 156, 285, 410, 647, 675. 
Oregon land-grant bill in Congress 663-664. 
Osborne, Thomas Mott. on trial, 151; 542. 
Osborne, Thomas Mott, the prison reformer, 476. 

Paobant of Indiana's Centenary, 683. 
Pageants: The Newark celebration and the Shake- 
speare masque in New York, 593. 
Panama Canal slides. General Goethals on, 108. 
Pan-American Scientiflc Congress, 144. 
Pan-Americanism and Pan-Hispanism 625. 
Papacy. The, and the war, 481; 747. 
Paper stock. Scarcity In, 404. 
Pershing, Brigadier General John J., A sketch of, 

419. 
Persia of to-day, 712. 
Persia under Russian influence. 7w. 
Philippine Islands: 
Abandoning the, 271-273: evacuation voted down 

in the House. 659. 
American health work in, 621. 
Our administration of, 83. 
Plattsburg rookie speaks. A, 225. 
Politics: 

Conventions, National. Dates and places of, 23. 
Congressional politics, 261. 

Democratic convention plans and problems, 654- 
665. 

Democratic future leadership. 522. 
Democrats and the single-term issue 522. 
Hughes, Justice, and the nomination.' 275. 
Hughes considered as a presidential candidate. 
726. 

Politics in a presidential year, 141. 
Pork barrel Politics, 263. 
Preparedness as an Issue. 526. 
Presidential Politics, 275 
Progressive party plans, 646-647. 

^?£"}!i?^" prtmartes and leading candidates. 
523-528. 

Republican prospects, 143. 

Republican sItuaUon'on eve of convention. 643- 
6oO. 

Roosevelt as a candidate, 725. 

Wilson as a candidate, 141; 725. 

Wilson enters Ohio primaries, 276. 

Wilson the only Democratic candidate. 522. 
Pope, The: See Benedict XV. 
Portraits: 

Abbott, Lyman, 76, 77. 

Acuna. Jesus. 632. 

Adams, John T.. 646. 

Addams, Jane. 114. 

Agullar, Candido, 632. 

Almeida, Antonio Jose d*. 741. 

Anderson. Grace Jenkins. 596. 

Andreve, Guillermo. 533. 

Angel. Lawrence, 135. 

Angell, James B., 623. 

Anthony, D. R. Jr., 133. 

Asbury, Bishop Francis, 499. 

Asqulth, Herbert Henry. BriUsh Premier. 639. 

tioO. 

Atherton. Gertrude. 605. 

Austria: Archduke Frederick of, 641 

Babcock. Stephen M., 608. 

Baker. Newton D., 3»1. 382^ 664. 733. 



Barbler. Jean-Pierre, 608. 
Barrett. John, 130, 145. 
Baumgarten, General, (France) 403. 
Begble, Harold, 231. 
Benedict XV., Pope, 481. 
Benson, Admiral William S. 395. 
Berg, Lieutenant, of the Appam, 279. 
Bernstorff, von, Count J. H., 400. 
Bertie. Lord, 686. 

Bethmann-Hollweg, von, Theobald, Chancellor, 
4. 539. 

Bigelow, Poultney, 113. 

BIrrell, Augustine, 667. 

Blue, Admiral Victor, 395. 

Borah, Senator William E., 650. 

Boris, Crown Prince, of Bulgaria, 166. 

Bourgeois. M., 686. 

Boy-Ed, Captain Karl, 17. 

Braisted. Surgeon-General William C, 395. 

Brandels, Louis D., 284. 

Bmtiano, John, Premier, of Rumania, 74. 

Breckinridge, Henry S., 268. 

Br land, Arlstide, 686. 

Brown, Col. William C, 546. 

Bulgaria: Crown Prince Boris of, 166 

Bulgaria: King Ferdinand of 26, 541. 

Burian, Baron Stephan, 14. 

Burpee, Lawrence J., 184. 

Burton, Theodore E.. 647. 

Cadorna, General Liiigi. 686. 

Caperton, Rear-Admiral William B., 653. 

Carmen Sylva. 606. 

Carpenter, Edward W.. 133. 

Carranza. Venustlano, *23» 390. 

Carson. Sir Edward 067. 

Carvalho, Mesquita'de, 741. 

Casement, Sir Roger. 698. 
,Castelnau, Gen. Noei de Curl^res de, 558, 680 
Catt, Mrs. Carrie Chapman, 28. 
Cecil, Lord Robert, 657. 
Chagas, Senhor, 686. 
China: Yuan Shlh-K'al, Emperor of. 22 
Chouvalev, General D., 691. 
Churchill, Winston (of England), 41. 
Clark, Champ. 263, 401. 
Clarke. James P.. 271. 
Coffin, Howard, 898. 
Connolly. James, 701. 
Constantine, King of Greece. 10. 
Coomaraswamy, Madame Ananda 618. 
Cooper, Elizabeth. 604. 
Costa. Alfonso, 741. 
Cummins, Senator Albert B., 647. 
Dall 'Olio, General, 686. 
Daniels, Josephus, 895. 664. 
Dargue, Lieut. Herbert A.. 555. 
Davis, Richard Harding, 547. 
DePorest, Lee, 135.' 
De Gama, Domido. 145. 
Delane. John T., 499. 
Dent, G. H. Jr.. 133. 
Dodd, Col. (George A., 546. 
Dodge, Gen. Grenville M., 155. 
Duncan, B. C, 646. 
Du Pont. T. Coleman, 54. 
Edison. Thomas A., 138, 651. 
Eliot, Charles W.. 489. 
Elliott. Edward C, 673. 
Emmett. R. j., 135. 

England: King George and Queen Mary, 538. 

Estabrook. F. W., 646. 

Fabre, Jean Henri. 29 112. 

Fairbanks, Charles W.. 644. 

Ferdinand, King of Bulgaria. 26, 541. 

Ferdinand, King of Rumania. 73. 

Ferguson. Gov. James E.. 659. 

Fields. William J. 183. 

Fletcher. Henry P., 28. 

Plexner. Abraham. 489. 

Flood, Henry D.. 401. 

Foraker. Joseph Benson. «8. 

Ford, Henry, and Mrs. Ford. 25. 

Francis. David R.. 672. 

Frederick. Archduke, of Austria. 541. 

*^^«rick William. Crown Prince of Germany 



INDEX TO VOLUME LI 1 1 



Premantle, Hear-Admiral Sir Edmund Robert, 

569. 
French, Sir John. 7. 

Funston, Major-General Frederick, 389, 658. 
Gallwitz, von. General, 296. 
Gantscheff, General, 166. 
Gardner. Obadiah, 183. 
Garland, Hamlin, 760. 
Garrison, Llndley M., 264. 733. 
Gates, Frederick T., 489. 
George V., King of England. 538. 
German Crown Prince, Frederick Wilhelm, 686. 
Glfford, W. S., 393. 
Glenn. Robert B., 183. 
Glynn, Martin H.. 655. 
Grolt, Joseph H., 135. 
Gk>odrich, James P., 646. 
Gordon, William, 133. 
Gorell, Lieut. Edgar S., 556. 
Greece: King Constantine, of, 10. 
Greene, Frank L.., 133. 

Gregory, Attorney-General Thomas Watt, 6C4. 
Grey, Sir Edward, 686. 
Griffin, Admiral Thomas D., 396. 
Guard la, Aurelio, 533. 
Haeseler, von. Field Marshal Gen. Gottlieb, P. 

A. A., 403. 
Haig, General Sir Douglas, 7, 558. 
Hamarskjold, Knut HJalmar, 540. 
Harding. Warren G., 527. 
Hart, Albert Bushnell, 242. 
Hay, James. 133. 
Helser, Victor George, 622. 
Helfferlch, K9.rl, 25. 
Hewlett, Mrs. Maurice, 358. 
Hill. David Jayne, 135. 
Hill. James J., 53. 
Hilles, Charles D., 646. 
House, Edward Mandell, G57. 
Hubbard, John Flavel, 135. 
Hughes, Charles E., 275, 648. 
Hull, Harry E., 133. 
Hunt, Gov. George W. P., 659. 
Ihlen, Nils Claus, 540. 
Ingraham, William M., 672. 
Isvolsky, M., 686. 
Ivanoff, Genera], 26. 
James, Edmund J., 266. 
Jenkow, General, 166. 
Jilinsky General, 558, 686. 
Joffre, General Joseph. 41. 558. 686. 
Jonescu. Take, Premier, 612. 
Jovanovitch, M., 686. 
Kahn, Julius, 133. 
Kimura, K., 718. 

Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, Earl. 41, 538, 686. 
Kitchln, Claude, 401. 
Klutts, Whitehead, 184. 
Knudsen, Gunnar, 540. 
Kovess, von. General, 296. 
Lacaze, Admiral, 686. 
Ladd. George Trumbull, 249. 
Lamar. Joseph R., 155. 

Lane, Franklin K., Secretary of the Interior, 664. 
Lansing, Robert, 130, 145, 664. 
Ledwldge, Francis, 875. 
Lefevre, Ernesto T., 533. 
Llretti, Arthur, 630. 
Llttlepage, Adam E., 133. 
Lloyd-George, David, 686. 
McCall, Samuel W., 753. 
McDonald, Gov. William C, 669. 
McOowan. Admiral Samuel. 396. 
• McKean, Capt. Joslah S., 396. 
McKeller, K. D., 183. 
McKenzie, J. C, 133. 
McKlnley. William. 763. 
MacGlll. Patrick, 758. 
Machado. President of Portugal, 741. 
Mackensen, von, Field-Marshal Gen. August, 

166. 691. 
Magrath, Charles A., 183. 
Mann. James R., 18. 
Markiewicz, Countess. 701. 
Marks, Marcus M., 459. 



Marshall, Thomas R., 130. 

Martin, Alvah H., 646. 

Mary, Queen of England, 538. 

Matsui. Mr., 686. 

Menessier, General, 693. 

Mignault, Paul B., 183. 

MoCCett, Cleveland, 136. 

Montenegro, King of, with fahilly, 296. 

Morgan, Edward M., 142. 

Morgenthau, Henry, 671. 

Morin, John M., 133. 

Morone, Greneral Paolo, 691. 

Moton, Robert R., 161. 

Murphy, Franklin, 646. 

Naidu, Sarojinl, 606. 

Nicholalevitch, Grand Duke Nicholas, 436. 

Nicholas, Czar of Russia, 437. « 

Nicholas, King of Montenegro, and family, 295. 

Nichols, Samuel J., 133. 

Niedrlnghaus, T. K., 646. 

Noyes, Florence Fleming, 596. 

O'Beirne, Mr., 686. 

Obregon, General Alvaro, 532, 658. 

Olney, Richard. 133. 

Ordynski, Richard, 596. 

Papen, von. Captain Franz, 17. 

Parsons, Capt. C. E., 396. 

Pasltch, M., 686. 

Pattee, Fred Lewis. 252. 

Pearse, Padrlac, First President. of the Irish 

Republic, 701. 
Peary, Rear Admiral Robert E., 742. 
Pechltch, Colonel. 558. 
Pelie. General, 558. 

Pershing, Brigadier-General John J.. 419, 555. 
Petaln, General. 408. 
Pope Benedict XV., 481. 
Porras, General, President of Panama. 533. 
Porro, General, 558. 
Portugal. President Marchado, of, 741. 
Pound, Roscoe, 734. 
Powell, Henry A., 183. 
Quln, Percy E., 133. 
Rachitch, General, 686. 
Radoslavov, Premier, of Bulgaria, 541. 
Raemaekers, Louis, 745. 
Ralney, Henry T., 273. 
Rankin. Henry B., 754. 
Ratan Devi, 618. 
Rathenau. Walther, 229. 
Redfleld, William C, 19, 664. 
Redmond, John, 538, 700. 
Rels, Peselra. 741. 
Replogle. J. L.. 53. 
Reuterdahl, Henry, 135. 
Reynolds, James B., 646. 
Robeck, de. Vice Admiral, 569. 
Robertson, Gen. Sir William. 2bT, 686. 
Rockefeller, Percy A., 53. 
Roosevelt, Frtinklln D., 396. 
Roosevelt, Col. Theodore, 274, 504, 524, 630, 649. 
Root, Elihu, 645. 

ROQues, General Charles, 403, 686. 
Rumania, Carmen Sylva, Queen of. 606. 
Rumania, King Ferdinand of. 73. 
Russia, Czar and Czarevitch of, 437. 
Sabln, Charles H., 53. 
Salandra, Antonio. Premier of Italy, 686. 
Salvinl. Tommaso. 368. 
Sandburg, Carl, 761. 
Scaveniue, von, Erik, 540. 
Scheldemann, Phllipp, 4. 
Schwab, Charles M.. 54. 
Scott. Major General Hugh L., 269. 391, 658. 
Shallenberger. A. C, 138. 
Sheldon, George R., 646. 
Sherman, Lawrence Y., 525. 
Sherrlll, Charles H., 627. 
Shibusawa. Baron. 2. 
SImonds. Frank H.. 424. 
Slocum, Col. Herbert J.. 646. 
Smith, Capt. William 8., 111. 
Sonnlno, Baron Sidney, 686. 
Sosa, Juan B., 533. 
Sosa, Ladlslas, 633. 



vi 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS 



Stanley, Fred. 646. 

StantchefT, General, 166. 

Sterlingr, George. 375. 

Stetson, Cushingr. 135. 

Stone, William F.. 646. 

Stone, William J., 27. 

Strathcona, Lord, 244. 

Stratton, Samuel W., 323. 

Strauss, Admiral Joseph, 395. 

Strauss, Richard, 750. 

Street, Julian, 135. 
Strong:, Josiah. 675. 

Sturmer, Boris V., Bussian Premier, 609. 
Suarez Mujica, Eduardo, 130, 145. 
Suzzallo, Henry, 673. 

Tappen, Major General, (German Army) 166. 
Tawney, James A., 183. 
Taylor, Admiral David W., 395. 
Thompson, C. S., 135. 
Thompson, Paul, 135. 
Tilson, John C. 133. 
Tirpitz. von. Admiral, Alfred P. F.. 517. 
Tittoni, Signor, 686. 
Tomklns, Leslie J.. 135. 

Townshend, Major General Charles Vere Fer- 
rers, 444. 

Tumulty, Joseph P., 267. 

Underwood, Frederick D., 53. 

TTpham, Fred W.. 646. 

Vanderlip, Frank A., 53. 

Vesnltch, Dr.. 686. 

Villa, Francisco, 416. 

Vinson, Robert E.. 673. 

von Capelle, Admiral, 403. 

von Falkenhayn. General, 166. 

von Seeckt, Major-General, 166. 

Wallace, Henry. 607. 

Wallenberg:. Knut A., 540. 

Ward, William Hayes. 249. 

Warren, Charles B., 646. 

Westcott, John W.. 666. 

Whitman, Charles S.. 275. 

Widtsoe, John A., 673. 

Wielemans, General. 558. 

Wilkes, Charles, 602. 

Willard, Daniel. 664. 

Williams, Ralph E., 646. 

Willys. John N., 54. 

Wilson, William B., Secretary of Labor? 664. 

Wilson, President Woodrow, 15, 267. 514, 521. 753. 

Wilson, Woodrow, President, and Mrs. Wilson, 

521. 
Wlm borne. Lord, 667. 
WurtzbauBh, Capt. D. W., 395. 
Yeat.s, Mrs., 704. 

Yuan Shih-K'ai, Emperor of China, 22. 
Zahle. C\ Th., 540. 
Zahm, J. A., 501. 
Zwiedinek, Baron, 400. 

PoHTroAL and Germany, 739. 

Pound. Roscoe, dean of the Harvard law sohool, 
734. 

Preparedness: See United States; Defenses. 
Presidency: Single-term issue. The, 141-143. 
Presidential patronage. Danger of, 142. 
Price, Willard. The world's new turning to Chris- 
tianity. 717. 

Prison reform in New York State, 151. 
Progress op the World. 3, 131. 259, 387. 515. 613. 
Public buildings. Waste of money for, 494. 
Punta Arenas, Chile, 743. 

Raemaekers, Louis, the Dutch cartoonist of the 

war, 744. 
Railroad wage demands. 277; 663. 
Railroads. A bad year for, 149. 
Railroads, Problems of. 536. 
Record of Current Events, 27, 154, 283. 408. 545. 

«71. 

Redfield, William C, secretary of commerce. Com- 
ment on annual report of, 19. 

Resources. United States: See United States: Re- 
.«?ources. 

Roads, good, Shakleford bill for, 276. 



Robblns. Edwin Clyde. The lumber decline in the 

northwest, 583. 
Roosevelt. Theodore: How he kept peace while 

President, 604. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, Qualities of, 523. 
Root, Elihu. Address of, as chairman of New 

York State Republican convention, 274; 298. 
Root, Elihu, on the new International law, 482. 
Root. Elihu, Qualities of, 523. 
Rumania, Carman Sylva, Queen of, 606. 
Rumania compared with Spain as to military ef!i- 

clency, 95. 

Rumania, Position of, as to the war, 12; 71. 
Rumanian call to neutral powers, A, 611. 
Rural credits, 679. 

Rushton, Wyatt. Training student soldiers. 201 
Russia: Duma, prorogation of, The Russian press 

on, 100. 
Russia, New ports and railways of, 709. 
Russia, Premier Sturmer of, 609. 
Russia's natural resources, 746. 
Ruthenlans, The, 99. 

Salvini, Tommaso, An Italian tribute to, 368. 
Sault Ste. Marie ship canals, 721. 
Shakespearean stage and the stage of to-day 590. 
Shaw, Albert Frank H. Simonds, our foremo.st 

war writer, 424. 
Shaw, William B. Pershing on the trail, 419. 
Shipbuilding and the shipping business. Prosper- 
ity in, 20; 535-536. 
Shipping bill, A new, 273, 661. 
Ships, merchant, Government-owned. 19. 
Silvester, Richard. The Shakespearean stage and 

the stage of to-day, 590. 
Sing Sing Prison affairs, 151, 542. 
Simonds, B*rank H., The war's vast horizons 57. 

Sea power In the war, 167. 

Campaigns as spring opens, 311. 

The battle for Verdun, as France saw It 559 

Summer prospects— an allied offensive. 687 
Simonds, Frank H., our foremost war writer 424 
Simpson, Thomas H. Restoring China's forests! 

Smith, J. Russell. Farming Appalachia 31:9 
Socialism, Practical, in war time 730. 
Socialists, Spanish, 731. 

Sonnlchsen, Albert. Consumers' cooperation dur- 
ing the war, 576. 

South America, German propaganda in 736. 

South America prospering, 533. 

South America, Trade of the United States in, 405. 

South America, Attitude of the United States to- 
ward, 146. 

Speare, Charles F. American prespeHty Is It 

real and permanent? 
Standards, United States Bureau of 321 
Starvation in Europe, 668. 
Steel business. Boom In, 404. 

Stoddard. T. Lothrop. The Rumanian Sphinx. 71. 
Stoddard, T. Lothrop. The smouldering East 176 
Strauss, Richard, the foremost living composer' 

i49. • 

Sturmer, Boris V.. new Russian premier, 609 
Swiss military system, 449. 

Taqore. Rabindranath. on the spirit of the Hindu 
stage, 617. 

Tagore, Rabindranath, The boyhood of, 619 
Talman, Charles Fitzhugh. Daylight-saving in 

Europe, 715. 
Tarilt commission. Demand for a, 273 
Taxation should be general. 140. 
Taxes, Increased. Need for. 140. 
Teutonic-Oriental alliance, 478. 

Theater: The Shakespearean stage and the stage 
of to-day, 590. 

Thomas^ David Y. Economic unpreparedness, 214. 
long, Hollington K. American money and Japa- 
nese brains in China, 452. 
Trade, world, A venture in. 21. 
Turkey's call to America, 346. 

Tuskegee Institute, New principal for (Robert R 
Moton), 151. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LIII 



vU 



» Ukraine's hope for Independent national exist- 
ence, 485. 
United States: 

Army: 

Army, Expanding the, 391. 

Army bill in the Senate, 303. 

Army bill. Defects of the. 650. 

Army medical department, Preparedness of, 341. 

Army legislation, Defective, 529. 

Congiess: 
Army bill, 391-393; 6C0. 
California land-grant bill, 663-664. 
Child labor bill, 276. 
Farm credit bill, 276. , 

Opening of, 17. 

Oregon land-grant bill, 663-664. 
Philippine Islands, Independence of, 271-173; 659. 
"Pork barrel" bills. How they are made. 494. 
River and Harbor bill, 263. 
Roads, good. Shakleford bill for, 276. 
Shipping bin. 273; 661. 
Water power bills, 064. 

Defcnsca: 

Aerial preparedness, 281. 

Aerial coast patrol. Need for. 741. 

Citizens drilling throughout the country, 270. 

Congressional action on. Probable. JJi). 

Factors for defense, 269. 

Holland as an example of preparation. 137. 

Labor, organized. Attitude of, toward prepared- 
ness, 491. 

Naval training cruise for civilians, tS3. 

Peace with honor, Piiee of, 131-132. 

Preparedness. Necessity for. 136-137; i:o. 

Preparedness and pacifism. Views on. 354. 

Preparedness aa a political issue, c2U. 

Preparedness parade, in New York and elJ?e- 
where, 651. 

Secretary Garrison's military policy, 3r3. 

Spain as an example of unprepared nes--;, 137. 

Wilson, President, and, 266-268. 

Econom ic conditions : 

American Can Company and the courts, 405. 

American International Corporation, Formation 
of. 21. 

Business conditions in the United States, 404- 
405; 533-536. 

Business death rate, 218. 

Business prosperity, American. 43; 149; 573. 

Business, Retail, conditions, 217. 

Copper, Advance in. 404; 535. 

Export trade at record figures, 662. 

Gasolene, Rise In price of. 160. 

Lumber decline in the northwest, r>3. 

Munitions business. 20. 

Paper Industry, Conditions in. 404. 

Railroads, A bad year for, 149. 

Railroads. Problems of. 536. 

Rural credits, 276; 579; 461 (?) 

Shipbuilding and the .shipping bus ncss, Pros- 
perity in, 20; 536. 

South America, Thade of the United States in, 
405. 

Steel bu.siness. Boom in. 404. 

Tariff commission. Demand for a, 273. 

World trade, A venture In, 21. 

Fovcifjn vclntiontt: 

Ancona dispute. The. 13-14. 

America's place In the Pacific, 660. 

Appam, Story of the, 279. 

British attitude on American complaint.*^. 057. 

Boy-Ed, Captain, Recall of. 17. 

British Interference with the United States mails 
and shipping. 516-518. 

British Orders in Council, as affecting the Unit- 
ed States. 538. 

Canadian-American hi^h court, 181. 

Central America, Attitude of the United States 
toward. 145. 

China: American money and Japanese brains In, 
452. 

Colombia, Proposed treaty with, 147; 191; 274. 



Europe, American attitude toward, 148. 

Japanese-American amity, 22. 

Japanese exclusion question, 659-660. 

Luaitania, case. Settlement of, 278. 

Medical conquests abroad, American, 146. 

Nicaragua, Americanizing. 185. 

Nicaragua. Proposed treaty with, 274. 

Pan-American Scientific Congress. 144. 

Pan-Americanism and Pan-Hlspanism, 625. 

Recognition of Carranza government, 23. 

South America, Attitude of the United States 

toward. 145. ' - oo. 

Submarine warfare and merchant ships, 38*; 394- 

401; 515-517; 519-521; 65G. 
Von Papen, Captain, Recall of, 17. 
Wanted— An American attitude, 131. 

Government: 

Government system, Our complicated. 259. 
Governors who cannot govern. 497. 
Need for a national administration, F24. 
Political system. Defects of our. 262. 

Mill I in: 

Njit'unal (3uard and the "pork barrel." 2(«. 
National Guard. Proposed payment of.J27. 
National Guard system. Defects of, 527. 

Xavy: 

Congres-sional Naval Committee hearings and 

exijert opinions, 394. , ^ 

Naval Consulting Board, and how it works. 110. 

Naval policy and the administration program. 

r.53. 
Naval training cruise for civllian.s. tS3. 
Need for strengthening the navy, 138. 
Our navy in the event of war, 223. 

Resourves: 

Taking stock of our national vitality, 492. 
Waste and mismanagement of American re- 
sources. 203; 214. 
Water power bills in congress. 664. 
Water power on public lands, 276. 

ViLi^A raid on Columbus, N. M., 387. 
Villa: See also under Mexico. 
Vitality, national. Taking stock of our, 492. 
Von Papen, Captain, Recall of, 17. 

Wade. Herbert T. The Sault Ste. Marie ship ca- 
nals. 721. 

Wade, Herbert T. Uncle Sam as weigher, tester, 
and measurer, 321. 

Wallace, Henry, a great farm editor, 607. 

War: 
(See also under the names of the various nations 

involved.) 

Allies' economic conference in Paris. 537. 

American attitude towards Europe, 148. 

Anrona dispute. The. 13-14. 

Anglo-Russian campaign in Turkey, 439. 

Appam, Story of the. 279. 

Armenians, Fate of the, -30. 

Aviators, Activities of, 280-281. 

Balkan and eastern conditions, 14^. 

Boy-Ed, Captain. Recall of. 17. 

British attitude on American complaints. 657. 

British interference with United States malls 
and shipping, 516-618. 

British Orders in Council as affecting the Unit- 
ed States. 538. 

Budgets of the belligerents, 5»). 

Campaigns as spring opens. 311. 

Chronological Record of Events in, 24. 152, 
282, 407, 543, 669. 

Contraband. Why fats and oils are. 102. 

(tippled men. Finding work for, 226. 

East. The .smouldering, 176. 

Efllclency In military plans, 6. 

Erzerum taken by the Ru.sslans. 280. 

Fighting man. Thoughts of a. 231. 

Foreign legion, A soldier of the. 483. 

Geology and preparation for war, 614. 

German aims and peace prospects, 538-539. 

German demands, A French view of, 615. 

Indemnity problem, The, 477. 



•1 



i 



vlU 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEIVS 



India, Possibility of German attack on. 67. 

Kut-el-Amara campaign, 542. 

Loan* Anglo-French, 21. 

Lusitania case. Settlement of, 278. 

Mines ver9U9 mail interference. 613. 

Montenegro, Capitulation of. 477. 

Neutral nations. Feeling of, as to violations of 
their rights. 541. 

Neutrals, The unorganized, 12-13; 15. 

Notes on, 402. 

Peace proposals from Germany, 3-4. 

Peace prospects. 8-5; 665. 

Peace settlement to be on large lines, 7. 

Personal changes. 402. 

Pictures of the. 38. 162. 293. 

Pope, The, and the war, 481; 747. 

Portugal enters the war. 402. 

Russia's contribution to. 431. 

Sea fight, The coming, Scene of the, 705. 

Sea power in the. 167. 

Strategy of (articles by Frank H. Simonds): 
The war's vast horizons, 57; Sea power in the 
war. 167; Campaigns as spring opens, 311; The 
battle for Verdun, as France saw it, 559; Sum- 
mer prospects— an allied offensive, 037. 

Submarine warfare and merchant ships, 387; 394- 
401; 515-517; 519-521; 566. 



Summer prospects— an allied offensive, 686. 

Sussex, Case of the, 519-620. 

Trebizond taken by the Russians, 542. 

Trenches. Relative comfort in, 6. 

Verdun, The battle for, as France saw it, 559. 

Verdun, Battling at, 426. 

War and debt, 606. 

War and peace prospects, 665. 

War and the religious outlook, 231. 

War's vast horizons, The. 57. 
War, New secretary of (Newton D. Baker), ap- 
pointed, 392. 
Washburn, Stanley. Russia's contribution to the 

war 431. 
Willianis, Talcott. Battling at Verdun, 426. 
Williams. Talcott. Can Germany Go to India?. 67. 
Wilson. President Woodrow: 

A review of the foreign policies of. by Elihu 
Root 298. 

And preparedness, 266-268. 

Annual message to congress of. 15. 

On foreign plots and conspiracies in America. 16. 

Warking habits of. 92. 
WItte. Count Metchnikoff's tribute to. 728. 
Woman's emancipation in Germany and Scandi- 
navia. 93. 
Women in men's Jobs. 748. 



The 






The American Review of Reviews 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



CONTENTS FOR 

Baron Shibusawa Frontispiece 

The Progress of the World— 

Facing Another Calendar Year 3 

The German Chancellor's Speech 3 

Germany's Internal Conditions 4 

Broad Issues of the War 4 

What Germany Might Consider 4 

No Separate Bargains 5 

England in Good Condition 5 

Efficiency in Military Places 6 

Relative Comfort in the Trenches 6 

The War to be Settled on Large Lines... 8 

Let Germany Develop Asia Minor 8 

A Partly Clearing Situation 8 

The Plight of Greece 9 

Constantine Appeals to American Opinion 9 

Belgium and Greece 11 

Submission and Consequences 11 

Greece and Rumania Expectant 12 

The Unorganized Neutrals 12 

Safety Through Foresight 13 

The Ancona Dispute 13 

Italy's Part in the Affair 14 

-^Mr. Wilson as a Pan-American 15 

^For a Merchant Marine 15 

Regarding "Plots" and "Conspiracies"... 16 

More Diplomats Recalled 17 

Congress at Work Again 17 

>Mr. Garrison and the Philippines 18 

The Country's Finances 18 

Secretary Redfield's Annual Report 19 

Xjovcrnmcnt-Owned Merchant Ships 19 

A Boom in Shipbuilding 20 

High Ocean Freights the Cause 20 

The Munitions Business 20 

The Anglo-French Loan 21 

British Mobilizing American Stocks 21 

A Venture in World-trade 21 

Japanese-American Amity 22 

New Chinese Dynasty 22 

Mexico's Experiment 23 

National Conventions 23 

WUh portraits and other illuftrations 

Record of Current Events 24 

IVith portraits and other illustrations 

Uncle Sam as Seen by Foreign Cartoonists . 30 

War Scenes— East and West 38 

America's Business Boom 43 

By J. George Frederick 

With portraits, diagrams, and other illustrations 



JANUARY, 1916 

The War's Vast Horizons 57 

By Frank H. Simonds 

With illustrations 

Can Germany Go to India? 67 

By Talcott Williams 

With maps and other illustrations 

The Rumanian Sphinx 71 

By T. Lothrop Stoddard 

With portraits, map, and another illustration 

Lyman Abbott at Eighty 76 

With portraits and another illustration 

Educating the Immigrant for Citizenship 79 

With Ulustration 



The Los Angeles Example , 

By Chester Ferris 



81 



Our Administration of the Philippine Islands 83 >^ 
By Thomas Lindsey Blayney 



Leading Articles of the Month — 

China's Vital Question 91 

The President's Working Habits 92 

Woman's Emancipation in Germany and 

Scandinavia 93 

American Illiteracy 94 

Rumania's Military Efficiency 95 

The Boy Scouts 96 

Italy's Territorial Prospects 97 

Who Are the Ruthenians ? 99 

The Prorogation of the Russian Duma.. 100 

Why Fats and Oils Are Contraband of War 102 

England's Neglect of Science 103 

The Movement for Industrial Betterment 104 
The Child's Body and the Adult's Body.. 105 
The Eight-Hour Day from the Manufac- 
turer's Standpoint 107 

General Goethals on the Panama Slides. . 108 

How the Naval Consulting Board Works 110 

Fabre, the Virgil of Insects Ill 

With portraits and other illustrations 

The New Books 113 

With portraits and other illustrations 

Financial News 126 



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Jan. — 1 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO., 30 Irving Place, New York 

Albekt Sit aw, Pret. Chas. D. Lanikk, Sec. snd Treas. 



BARON SHEBUSAWA. FCWEMOST RNANCIER OF JAPAN 

r\URING the past two months Baron Shibusatva, who, while holding no 
M^offitial post, is recognised in his own country and throughout the world as 
Japan's leading business man and financier, has made an extended tour of the 
United States, visiting the San Francisco Fair, and coming East to New York, 
Boston, iVashington, and other centers. The Baron has done more than any 
other man to make the merchant's calling respectable in his country. He founded 
the First National Bant of Japan, organized the Toiio Chamber of Commerce, 
built up commercial training schools, and later devoted a larg, part of his great 
wealth to philanthropic causes. Hit purpose in visiting this country was to 
interest American capitalists in cooperating with the Japanese for the develop- 
ment of China's vast resources. 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

III NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1916 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 

^^^jj^^When the European war began, England and other Allied countries, that 
Oanmar at the end of July, 1914, the the war must go on until Germany is crushed 
''""' German troops were assured that or annihilated. He thought that for Ger- 
it would all be over and that they would many to make peace proposals at this time 
be home in time for Christmas. But the would lengthen rather than shorten the war. 
highest English authority, Lord Kitchener, "If our enemies," he said, "make peace pro- 
said that the war would last three years. At posals compatible with Germany's dignity 
the beginning of the year 1916 the outlook and safety, then we shall always be ready to 
for peace is altogether gloomy. Those Eng- discuss them. Fully conscious of our un- 
lishmen, like Mr. Charles Trevelyan, who shaken military successes, we decline respon- 
have dared even to hint at an end of the war sibiltty for continuation of the misery which 
by other means than complete military vie- now fills Europe and the whole world," 
tory, are treated with derision and notified He reviewed the Balkan situation with Bul- 
not to expect a reelection to Parliament or garia as a new factor, with Serbia for the 
any other mark of public esteem or confidence, present eliminated, and with the Entente 
In Germany, there is perhaps more peace powers menacing Greece, 
sentiment than in England. But the one 
recent official utterance on the subject that 
stands out above all others gives the pacifists 
no ground for encouragement. We refer to 
the speech of the German Chancellor, Dr. 
von Bethmann-HoUweg, at the opening of 
the Reichstag, December 9, whose careful 
Statements took the form of a reply to a pre- 
viously arranged inquiry on behalf of certain 
Social Democratic members of the body, with 
Dr. Philip Scheidemann as their spokes- 
man, in advocacy of a German proposal. 

ntatrman ^^ occasion was one of great 

(MaiiH/AH"f brilliancy and formality ; and 
***** important personages of the 
Government, the army and navy, and the 
diplomatic corps, were present to hear the 
Chancellor's answer to the Socialist inter- 
pellation as phrased in the following sen- 
tence: "Is the Imperial Chancellor ready 
to give information as to the conditions 
under which he would be willing to enter 

into peace negotiations?" The Chancellor " — - 

gave his reasons why Germany could not cermanv's peace proposal! 

set forth a peace program. He reviewed the 
facts and developments of the war, and set »"n 
them over against the current statements in 

Copyrighl, 19IG, by Tm Rtviiw 



n'-'ifofCi 


nu..ioo 


of tl 


he war."— Ch.ncellot 


om Public 


Uilffti 


- (I'b 


iladelpbia) 



THE AMERICAN REFIEfF OF REVIEWS 




;, TBE GERMAN 



The Chancellor's speech made a 
general review of military and 
economic conditions, within Ger- 
many and within conquered territory, and 
was marked from beginning to end by great 
confidence of tone. The Reichstag emphat- 
ically approved of Dr. Bethmann-Hollweg's 
survey of the situation. There have been 
rumors of great disaflicction in Germany, but 
these have probably been exaggerated. There 
are very contradictory statements regarding 
the German food supply, with preponderant 
evidence to the effect that with increasing 
strictness of government regulation the avail- 
able supplies. will suffice for some time to 
come. We shall soon have forecasts of an- 
other year's crops; for ^ring and summer 
are not far distant. Meanwhile the trains 
that carry military supplies and railroad ma- 
terial to the Balkan regions and the Turkish 
Empire are returning to Germany with food 
supplies, cotton, copper, and various materials. 
A new war loan has been over-subscribed. 

«»«r/M.M ^^""y "* °"'' ^5**'^" will have 

ottkt a much clearer idea of the issues 

" involved in the making of future 

peace if they will read very carefully Mr. 



Simonds' contribution to the Review this 
month, together with that of Dr. Talcott 
Williams which immediately follows it, as 
well as that of Mr. Stoddard on Rumania. 
The two things most thoroughly demon- 
strated thus far in the war are: First, that 
England's sea power cannot be broken, and 
that the British Empire has neither yet been 
shaken nor is likely to be disturbed ; while 
the second fact is that Germany's amazing 
power of organization and unified action, 
together with her advantages due to opera- 
ting from an inner position, renders her prac- 
tically invincible, — at least from the defen- 
sive standpoint, — in a war on land. Eng- 
land cannot and will not give up the war 
while Belgium is either directly or indirectly 
under German control. France cannot and 
will not give up the war with enemies in- 
trenched upon French soil. The German 
authorities now undersUnd that they are not 
to remain in Belgium or France. 

l^^_ij As a price of permanent peace, 
6*tma«» HiBiit they would probably be willing 
"" to make some slight concessions 
to France on the Alsace-Lorraine frontier. 
As regards Russia, the most responsible Ger- 
mans probably no longer have any thought of 
holding Russian territory as spoils of war. 
But they would like to create the Kingdom 
of Poland, chiefly out of Polish Russia, and 
to have Poland as a buffer state. They 
would also probably 



formal rulership, 

of Europe. Thus Gei 

Balkan campaign very seriously, ^nd 



like to see Rumania 
gain something to 
the northward by 
taking back Bessa- 
rabia from Russia, 
in order that the 
Russians might the 
more effectively be 
kept from the Bal- 
kans and Constanti- 
nople. Germany 
would undertake to 
find her own com- 
pensation by secur- 
ing the consent of 
Europe and the 
world to undertake 
the development of 
the Turkidi Empire 

lan md to hold a posi- 
tion of recognized 
leadership, — not of 

throughout the southeast 

~ taking the 

push- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 5 

ing the uncompleted parts of the Bagdad 
railroad system with intense energy. Dr. 
Williams understands that many of the Ar- 
menians who have been so cruelly maltreated 
by the Turks in Asia Minor have found 
their way into the construction camps of 
the German railway builders, where they are 
probably glad to be allowed to live, as im- 
pressed laborers. Germany looks forward, 
also, as we explained in these pages fourteen 
month:; ago, to being allowed to create a 
Central African colony that will connect 
her East and West African possessions by 
acquisition of the Belgian Congo. France 
has her great empire to develop in North 
Africa, and Great Britain has far more em- 
pire on her hands than she needs. The 
South African Union will not be likely to 
give up German Southwest Africa, con- 
quered last year by General Botha. Bel- 
gium will not be fitted to maintain and de- 
velop an empire in the heart of Africa. 

^^ Thus the lines of a durable un- ^'^'^ ™ '""^''' '"'ThI^n^Ctr 

B*tar<a* derstanding begin to make them- t"»'i' ^" ««pi'd <he Entsnie igreement roi to 
flavB/" selves more or less clear in the From .he Sio' (Mom™i) 

minds of the more moderate German lead- 
ers, of whom Ambassador von Bernstorfi is of a far more serious nature than those that 
a type. Italy has given her adherence to have been recently rumored. Even if Ger- 
the compact previously signed by England, many should voluntarily withdraw from 
France, and Russia, against the making of France and Belgium, modify the Alsace- 
separate peace. We have no reason to be- Lorraine boundary, and guarantee the French 
licvc that this agreement will be disregarded, empire in North Africa, taking as her own 
unless indeed there should arise some mis- compensation nothing but the Belgian Congo, 
understandings among the Entente powers, there is no reason whatever to think that 
France would give up the war and leave 
England and Russia still fighting. It is 
true that the French authorities have not 
been satisfied with the support they have 
received from England, and have regarded 
many misfortunes as due to persistent British 
blundering. But on the other hand, the 
French Government and people are not so 
blind as to have lost sight of the inestimable 
benefits they have received ( 1 ) from Great 
Britain's maintenance of her sea power, (2) 
from British financial cooperation, (3) from 
the presence in France of a million British 
soldiers, and (4) from the moral assurance 
arising out of the knowledge that the British 
Empire could not and would not give up 
the struggle until France and Belgium had 
been duly restored and their future safe- 
guarded for several generations. 

fno'onrf ^^ ^3ve not had accurate or 
/-n,i. -..« .h.,..,. vn_ Ik- n.i-i.n r.,-. li. h- '" ^™' conclusivc reports regarding the 

< riili my) ihawi now Uie Belsian Confin Mrs he. Condition i i i e & *- 

tw«nlht German Cameroons on iSe west and German remarkable canvaSS for recruitS, 

Esil Africa. Oerman Southwest Africa will probably j'^j l .l ilij 

remain a pan of Briiiih South Africa) directed on a housc-to-housc plan by Lord 



6 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REFlEffS 

izing and recruiting in the British Islands. 
General Sir Douglas Haig, who was his 
I foremost assistant and in active chai^ for a 

long time of the right wing of the British 
forces in France, becocncs diicf commandeir 
in the field. 

effititnei ^* '* P*^'^'"^ that General Haig 
In Miiiiarn will cooperatc more efhciently, 
*"** and agreeably with the French 
supreme commander, General Joffre ; and on 
many grounds the change is to be regarded 
as advantageous. The French war authori- 
ties have never hesitated to supersede gen- 
erab and to place military capacity above 
all social and political considerations. It 
will be a hard thing for the British army to 
get on a real basis of efficiency like the armies 
of France and Germany, because of the tra- 
ditional relations of the aristocracy to the 
military caste. But the stern necessities of 
the war will doubtless infuse the spirits of 
democracy and of practical achievement into 
the higher circles of military rank. As for 
_ DERBY s DAY jjjp patriotism and bravery of the English 

(\ ii r. uni ■ ™inp,immu to I c irector o aristocracy, it has ncvcr been in question. 
From Punek (London) But over against it has been an even more 

extreme and fanatical German patriotism, 

Derby and his efficiency experts. But it coupled with a scientific, industrial, and or- 

seems to be established that considerably ganizing capacity beyond that of the British. 

more than two million new enlistments have 

been enrolled, and that in the United King- ^^ Viewed in its larger aspects, 

dom atone, since the war began, something oemferi "/n^ therefore, the war offers no pros- 
like three and a half millions of volunteer '*" ^'"^***" pect of an early settlement. 

soldiers have been secured. If the war con- Never from the beginning of it has such a 

tinues long, the United 

Kingdom can supply still 

further millions. There 

seems to be much less talk, 

at the turn of the year in 

England, about the failure 

of the Asquith-Kitchener- 

Balfour-Lloyd George coa- 
lition cabinet than there 

was in November. Changes 

in high command on the 

fighting front have been 

brought about with much 

less friction than might 

have been anticipated. Sir 

John French has resigned 

from leadership of the Brit- 
ish troops in France, but he 

has not been disgraced or 

relegated to private life. 

He has been raised to the 

peerage and made Field 

Marshal in command of the 

great armies that are organ- 







THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



pious and kindly settlement as that which 
would have "got the boys out of the trenches 
and by their own firesides before Christmas" 
had so little relation to the real situation as 
last month. The boys in the trenches were, 
— so far as the western and some other fight- 
ing fronts are concerned, — rather better off 
than they had previously been, because of the 
growtngly elaborate systems of shelter and 
care provided by all the principal belliger- 
ents. Although the opposing intrenchments 
lay so near each other, many hundreds of 
thousands of men were in what had been 
arranged as winter quarters. The next few 
weeks will be, for most of the armies, a 
quiescent period, while for the people at 
home it will be a period of intense activity in 
providing equipment and preparing for the 
activities of spring and summer. 



(General Haii 

luind n»n at i 

service at Khai 
South African ^ 



I Sir John Prencfa-g r 
and had been repeat 
f his chief. He saw si 

, India)' ' 



r*» War to Bt '^^^ cvents of the war have led 
stttitd on Europe to see that questions rc- 
*"'"•""" garding the relative culpability 
for the outbreak, in 1914, have been lived 
down and have become chiefly academic. 
The immense growth of populations, indus- 
try, and commerce were bringing about a 
number of inevitable changes. The question 
was whether these changes could be defined 
and accepted without a war, or whether they 
should be defined and accepted after a world- 
wide struggle. If there had been greater 
strength and wisdom in the diplomatic and 
governmental machinery of the nations, the 
needful adjustments might have been made 
without a wholesale sacrifice of private in- 
terest to alleged public necessity. War 
hardly ever brings to the collective mass any 
benefits that suffice to compensate the in- 
dividual members of the mass for their pri- 
vate sacrifices of life and fortune. A com- 
mon-sense dealing with Balkan problems on 
the part of the great powers, during the past 
forty years, and a generous and broad-gauge 
treatment of the rivalries of growing com- 
mercial powers in the matter of colonial cm- 



6 THE AMERICAN REFIEff OF REVIEWS 

izing and recruiting in the British Islands. 
General Sir Douglas Haig, who was his 
I foremost assistant and in active charge for a 

long time of the right wing of the British 
forces in France, becomes chief commander 
in the field. 

cfptitocg ^* '^ possible that General Haig 
innaitarg will cooperate more efficiently, 
""** and agreeably with the French 
supreme commander, General Joffre ; and on 
many grounds the change is to be regarded 
as advantageous. The French war authori- 
ties have never hesitated to supersede gen- 
erals and to place military capacity above 
all social and political considerations. It 
will be a hard thing for the British army to 
get on a real basis of efficiency like the armies 
of France and Germany, because of the tra- 
ditional relations of the aristocracy to the 
military caste. But the stern necessities of 
the war will doubtless infuse the spirits of 
democracy and of practical achievement into 
the higher circles of military rank. As for 
derby's dav . (jjg patriotism and bravery of the English 

(With Hr. Funch'l com p menu la tbe dir«Ior of ■ . . l . ■ 

' recruiiing) aristocracy, it has never been m question. 

From Pintch (London) But Over against it has been an even more 

extreme and fanatical German patriotism, 
Derby and his efficiency experts. But it coupled with a scientific, industrial, and or- 
seems to be established that considerably ganizing capacity beyond that of the British, 
more than two million new enlistments have 

been enrolled, and that in the United King- ^^^^ Viewed in its larger aspects, 
dom alone, since the war began, something camfen "la^ therefore, the war offers no pros- 
like three and a half millions of volunteer '*' ''"^'"*" pect of an early settlement, 
soldiers have been secured. If the war con- Never from the beginning of it has such a 
tinues long, the United 
Kingdom can supply still 
further millions. There 
seems to be much less talk, 
at the turn of the year in 
England, about the failure 
of the Asquich-Kitchencr- 
Balfour-Lloyd George coa- 
lition cabinet than there 
was in November. Changes 
in high command on the 
fighting front have been 
brought about with much 
less friction than might 
have been anticipated. Sir 
John French has resigned 
from leadership of the Brit- 
ish troops in France, but he 
has not been disgraced or 
relegated to private life. 
He has been raised to the 
peerage and made Field 
Marshal in command of the 
great armies that arc organ- 





A SCENE IN THE TRENCHES 




(This 


picture shows French soldiers nuldng rings 


from German shell 


Thfy « 


re only fifty yards sway from the German li 


nes. They are amp 


proiidb 


3 «E<h covered sbelters, with layers of >an< 
on against that and _lheH. Hundreds 0/ thoi 


i bags for addition 
isands of soldiers ■ 




pljSiral 




ieoiific care (or tht 


'cwidilToo)" '" """" *""""'"'' "■" 





THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



pious and kindly settlement as that which 
would have "got the boys out of the trenches 
and by their own firesides before Christmas" 
had so little relation to the real situation as 
last month. The boys in the trenches were, 
— so far as the western and some other fight- 
ing fronts arc conccrned,^ — rather better off 
than they had previously been, because of the 
growingiy elaborate systems of shelter and 
care provided by all the principal belliger- 
ents. Although the opposing intrenchments 
lay so near each other, many hundreds of 
thousands of men were in what had been 
arranged as winter quarters. The next few 
weeks will be, for most of the armies, a 
quiescent period, while for the people at 
home it will be a period of intense activity in 
providing equipment and preparing for the 
activities of spring and summer. 



(General Halt 
hand man at < 



a! h[s cfaicf. He , 



Tk* War te 
S*tilfl 
Latn Linta 







SIR JOHN 




(For 
(be Br 


S'l 




9 Ge 


s 




UDJied Kfaigdam) 









,^ The events of the war have led 
Europe to see that questions re- 
garding the relative culpability 
for the outbreak, in 1914, have been lived 
down and have become chiefly academic. 
The immense growth of populations, indus- 
try, and commerce were bringing about a 
number of inevitable changes. The question 
was whether these changes could be defined 
and accepted without a war, or whether they 
should be defined and accepted after a world- 
wide struggle. If there had been greater 
strength and wisdom in the diplomatic and 
governmental machinery of the nations, the 
needful adjustments might have been made 
without a wholesale sacrifice of private in- 
terest to alleged public necessity. War 
hardly ever brings to the collective mass any 
benefits that suffice to compensate the in- 
dividual members of the mass for their pri- 
vate sacrifices of life and fortune, A com- 
mon-sense dealing with Balkan problems on 
the part of the great powers, during the past 
forty years, and a generous and broad-gauge 
treatment of the rivalries of growing com- 
mercial powers in the matter of colonial em- 



8 THE AMERICAN REFIEfV OF REVIEWS 

pires and oversea trade would have obviated between Russia and Germany, or else be 
the great war and resulted in benc£t to left to the further devastation of Kurdish 
countless millions in their personal capacities, murderers. Even if there were comparative 
without loss or harm to the collective end- quiet, there could be no economic deveiop- 
tics that we call "states" or "nations." ment without outside agencies. Russia has 

already far more territory than she can 
Germany had far outgrown properly manage in the economic sense. Her 
both France and Great Britain further encroachments in northern Persia 
in numbers; while in science and might be of doubtful advantage to anybody; 
industry the disparity was incomparably but since she already controls nearly all the 
greater than in population. The Germans coast line of the Caspian Sea, she might prop- 
have been eager not only to do things at erly enough seek a southern outlet through 
home, but to play a large part in the devel- northern and western Persia to the Persian 
opment of the resources of backward coun- Gulf. Such an arrangement could be made 
tries and regions. Their commercial and without destroying anything that is advan- 
economic energy has sought important out- tageous in Persia's sovereignty, and on the 
lets. If Giermany and France had composed contrary it ought to be of advantage to the 
their lingering differences on a sensible basis Persians and to all other interests. In short, 
years ago, and if England had been some- there is plenty of room for German enter- 
what broader-minded in recognizing legiti- prise and energy in the world, and if it is en- 
mate German aspirations, the solid argu- couraged in right and beneficent ways it will 
ments for peace might have outweighed the not be very likely to assert itself in wrong 
temptations to war. As matters stand, the and dangerous ways, 
world is paying a great price for the luxury 

of having rival empires contend for their ^ ^^f^ It will, however, require another 
conflicting programs. And It seems unlikely f^^^l, *•* months or perhaps another 
that either side will be able to impose its pro- " " year to give determinate form to 

grams upon the other. The Allies had an- these now very nebulous outlines of readjust- 
nounced the program of crushing Germany ment. Bulgaria, with German and Austrian 
utterly, of dismembering Austria, and of help, has indeed swept Serbia clean, and corn- 
wiping Turkey completely ofi the map. The munication is unopposed all the way from 
great military fact that the events of the Antwerp, Brussels, Hamburg, and northern 
year 1915 have disclosed is the extreme un- Germany, through Austria, Hungary, Serbia, 
likelihood that this program of the Entente and Bulgaria, to Constantinople and across 
powers can be carried out short of another 
four or five years, if at all. Nations fighting 
defensively from interior positions, with 
their very existence at stake, can hold out a 
long time. But if their existence is conceded, 
their honorable future is assumed, and the 
terms of peace arc not too difficult or humili- 
ating, such a war may be brought to an end. 

The great western Asiatic em- 
DtHiwTSiUt pire of Turkey has been lying 
*'"" waste and undeveloped through 
many centuries. There is no, other con- 
ceivable portion of the earth that so needs 
stability of control, and economic rehabilita- 
tion. What England has done splendidly for 
Egypt, and is doing for the British Sudan, 
needs to be done in a large way for the coun- 
try south of the Black Sea, extending 
through the Mesopotamia district to the 
Persian Gulf, The fate of the Armenians 
shows that Turkey in Asia should be con- 
trolled and developed by some firm and re- will the watcbs past agaih? 
^jonsible agency. Neither England nor „ , fr™ the 5«» (New York) . . 

S J . L ■. J -r _ .. 1- (!' " "poHed that > Turco-German expedilion u pre- 

France can undertake it, and it must lie puiaa to atuck the Sua canai lod Etypt) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE fVORLD 



middle ot DcccRiber li 



the Bosphonis to the interior of Asia Minor. America will underttand Greece's position. We 
As Dr. Williams and Mr. Simonds show us, ?" ^j" ""'"'. ""I, «« together deiermineJ, 

dition has been driven back from the vicinity frightful vortex of the present European conflict, 

of Bagdad. The Anglo-French expedition Both are trying by every honorable meana to 

into Serbia and the fringes of Bulgaria has B"atd our sovereignty, protect our own people, 

had to make tiimultuoos retreat to the neu- ""'Ll'^"'' ^ ,'" •"'."■"""■I ■»'"'«■ «;ib»"t 

, , ^ L . T . sacnflcing that neutrahty which we recognize as 

tral temtoty of Giecce. where its leaders are our on[y salvation. 

spending all their energies in the establish- America is protected from immediate danger 

ment of a great base of operations at Salonica. by the distance which separates her from the bat- 

The Anglo-French line across the Gallipoli 'I'J'IJ yf'''"' J""*'" *?! """■. '"i'; '»!■ 
„ . ,* ■ J J c ■ J I L tlefield shifted, and may shift again. What is 

Peninsula may. indeed, be maintamed for the happening in Greece to-day may happen in 
present, but it will have to assume a defen- America. Holland, or any other neutral country 
sive position, with a view to keeping a large to-morrow if the ptecedent now sought lo be 
body of Turkish troops from being engaged established In the case of Greece is once Used, 
elsewhere. Salonica may prove hard to hold. 

».*„</..«^ Constantine tieclared that there 

,^ Thus the Teuton-Bulgar-Turk- "SI&iK"' T" °°' ''" .^'^T' fT^ '" 

niSa ish campaign of 1915 seems to . '»; ■»■""?'">" "' the Entente 

•~" have been highly successful. Yet f?""^" *" G"?' T" ■* i"'">' '''"°. '° 

a study of the Rumanian and Greek situa- g""""/ « the first favorable opportunity. 

tion shows that Teuton victory has yet to be ™ """''j '} .='"'■ °" •>'e other hand, that 

clinched. One of the most significant and preece had been constantly misrepresented 

pathetic documents ot the war is an interview '''' '*" ^""f'" "J"' ^""^ governments and 

given by the Greek King Constantine to the J^f.PW'J? '" *' f!,"" »' !>" «"»1' T!'' 

Associated Press, early in December, and ^•^"'- The second Balkan war was strictly 

published in the United States on December ""long .the small neighboring poivets. The 

7. The following introductory paragraphs ""^ 1" I'l'stion required G>«« to aid 

are quite worth reprinting: S'.'™ '". "'' " " future attack by Bulgaria 

with a view to annexing Serbian Macedonia. 

1 Bm~cspecially glad to talk for America, for The treaty had no possible reference to the 



10 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



contingency of an attack upon Serbia by the 
two great European powers, Germany and 
Austria-Hungary, with Bulgaria as an ally. 
In this statement, Constantine is obviously 
right; and the Entente press is wholly in 
the wrong. Further than that, Constantine 
denies that any treaty had been made, or 
understanding arrived at, between Greece 
and Bulgaria since the outbreak of the Euro- 
pean war. Regarding the treatment that 
Greece had received at the hands of Eng- 
land and her allies, Const an tine's interview 
proceeds as follows: 

From th« very ouiset of boililitiet in the Near 
East, Greece'* neuiraliiy has been tiretched lo 
the ulmosi lo accommodate (he Entente powers. 




Yet, deipiie all these evidences of the good 
faith of Greece, the Entente powers now demand, 
in a form which is virtually an ultimatum, that 
the Greek troops be withdrawn from Saloniki, 
■nd that means all Macedonia, leaving our 
population unprotected against raids by Bulgarian 
comiudjis or all the horrors of war which laid 
Belgium waste, should the Allies be driven back 
within our fronticrl- 

JuBt suppose the Germans were in a position 
to demand that your country concede the use of 
Bos:on or Seattle as ihe base for an attack on 
Canada. What would you say? And if all 
your miliidry experience and the advice of your 
General Siaff told you ihat such a landint <vai 
doomed to failure because made with an madc- 
quale force, and you realized that the Briiirii 
troops in Canada would pursue the retreating 
Germans across New England, destroying as 
they went, would you accept the prospect without 
a struggle? 

The interview was an extensive 
^'cMrBto?" °"*^> '"^ every word of it was 

to the point. The Entente 
powers have now established themselves at 
Salonica, and are in full control of that port, 
as also of the railroad leading northward, 
and the adjacent territory. Dispatches 
printed December 16 gave a graphic account 
of the marching of Greek regiments away 
from the famous seaport and military camp 
that Greece had recently acquired with SO 
much of national pride and satisfaction. 
King Constantine has learned a lesson from 
the experience of King Albert of Belgium. 
He does not propose to make fruitless re- 
sistance, and invite the devastation of his 
country. But he wishes the world to know 
that what the Germans proposed to do in 
Belgium, — namely, to march across the coun- 
try and pay for any incidental damage, — is 
precisely what the opponents of Germany 
have now undertaken to do in Greece. Ger- 
many proposed to invade t)ic enemy's country 



for whom we have always fell the keenest sym- 
pathy and the deepest gralilude. The Darda- 
nelles operations were directed from Greek 
islands occupied by Allied troops. When Serbia 
was endangered by the combined Ausiro-German 
and Bulgarian attack the Allied troops landed 
unopposed on Greek toil, from which, with the 
second city of Greece as a base, they prosecuted 
not only unmolested, but aided in every way 
with any son of neutrality, their fruit- 
> long delayed campaign to rescue 



their 



Illy. 



Finally, I myself have given my personal word 
(hat Greek troops will never be used to attack 
the Franco- British forces in Macedonia, merely 
to allay unjustified suspicions. 



nerican (PhiladelpKb) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD ^. 13 

Council, against which our Government has ^^^ If such a conference had fonnu- 

fulminated from time to time, were not di- Aneona lated its position, there would 
reeled against the United States, but against "'""*• \^2.\k been no Ancona incident 
Germany; and their incidental disadvanh^ in the Mediterranean, because many months 
to the trade of this country was suffered by ago there would have been fully established, 
us in common widi the South American and agreed to by all belligerents, several salu- 
countries and die neutral countries of Eu- tary principles of international law and of 
rope. If from the beginning we had been in common sense. However wrong die Aus- 
conference with these other neutral countries, trian submarine must have been in the subse- 
prompt representations could have been made quent proceedings, in the case of the Ancona 
to England widi great moral impressivcncss. it is evident that the lives of all the passen- 
If, for example, our one imquestionably cor- gcrs were illegally jeopardized when the cap- 
rect diplomatic utterance, — the so-called tain of the Ancona, in order to save his ship 
"identic note" to Germany and England of (which in its eastward passages was said to 
last February, — had been sent simultaneously be a munition-carrier), disregarded the 
by all neutral powers as a result of an agree- warning of the submarine and undertook to 
ment in conference (inasmuch as the matters escape by putting on full speed. Under 
discussed were in no sense American, but in international law the pursuing warship was 
every sense international), it is almost im- at liberty to sink the escaping vessel. The 
possible to believe that England would have subsequent facts are in contradiction. But 
made a belated, unresponsive, and negative it is plain that all American and other neu- 
answer, as she did, thus bringing on inevi- tral persons ought long ago in this war to 
tably the German submarine campaign of have been warned that neutral governments 
reprisals. could not protect them on belligerent mer- 

chant ships engaged in war service as muni- 
^^ An international conference of tion-carriers, or on ships that were not 
nnath neutrals would have been free pledged to observe the ordinary rules of in- 
FoHtigH jg advise the private subjects of temational law as to capture, visit and search, 
neutral countries not to sail on belligerent and so on. It is alleged at Washington that 
ships which were also carrying munitions of certain of the numerous Italian passengers 
war direct to the theater of combat. Sudi a on this steamer in the Mediterranean had 
conference of neutrals would doubtless have lived in this country and become naturalized, 
adopted a rule warning noncombatant per- The American newspapers that were eager 
sons to keep off belligerent ships that were for a break of relations with Austria might 
not under clear orders to obey the rules of reasonably have tried to ascertain how many 
international law, and to refrain from trying 
to esc^w when bailed and warned by a 
hostile armed vessel. The war in Europe 
is being fought on large issues, for lai^ 
stakes. No European country has been 
drawn into the war through some phase of 
a detail of an incident in the prosecution of 
the war. A conference of neutrals, in session 
from the beginning, would have insured the 
safety of a country like ours, by making it 
certain that proper diplomatic means were 
promptly used to keep neutrals from being 
involved through accidents. If sudi a con- 
ference had been called, it.is hard to believe 
that there would have been a Luiitania inci- 
dent, because the great liners enrolled as 
nav^ auxiliaries of their respective countries 
would have been openly warned not to cany 
women and children if they were also en- 
gaged in war service as munition-carriers 
or transports. Such a conference, in perma- 
nent session, would have protected all neu- 
trals and saved the remnants of international "why austbia, ur. pbesident?" 

law. From the Tribtm, (New York) 



12 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

from Salonica to the frontiers of Serbia and rope are regarded as far more important than 
Bulgaria, — is a seizure for military purposes the methods and the details of warfare. One 
by the Entente powers. This territory be- hears little of the recriminations of a year 
comes a theater of war, to be invaded by ago. The best aid that the United States 
Bulgar and Teuton without giving just cause could render to the world would be to main- 
of offense to Greece. The Greeks are tain a great body of public opinion, capable 
eminently right in trying to keep out of the of justice, generosity, fair play, and the other 
war, and in temporarily abandoning what it qualities that command esteem and respect, 
would be suicide for them to try to defend. It is unfortunate that (according to practi- 
cally all the testimony that can be gathered) 
If the ^nglo-French plan of a this country is steadily losing the good opin- 
Rumania tremenilous attack upon Bui- ion of the rest of the vvorld. There could 
Expwtant g^j-j^ ^ext Spring from Salonica have been brought into association a neutral 
as a base should restore Serbia and cut Ger- group of nations, with definite sentiments, 
many off from Turkey, very handsome re- that would have played a very influential 
wards will be due to Greece for her submis- role in the history of the war and in the 
sion. If, on the other hand, Teuton and ultimate settlement. From the very outbreak 
Bulgar should win the day and take Salonica, of the war this course has been repeatedly 
it is hard to believe that the Greeks would advocated by this Review. Argentina, Bra- 
ever again be in authority at that seaport, or zil, and Chile are stable countries, having an 
in any part of the district lying eastward, even greater relative stake in the maintenance 
It is on this ground that the natural sympa- of neutral rights on the sea than we have, 
thies of the Greeks are with the English and The three Scandinavian countries, while not 
French, and riot with the powers that are large, are very important in their seafaring 
crushing Serbia and supporting Bulgaria, interests, and are incomparably more con- 
Teutonic influence would, however, in any cemed about the European war than is the 
case consider the future of Greece as against United States. Spain is a country of impor- 
that of Italy ; and if Greece should have lost tance and dignity, with a respectable com- 
something of her recent gains at the head merce and a great history. Switzerland and 
of the Egean, she might find more than am- Holland, though small countries, have im- 
ple compensation elsewhere. Meanwhile, it mensc moral weight, and arc the homes of 
remains for the onlooking world to sec highly trained international jurists and pub- 
whether Russia's recuperation will be rapid licists. The South American countries are 
enough to permit her, within a few weeks, better supplied than we arc with trained 
to put the same kind of pressure upon Ru- diplomats and international lawyers. Noth- 
mania that England and France have put ing would have seemed more appropriate, at 
upon Greece. As Mr. Stoddard's article in the outset of the war, than to have invited 
this number of the Review makes plain, a certain number of neutral countries, in- 
Rumania might well hope to gain something eluding all those that wc have named, to join 
by preserving her neutrality, while she might in an offidal conference at Washington, 
suffer a direful fate if she entered the war under the auspices of our Government, to 
on either side. Germany would like to give consider questions having to do with the 
Rumania the province of Bessarabia, now rights and obligations of neutrals, and spe* 
owned by Russia, as a price of keeping neu- dfic issues arising out of actual incidents, 
tral; while Russia would be willing to give 

Rumania the Austro-Hungarian provinces of ^^^ In the earlier period of the war 
Bukowina and Transylvania as the price of 0/ there were many questions hav- 

a benevolent neutrality that would permit ^^^-^f^^^^" j^g to do with the movement of 
Russia to use Rumanian territory in the same commodities, the changing of contraband 
way that the Anglo-French forces are using rules, the transfer of merchant ships, and so 
Greek territory. With Rumania, as with on. We acted at Washington as if these 
Greece, everything depends upon the mili- were solely questions affecting the United 
tary strength that backs the demands of great States, and as if there were no other neutrals 
neighbors. Times are bad for small nations, in the world. Yet a number of other coun- 
tries were trying to deal with similar prob- 
„ Thus the war now begins to be lems, and much was lost, with nothing 

Unorganixit fought for permanent results gained, through failure to proceed in co- 
Neutraia ^^^^ gradually assume some un- operation, upon plans approved by a confer- 
derstandable outlines. These results in Eu- cnce of neutrals. The British Orders in 



THE PROGRESS OE THE WORLD . 13 

Council, against which our Government has j^^ If such a conference had fonnu- 

^Iminated from time to time, were not di- Amona lated its position, there would 
rected against the United States, but against *" * have been no Ancona incident 

Germany; and their incidental disadvantf^ in the Mediterranean, because many months 
to the trade of this country was suffered by ago there would have been fully established, 
OS in common with the South American and agreed to by all belligerents, several salu- 
countries and t}ie neutral countries of £u- tary principles of international law and of 
rope. If from the beginning we had been in common sense. However wrong the Aus- 
confercnce with these other neutral countries, trian submarine must have been in the subse- 
prompt representations could have been made quent proceedings, in the case of the Ancona 
to England with great moral impressivencss. it is evident that the lives of all the passen- 
If, for example, our one unquestionably cor- gers were illegally jeopardized when the cap- 
rect diplomatic utterance, — the soKralled tain of the Ancona. in order to save his ship 
"identic note" to Germany and England of (which in its eastward passages was said to 
last February, — had been sent simultaneously be a munition-carrier), disregarded the 
by all neutral powers as a result of an agree- warning of the submarine and undertook to 
ment in conference (inasmuch as the matters escape by putting on full speed. Under 
discussed were in no sense American, but in international law the pursuing warship was 
every sense international), it is almost im- at liberty to sink the escaping vessel. The 
possible to believe that England would have subsequent facts are in contradiction. But 
made a belated, unresponsive, and negative it is plain that all American and other neu- 
answer, as she did, thus bringing on inevi- tral persons ought long ago in this war to 
tably the German submarine campaign of have been warned that neutral governments 
reprisals. could not protect them on belligerent mer- 

chant ships engaged in war service as muni- 
^^^ An intemationai conference of tion-carriers, or oa ships that were not 
nnmtk neutrals would have been free pledged to observe the ordinary rules of in- 
FarttigM ^ advise the private subjects of temational law as to capture, visit and search, 
neutral countries not to sail on belligerent and so on. It is alleged at Washington that 
diips which were also carrying munitions of certain of the numerous Italian passengers 
war direct to the theater of combat. Sudi a on this steamer in the Mediterranean had 
conference of neutrals would doubtless have lived in this country and become naturalized, 
adopted a rule warning nonccHnbatant per- The American newspapers that were eager 
sons to keep oft belligerent ships that were for a break of relations with Austria might 
not under clear orders to obey the rules of reasonably have tried to ascertain how many 
intemationai law, and to refrain from trying 
to escape when bailed and warned by a 
hostile anned vessel. The war in Europe 
is being fought on large issues, for large 
stakes. No European country has been 
drawn into the war through some phase of 
a detail of an incident in the prosecution of 
the war. A conference of neutrals, in session 
from the beginning, would have insured the 
safety of a country like ours, by making it 
certain that proper diplomatic means were 
promptly used to keep neutrals from being 
involved through accidents. If such a con- 
ference had been called, it, Is hard to believe 
that there would have been a Lutitania inci- 
dent, because the great liners enrolled as 
naval auxiliaries of their respective countries 
would have been openly warned not to carry 
women and children if they were also en- 
gaged in war service as munition-carriers 
or transports. Such a conference, in perma- 
nent session, would have protected all neu- 
trals and saved the remnants of international "why Austria, mk. paEsiDENT F" 

law. From tlie Tribun* (New York) 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



4 fiUBlAN 

{The Auitro.Hungirua MinUlcrof Foreign Affain, 
with tlM*UDired StifS mocerniog lSc''™ro'iio'imldn() 

Other neutral countries had passengers on 
board that ship, and also whether under 
circumstances of that kind other neutral gov- 
ernments would feel themselves justified in 
making peremptory demands upon Austria. 

», ,,», The note of our State Depart- 

£t»Hiaai ment admits that the Ancana. 
after being hailed and warned, 
tried to escape. She thus brought upon her 
innocent passengers an attack that resulted 
finally in the loss of the ship and the death 
of a good many people. She had deliber- 
ately broken what is the most universally 
accepted rule of international law as regards 
such situations. It is alleged that the Ancona 
finally gave up the attempt to escape, that 
the submarine continued to fire her guns, 
and that a torpedo sank the passenger ship 
before everybody had been safely sent ofl in 
the lifeboats. But on the other hand, it 
seems to be admitted on both sides that the 
unlawful flight of the Ancona. which led to 
the lawful pursuit and gunfire of the sub- 



marine, had thrown the passengers, — ^who 
were very lai^Iy Italians of the lower 
class, — into so wild a panic that they could 
not very well be rapidly and safely loaded 
into tlie boats, although more than the usual 
time was occupied in such an effort. Our 
State Department, on December 6, sent to 
the Government of Austria a note more 
challenging and brusque in its tone than is 
usual in diplomatic intercourse unless war 
is not only expected but desired. It may be 
that our State Department was wholly jus- 
tified in assuming that it had known aJI the 
facts, and was competent to pronounce judg- 
ment. But, we must repeat, this Ancana 
case was not primarily an American inc^ 
dent. It concerned humanity, and it con- 
cerned all nations. The facts should have 
been passed upon by a competent committee 
of inquiry constituted of neutral nations, and 
notes to Austria should have followed the 
findings of such a committee. 

Ha/B-* Part ^" ^''^ Other hand, it should 
intii* have been remembered that 
*""' whereas the facts touching the 
culpability of Austria are not admitted at 
Vienna, there is no question in any quarter 
as to the facts touching the culpability of the 
commander of the Ancona. A jury of in- 
ternational experts would certainly have 
called upon the Government of Italy to 
subject the commander of the Ancona to 
punishment. The loss of life was the result 
of his futile attempt to save the ship in 
plain violation of international law. If Italy 
had been asked to punish the captain of the 
Ancona for a wrong that cannot be ques- 
tioned, wc might with better grace and a 
finer sense of fairness have asked the Gov- 
ernment of Austria, — as we did in our note 
of December 6, — to punish the commander 
of the submarine. This periodical has no 
sympathy with the game of torpedoing pas- 
senger and merchant ships, now practised 
freely by all the great powers that arc at 
war. It is the Austrian contention that no 
lives would have been lost if the Ancona 
had not run away after warning. But this 
would not justify the sacrifice of innocent 
passengers by the premature sinking of the 
ship at a subsequent period, when it had 
given up the escape and was trying to put 
its passengers into boats. The very fact that 
American sympathy is now so preponderantly 
and so openly suppojting the Entente powers 
makes it the more necessary that our Gov- 
ernment should be both courteous and scru- 
pulously fair to Germany and Austria. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



Mr Wilton P'^''^'"* Wilson read his an- 
'nia nual message to Congress on 
f>»-4.*rf«.. December 7. His opening allu- 
sions were to the war, regarding which he 
said, "We have stood apart studiously neu- 
tral." After showing the manifest duty of , 
the self-governed nations of this hemisphere 
to "keep the processes of peace alive," he 
made the following observation : 

Id thi* oeutralily, to nhicb they were bidden 
not only by cheir separate life and their habitual 
detachment from (he politics of Europe but also 
by a clear perceptiao of interoatiaaal duty, ihe 
•tates of America have become conscious of a 
new and more vital oonununity of iotercit and 
moral partnership in affairs, more clearly con- 
•doui of (he many common syinpa(hiei and 
interests and duties which bid them ttind to- 
gether. 

This led him to explain the Monroe Doc- 
trine as being a matter of cooperation and 
mutual support among the republics of the 
Western Hemisphere. He referred with 
satisfaction to iJie method and course of 
events in Mexico, and praised the work of 
the .'inancial and comtnercial conference of 
American republics held in Washington 
some months ago. It does not seem to have 
occurred to the President that all these other 
republics, whom he lauds so highly as our 
associates "upon a footing of genuine equality 
and unquestioned independence," might with 
greatt advantage have been officially con- 
sulted as to the course that American repub- 
lics should take in matters of common con- 
cern arising out of the war. He daims that 
there is "a full and honorable association, 
aS' of partners, between ourselves and our 
neighbors in the interest of all America, 
Nor^ and South." The problems of Mexico 
are peculiarly ours to deal with; yet he was 
wise in calling the leading countries of South 
America into a diplomatic conference over 
Mexican conditions. The problems of 
American neutrality, on the other hand, in 
this time of world war, arc not peculiar to 
the United States, but are common to all 
the republics of the Western Hemisphere, 
We have, therefore, lost a great chance, — 
to bind America together, to influence the 
world beneficently, and to stabilize and as- 
sure our own position, — in having failed to 
call the American republics tt^cther in a 
Pan-American council of neutrals to deal, 
first of all, with principles, and, following 
that, with occurrences having relation to 
the war. Even yet it would be possible to 
do this, and to create a strong central focus 
of neutral influence. 



ODndmroDd * Ilndcnnwd. New YoA 

PBESIDENT WILSON,— raOM A SNAPSHOT LAST 

UOHTH 

(Beades HoeptiMu] activities of a public nature in 

December, tbe month brought one of the chief erenls 



of tbe Wblte House ifter a brief wedding iouTBty) 

Mr. Wilson's address next took 
irwfaiirt up the plans of military and na- 
"""" val preparation that had already 
been given to the country, as worked out 
by Secretaries Garrison and Daniels, and 
that he had even more fully presented in 
his speech before the Manhattan Club that 
we commented upon last month. One of 
the most positive and energetic portions of 
the message is devoted to an argument for 
"the purchase or construction of ships to be 
owned and directed by the Government, sim- 
ilar to those [proposals] made to the last 
Congress, but modified in some essential par- 
ticulars." It is plain that the President 
intends to use all the influence and power 
of the Administration to bring about this 
project of Government-owned merchant 
ships. He regards it as the necessary initial 
step towards a great merchant marine that 
will in due time be wholly owned and di- 
rected by private capital. In a brief sum- 
ming-up of national income and outgo, the 
President points out the need of continuing 
the tax on sugar and extending the emergency 
revenue taxes of last year. But with the 
increased expenditures for the defense pro- 
gram, he thinks that it will be necessary 



16 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEWS 

but how heroic, nation ihat in ■ high day of old 
(laked ill very life to free illelf ffom every en- 
tanglement that had darkened the fortunes of 
the older nations and set up a Den standard 
here — that men of such origins and such free 
choices of allegiance would ever turn in malign 
reaction against the Government and people who 
I had welcomed and nurtured them and leek to 

make this proud country once more a hotbed of 
European passion. A little while ago such a 
thing would have seemed incredible. Because it 
was incredible we made no preparation for it. 
We would have been almost aehamed lo prepare 
I for it, as if ne were suspicioii* of ourselves, our 

I own comrades and neighbors 1 Bui (he ugly and 

I incredible thing has actually come about and we 

are without adequate Federal laws to deal 

I urge you lo enact such laws at the earliest 

possible moment and feci that in doing so I am 

urging you to do nothing leii than save the honor 

and self-respect of the nation. Such creatures 

of passion, disloyalty, and anarchy must be 

From the Evrnlng Dupahh (Columbu.) crushed out. They are not many, but they are 

infiniiely malignant, and the hand of our power 

jjt.L . 1. .1. , c 1.- should close over them at once. They have 

to add further taxes for the next fiscal year j^^^j p,„,, ,„ j^,^^^ p^^p^,^_ ^^^^ ^l^^ ^. 

to produce somewhat more than an additional ,,red into conspiracies against the neutrality of 
one hundred million dollars. He suggests the Government, they have sought to pry into 
taxes on gasoline, automobiles, bank checks, every confidential transaction of the Govern- 
and iron and steel, as indicating stjmc possible JJ'i; ' poVsibYe VTe^'"wi7h "ihe«" thin^' v7^ 
sources of new revenue. ITlis is evidently effectually. I need not suggest the terms in 
a subject that he prefers to leave to Congress, which they may be dealt with. 

ff« arii»a ^" ^ '^'' ^ ^^ newspapers dis- It would perhaps have been bet- 

- />tati" flflrf cussed the message, and showed ^cU?-^*' ter if the President had dis- 
Cunmraeitt" interest in it, they confined them- carded rhetoric, and told us more 

selves almost entirely to a passage in whidi plainly what he meant. It is true that this 

the President said, among other things, "that country has been making munitions for 

the gravest threats against our national peace Europe on a colossal scale, for the benefit 

and safety have been uttered within our own of the Allies; and; that there have been 

borders." He continued in an accusatory numerous explosions and fires in munition 

passage so remarkable that it seems proper factories that have been due to the activ- 

to quote it at some length : ity of men who are hostile to the Allies. 

, , Undoubtedly the Government at Washington 

.."^r.'wrrd'.,"'^*.,"!;'!; S^L'S »/" !»--»"•( "<>,, f.c,s ,ha„ are now 

under our generous naiuraliiaiioo laws to the before the pubhc. In view of the vast extent 

full freedom and opporiuniiy of America, who to which the resources of this country have 

have poured the poison of disloyally into the been placed at the service of one side in 

very arteries of our ration.l H*': "ho have ,^g European war, there has been less vio- 

sought to bring the luthonly and good name oi , T < ir r i < - > i ' i 

our Government into contempt, to destroy our l^nce on behalf of the other Side than might 

industries wherever they thought it effective for have been expected. The man who takes a 

Iheir vindictive purposes to strike at them, and profitable contract and turns his farm-imple- 

to debase our poliHcs to the uses of foreign ment factory into a factory for making rifles, 

intrigue. Their number ii not great as compared , , , r > 

with .he whole number of those sturdy hosts by becomes almost as truly a part of the war 

which our nation has been enriched in recent as the man who shoots those rifles from the 

generations out of virile foreign stocks; but it trenches. The man in the trenches has the 

is great enough to have brought deep disgrace ^^tive of patriotism and duty. The Ameri- 
upon us and to have made il necessary that we u u ■ ^ ■ . 

should promptly make use of processes of law ^" contractor has the motive Ol private 

by which we may be purged of their corrupt dis- gam. The behavior of Americans of German 

tempers. America never witnessed anything like origin has for the most part been law-abiding 

this before. It never dreamed it possible that g^j ],; ^i admirable. We have not discOV- 
men sworn into its own citizenship, men drawn if' ■ > ■ - 

out of great free slocks such as supplied some ="^« ^ny distinct element in this country 

of the best and strongest elements of that little, that has threatened Amcncan peace or shown 



THE PROCRESS OF THE fVORLD 



disloyalty. It will be a great relief, — and 
a great benefit in the moral sense, — when 
those immensely resourceful industrial coun- 
tries allied against Germany can malce all 
of their own guns and shells, and cease to 
buy them here. It is a good thing to know 
that such a time is near at hand. There will 
be other work for America, and less strain 
upon those of opposite views and sympathies. 
Meanwhile order must be maintained. 

jj^^ On December 3, it was an- 
Ofd/vmrtt nounced from Washington that 

"""* our Government had requested 
the Government of Germany to recall Cap- 
tain Boy-Ed and Captain von Papen, who 
had for some time been the naval and mili- 
tary aides attached to the German Embassy 
in this country. The request was duly 
granted, and our Government secured from 
the British and Allied authorities the assur- 
ance of safe conduct for these officers on 
their return to Germany. No statements 
were made that reflected upon their personal 
or professional characters. They had been 
l:ere through a period of intense difficulty 
and strain, trying to serve the interests of 
their own Government, America swarmed 
with the agents and representatives (secret 
as well as open) of the countries fighting 
against Germany and Austria. In the esti- 
mation of most of the newspapers, the activity 
of the agents of the Allies is per te righteous, 
while every movement of the diplomatic and 
other agents of the Teutonic governments 
is deemed per se vicious or criminal. It 
must be kept in mind that none of these 
German and Austrian personages, against 
whom offenses have been alleged, have done 
anything which in motive or intent was di- 
rectly detrimental to the Government or 
people of the United States. They have 
been guilty of technical offenses, in doing 
things that violate our neutrality. When 
the Government finds that diplomatic offi- 
cials have committed such errors, it becomes 
necessary to ask for their recall. 

^^ ^^^ In our issue for last month, we 
at Work set forth the summary facts re- 
*'"" garding the new Sixty-fourth 
Congress, which met for its opening session 
on Monday, December 6. Mr. Champ Clark 
was again elected to the Speakership, while 
the Republicans, who are greatly augmented 
in numbers, continued to rally around the 
leadership of Mr. James R. Mann, of Illi- 
nois. In the Senate, Vice-President Marshall 
will of course be presiding officer when pres- 

J.O.-S 




ent. The honor of the office of president 
pro tempore has been again conferred upon 
Senator Clarke, of Arkansas, one of the fore- 
most lawyers now in public life. The floor 
leader of the Democratic majority is Senator 
Kern, of Indiana, while Senator Gallinger, 
of New Hampshire, is accepted spokesman 
for the Republican minority. It is to be 
noted that Senator Gallinger and Mr. Mann, 
on behalf of the Senate and House Repub- 
licans, promptly paid their personal respects 
to President Wilson and assured him that his 
program of national defense would not be 
opposed upon any grounds of a party nature. 
Many matters presented in the reports of 
Department heads will in due time be 
brought under discussion in this session of 
Congress. We shall not anticipate them at 
this time, but they will be duly noted here- 
after, whether they relate to farm credits, to 
Porto Rican citizenship, to Alaskan develop- 
ment, to the public lands, to post-office ad- 
ministration, or to reform in the system of 
planning public buildings. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 







MANN, OF ILLINOIS 
leader of the Rcpublicani ii 



_ - , The principal feature of Secrc- 
am til, tary Garrison s report is its ex- 

'""""""" tended presentation of his plan 
for giving the country an enlarged regular 
army, and especially a trained force of citizen 
soldiers for service in times of emergency. 
His ably reasoned pages have the convincing 
qualities that go with his rare power to bring 
proposals to definite terms and to express 
them lucidly. Among his briefer allusions is 
one to the pending measure relating to the 
government of the Philippine Islands. It 
will be remembered that the Philippines come 
under the surveillance of the Bureau of Insu- 
lar Aflairs, which remains in the War De- 
partment. Mr. Garrison's usual candor 
fails him a little when he characterizes all 
the opponents of the Jones bill, and the pres- 
ent regime in the islands, as either ill-in- 
formed or prejudiced. Some of them cer- 
tainly are not prejudiced, while many of 
them are conspicuously well informed. There 
raged in the newspapers, early in December, 
a most elaborate controversy between ex- 
President Taft and Secretary Garrison, re- 
garding the character and efficiency of the 
present management of Philippine affairs. 
Professor Blayney, a distinguished scholar, 
and a Wilson Democrat from Texas, has re- 
cently visited the Philippines to find out for 
himself; and he writes for this number of 
the Review (see page 83), in the most can- 
did fa^ion, of what he ascertained in the 
islands. We do not believe that the unfor- 
tunate conditions that Professor Blayney re- 
ports are in any manner to be ascribed to the 



gallant Secretary of War; and we wish he 
might not feel it his duty as a loyal member 
of the Administration to champion things 
that he ought rather to help correct, so that 
the impartial may approve. 

^^^ Secretary McAdoo, at the head 

CouKUy't of the Treasuiy Department, 
"™" congratulates the country on its 
business recovery with unimpaired credit. 
He presents a hopeful p'icture of industrial 
activity, with the cotton States prosperous, 
the railroads busy, and normal economic con- 
ditions following upon first an extreme col- 
lapse, and then an abnormal war-order boom. 
.\lr. McAdoo gives a good account of the 
working of the Federal Reserve system. The 
war-risk insurance business of the Govern- 
ment has been operated with marked success. 
The Pan-American Financial Conference of 
last May promises to have many beneficial 
results. Some detailed improvements in the 
administration of the income-tax law are 
recommended. The financial aspects of the 
reports of Secretary Garrison and Secretary 
Daniels have already been anticipated, and 
their proposals for large additional expendi- 
tures for the army and navy have been be- 
fore the country for many weeks. Only 
casual su^estions have come from the Ad- 
ministration regarding the new taxes that 
must be imposed to meet the expected appro- 
priations. Congress will not have entered 
upon the comprehensive discussion of this 
problem of national finance until the Ways 
and Means Committee has decided what it 
will recommend, and has reported through 
its new chairman, Mr. Claude Kitchin, of 
North Carolina. 



OUU. PUUdelpbli Inanlnr O 

DO YOUB EXTBA TAX!^ 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 






In Secret aiy Redfield's annual 
Rtdfitwi report for the Department of 
"" "™^ Commerce, he takes occasion to 
praise the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce for its work in obtaining over- 
seas contracts of many millions of dollars for 
American business houses. He recommends 
additional commercial attaches to Central 
America, India, the near East, South Africa, 
and Canada. The Secretary says the work 
of this service has helped essentially in the 
creation of the American dyestuf^ industry. 
In his opinion the United States must become 
independent of foreign sources for its dyes. 
The most striking proposition advanced in 
this report is the plan for dealing with the 
European industrial competition which so 
many expect after the war. Mr. Redfield 
foresees a "destructive tjpe of struggle and 
unfair competition." To prevent this, the 
Secretary suggests that the machinery of the 
departments of Justice and the Treasury be 
used, with the help of additional legislation, 
to protect American markets. Instead of 
increased tariffs to keep out a flood of cheaply 
produced European manufactures after the 
war, we should have legislation supplemental 
to the Clayton Anti-Trust Act making it 
unlawful "to sell or purchase articles of for- 
eign origin or manufacture where the prices 
to be paid are materially below the current 
rates for such articles in the country of pro- 
duction or from which shipment is made, in 
case such pricrs substantially lessen competi- 
tion on the part of American producers or 
tend to create a monopoly in American mar- 
kets in favor of the foreign producer." The 
argument is that we prohibit unfair compe- 
tition at home, and so we should prohibit 




WubLnrton. U 

)N. WILLIAM C. REDFLELD, SECRETARY OF THB 
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



^^m^ 




it when it comes from abroad. The Secre- 
tary recommends the cooperation of business 
concerns in foreign trade to permit smaller 
tradesmen to take a part. He says the pres- 
ent law plays into the hands of the larger 
concerns, and shuts out small ones from im- 
portant markets, and that the whole matter 
should be placed under the supervision of the 
Federal Trade Commission. 

floMMmmi- ^' seems certain that this Con- 
Oi*ii***»™*aii(gress will be asked by the Ad- 
""" ministration to pass a measure 
for the Government, ownership of ocean 
steamships. It will be remembered that the 
Administration measure was defeated last 
year, the opposing Republicans having the 
aid of many Democrats. It is true that much 
water has passed under the bridge since last 
winter. The most spectacular shift of cir- 
cumstances has come, of course, in the huge 
demand for shipping facilities. This new 
situation, as far as it goes, naturally supports 
the Administration's contention that the 
country needs the Shipping bill. Secretary 
McAdoo has industriously prepared the way 
for the impending struggle over this legisla- 
tion. The Administration plan is much 
changed from that of last year. It provides 



20 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

now for a Shipping Board -consisting of the 15,000 tons are on the stocks; in the Phila- 
Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of Com- delphia shipyards, over forty; at Quincy, 
merce, and three other members to be ap- Massachusetts, fifteen; and twenty-odd on 
pointed by the President and confirmed by the Pacific coast. This unprecedented rxish 
the Senate. Congress is to furnish the Board of orders will keep the shipbuilding plants 
with $50,000,000, sufficient to create a naval busy for several years. Three new ship- 
auxiliary of suitable merchant ships to the building companies have recently been an- 
amount of 400,000 to 500,000 tons. The nounced as starting in business, the last being 
Board would establish steamship lines to the Standard Shipbuilding Corporation with 
South America and to the Orient. It would contracts already closed which enable it to 
have authority to organize a corporation and open two large yards on Staten Island. It is 
to subscribe to its capital stock in whole or true that only 20 per cent, of these new ships 
in part, and this corporation would operate are for foreign trade, the remainder being 
the ships. Mr. McAdoo believes that this coastwise vessels, but many of these are being 
device would remove the enterprise from po- built to take the place of old craft drafted 
litical influence and would secure the most into the foreign trade, while others are being 
efficient management. As to distinctively constructed in a manner to enable them to 
cargo ships, the Board would have the power cross the seas if occasion should arise, 
to lease such vessels to private parties. The 

plan would be to throw this fleet of steamers, High0e9an ^^' Frederick's article in this 
for instance, into the leading ports of the Ffighutif issue of the Review of Re- 
Northwest when that section was suffering ""** views, with its vivid picture 

for a lack of shipping facilities for lumber of the huge stream of American munitions 
and grain, or into the South when a large and supplies hurrying to Europe, explains the 
number of ships were needed to transport its sudden revival of our shipbuilding Industry, 
cotton to Europe. Just before the war there were not more 

than a dozen ocean-going ships building in 

In advocating a shipping board America. To-day there are nearly two hun- 
Shi^JnJuia ^o control our merchant ma- dred. The rush of exports from this country 

rine, Secretary of Commerce to Europe has for months overtaxed trans- 
Redfield calls attention to the unprecedented portation facilities. Our Interstate Com- 
activity in American shipyards. He is urgent merce Commission took nearly four years to 
in his demand for still larger plans to rein- decide that the railroads of the country 
force our merchant fleet. Great Britain is should not have an increase in freight rates 
now using about three thousand merchant of 10 per cent. In eighteen months freight 
ships simply as attendants upon her war fleet, rates on the high seas have, in response to 
and without them the great navy would be the law of supply and demand, increased, — 
helpless. Mr. Redfield reminds us that when first 100 per cent., then 200 per cent, and 
we sent a small fleet of battleships around the have now gone up 500 per cent, and, in some 
world, we had to hire foreign vessels to instances, 700 per cent. Germany's mer- 
supply them with coal and other necessities, chant marine trade is non-existent outside 
In our diminutive war with Spain the of the Baltic. Nearly a million tons of 
Government was forced to buy auxiliary Great Britain's fleet have been sent to the 
vessels, many of them very unsuitable, wher- bottom of the ocean, and a much larger ton- 
cver they could be procured, at almost any nage is kept busy transporting her soldiers 
price, and then to resell them at a great loss, and supplying her navy. The world is short 
The Secretary of Commerce estimates that of ships for the emergency, and the impulse 
if we had to use our navy on the seas to-day, of the sky-high ocean freight rates is felt in 
about nine hundred merchant ships of all every neutral country, — Japan, Holland, and 
kinds would be required for supply service. Scandinavia, as well as America. 
There are now only five hundred altogether. 

jf^^ The round figures of the manu- 

On July 1 of this year there Mumtiona facture of munitions, which has 
ofofdvs were seventy-six steel mer- *"'"**• had so much to do with the sud- 

chant ships building in Amer- den demand for ships, are almost unbeliev- 
ican shipyards. In the next five months, one able. The United States has orders for 
hundred and twenty-six were ordered, mak- over one billion dollars*, — it may possibly be 
ing a total tonnage building of 761,511. At two billion dollars', — ^worth of powder, shells, 
Newport News fifteen ships of from 6000 to rifles, guns, barb-wire, etc. Canada is pro- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 21 

ducing all of these articles her factories can Brituh Mobiiiz-^'^^^^^ ^^^ Anglo-French loan 
turn out. Japan is extending her munitions ing Anfrioan may be regarded, in view of all 
production, for shipment to Russia, on such ^^* the circumstances, as a successful 

a scale and with such feverish haste that she operation, its results certainly do not favor 
has been forced to close her stock exchange the flotation* in the near future of a second 
because of the wild speculation in war stocks, public American loan to the Allies. In the 
In England alone it is said that a million meantime. Great Britain finds herself in the 
workers are now employed in over 2000 Gov- position of having to provide practically all 
ernraent-controlled munition establishments, the money needed to settle the trade balance 

in favor of America. This excess of exports 
The most injportant single de- may well reach $1,750,000,000 for 1915. 
Anglo-French vice employed by the Allies to Sir George Paish thinks it not improbable 
'^^^ effect payment for the incredible that for the year 1916 America will have a 
quantities of munitions and supplies pur- favorable trade balance of not much less than 
chased in America was the loan of $500,- $2,500,000,000. It was this prospect which, 
000,000 put out in America in the middle in the middle of December, led Great Britain 
of October. On December 15, the syndi- to take steps toward buying or borrowing for 
cate agreement expired, and the new "Anglo- two years American and Canadian securities 
French" bonds were left to go on their own" owned by her citizens. It is thought that she 
resources so far as price quotations were will use these American stocks and bonds as 
concerned. It appears that of the total issue, security for loans to be made by American 
some $290,000,000 of bonds were purchased bankers, which would have the same effect 
outright by members of the syndicate and toward settling the balance of trade against 
withdrawn. This left about $210,000,000 Great Britain as the public loan described in 
to be disposed of by the selling syndicate, the preceding paragraph. Eventually Amer- 
and at the expiration of its life of sixty days, ica will buy back these securities, 
it was found that no less than $180,000,000 

were still unsold to the public and were to ^ yenture ^^ November, announcement was 
be distributed to syndicate members. These in made of the forming of the 

members had been obliged by the agreement ^<>^^^'*^°^^ American International Corpora- 
to maintain the original issuing price of 98, tion, a $50,000,000 concern aiming to de- 
which gave the investor a yield of nearly velop a world market for American products 
Syi per cent Some days before the syndi- and to finance . and promote enterprises in 
cate dissolved the bonds became very active foreign countries with American capital. The 
on the stock exchange and sold for future chairman of this interesting new venture in 
delivery decidedly below the issuance figure, world trade is Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, 
declining on December 15 to 94^. At this president of the National City Bank of New 
price the investor obtained a security backed York. Its directors include such notable fig- 
jointly by England and France, yielding for ures as J. J. Hill, O. H. Kahn, J. O. 
its term of five years nearly 6.20 per cent. Armour, T. M. Vail and P. A. Rockefeller. 
In view of the unprecedented magnitude of The corporation has secured a New York 
the loan, and of the fact that American in- charter which permits it to engage in almost 
vcstors have never acquired the habit of every imaginable kind of industry or business, 
owning Government securities, the promo- The new concern expects to use a corps of 
ters of the undertaking considered that it was experts to investigate various enterprises in 
as successful as could be expected. Non- other countries which require financing, 
partisan bankers and financial authorities gen- When such are approved, the corporation will 
erally are a unit in judging the bonds to be take their securities and issue its own notes 
safe; but few deny that their quoted price or debentures against them, selling these in 
will probably fluctuate with the current ups turn to the American public. In this way the 
and downs of the European war. Thus, the savings of American citizens are to be used 
irresistible onslaught of the German armies with profit to themselves to help build rail- 
in Serbia, the petering out of the Allies* Dar- roads in China or Brazil, for instance. The 
danelles campaign, and the rather dramatic hope is that this process will aid America to 
failure of the British expeditionary force in come, as England has done for so many years, 
Mesopotamia, undoubtedly came at just the into the trade of other countries, — ^by giving 
wrong rime for the gentlemen who were in- them in payment for their good securities not 
tercsted in maintaining the quotations of only money, but our own manufactures and 
these bonds at the price of issue. other export goods. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEiVS 




YUAN SHDUC'AI. WHO BECOMES EMPEIU» OF THE RECONSTnVTED CHINESE MONARCHY 



Baron Shibusawa, the Japanese 
Amrieao banker and philanthropist, is re- 
Amity garded as the greatest citizen of 
hi' country in unofficial life. During No- 
vember and December the Baron spent about 
six weeks in the United States, visiting San 
Francisco, New York, Boston, Washington, 
and other cities. He was everywhere cor- 
dially received, and, while one purpose of 
his visit was to speak frankly to Americans 
about the treatment of Japanese in Cali- 
fornia, he made it clear from the first that 
his chief desire was for the strengthening 
of the friendly relations between the two 
nations. As a business man the Baron is 
keenly interested in securing cooperation be- 
tween American and Japanese capitalists in 
developing the vast resources of China. Most 
business men, East and West, will be in- 
clined to adopt the Baron's view that eco- 
nomic exploitation will be helpful to China 
herself as well as to Japan. Industrial de- 
velopment will be fostered and furthered by 
peaceful relations, while it could only be 
hindered by war. Enlightened self -interest, 
whether Asiatic or American, demands peace 
in the Far East. 



The announcement, on Decem- 
Ohiinn ber 11, that Yuan Shih-k'ai, who 

Dynattv ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ yg^^j (,^ (j^^^ 

President of the Chinese Republic, had ac- 
cepted the imperial crown tendered him by 
the Council of State, was a distinct surprise 
to the world. It was known that nearly all 
of the provinces of China had voted in favor 
of a monarchy, but Japan, Great Britain, 
and Russia had joined in a representation 
to the Chinese Republic to the effect that 
a change in the form of government at this 
time would be prejudicial to the common 
interests of China and the powers. It was 
found, however, that the vote of the Chinese 
representatives, chosen two months before, 
was practically unanimous for the change 
from republic to monarchy, and, although 
Yuan himself had repeatedly declared that 
such a change would be undesirable, he finally 
accepted on condition that the actual installa- 
tion of the monarchy should be postponed 
to a later date. In attempting to estimate 
the meaning of this apparent retrogression 
on China's part, we of the West would do 
well to remember that the republic itself 
was in no true sense a representative govern- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



ment, nor is it likely that China, for many 
years to come, will be able to make full use 
of those political devices which the peoples 
of Europe and America have long employed. 
It is probable that the induction of Yuan 
Shih-k'ai as Emperor of China really signifies 
little more than an extension of the tenure 
of his office. In any event, whether as a 
republic or as an empire, China's great need, 
as her own leaders have seen it, was the 
retention of a strong man at the head of 
the government in these years of political 
tutelage and world-wide disturbance. Such 
a ruler they had in Yuan Shih-k'ai, and 
whether he bore the title of President or 
ascended the imperial throne, his personality 
was the dominant factor in the situation. 
He had been elected in 1913 for a five-year 
term as President, with the possibility of 
reelection for one additional five-year term. 
At the end of ten years, had he lived and 
kept office as President, Yuan would have 
reached the age of sixty-five years. As Em- 
peror of China he will remain on the throne 
for life, and the question of succession has 
not yet been determined. There is no reason 
to believe that the transition from a republic 
to a monarchy marks any important change 
in the methods or routine of Chinese ad- 
ministration. 

To many minds, recent events in 
f«"i««rt China have doubtless suggested 
Mexico with its Diaz and its 
Carranza. Lawlessness has not yet been en- 
tirely checked south of the Rio Grande, and 
the government at Mexico City cannot yet be 
described as firm in the saddle. Still, most 
of the important European nations have 
followed the United States in the recognition 
of General Carranza as the executive head of 
the de facto government. Our own country 
is to exchange Ambassadors with the Car- 
ranza government. President Wilson having 
nominated Henry P. Fletcher, of Penn^l- 
vania, at present United States Ambassador 
to Chile, for the post at Mexico City, while 
Senor Eliseo Arredondo, Carranza's confi- 
dential representative at Washington, has 
been named as Mexican Ambassador to the 
United States. Our State Department will 
proceed shortly to reorganize the consular 
service in Mexico. The typhus epidemic in 
Mexico City has grown to alarming propor- 
tions. More than one hundred deaths a day 
were reported last month. In the mining 
districts, also, there are many cases. The 
prevalence of the disease is laid to filth condi- 
tions due to inefficiency of the authorities. 




CENCRAL CARRANZA AND HIS STAFF CONFERRING 
WITH AMERICAN OFFICERS ON THE INTERNA- 
TIONAL BRIDGE, HEAR BROWNSVILLE, TEXAS 



The Republicans have fixed upon 
ih^'Atn Chicago as the place, and June 
7th as the date, for the holding 
of the National Convention of 1916, while 
the Democrats will assemble at St. Louis one 
week later, Wednesday, June 14. Contrary 
to an impression that seems to have been 
shared by many newspaper writers, the choos- 
ing of an early date by the Republicans is 
quite in accord with precedent and custom. 
Whether in power or in opposition, it has 
always been the habit of the Republican party 
to gather its clans and proclaim its slogan in 
advance of its antagonists. Thus, in 1896, 
while the Democrats were entrenched at 
Washington, the Republicans nominated Mc- 
Kinley at St. Louis in June, while Bryan 
became the Democratic standard-bearer at 
Chicago in July. Under the revised plan of 
delegate representation the South will make 
a somewhat reduced showing in the Repub- 
lican Convention this year, and one of the 
rocks on which the Taft convention of 1912 
was split from stem to stern will have been 
partly worn away. As between the two great 
parties it would be idle at this time to speak 
of candidates. The Progressive National 
Committee will meet at Chicago on January 
1 1 to plan the party convention, and the lead- 
ers announce that a national ticket will surely 
be put In the field, some time after the other 
tickets and platforms are promulgated. 



A PIECE OF HEAVY ITALIAN ARTILLERY USED AGAINST THE AU3TRIANS IN T>4E ALPS REGION 

RECORD OF EVENTS IN THE WAR 

(from Novimber 19 to Dicember 18, IQI5) 

The Laii Pari of November declared (hat 100,000 men, simoii half the coun- 

November I9.-A BrilUh e.pcdiiionary force '^'''. '^^hling force^ «ere (aken priwneri. 

in Metopotamia arrive. a< Ciwiphon. within ^^l' ^"■""'.'('^Un^^"!''"!" <='"?"'"/"'"" "P; 

eighKen mile, of Bagdad, it, objective jloint, but P™™"''^ U.OOO.OOO buihel. of wheat «ored 

■.turned back by the Turki. L" 'K.^"'"" •"<" L-k' "R'""! the "heat „,!! 

It i. per,i..en.]y reported at Wa.hingtoi. that ^. P"'^ *." "' '•" '" '""''" f f • '''' "^'", . 

eflort. are being made to include China in the *«'"f <'"'F""1 '" »"PP"y '•>. Entente power, at 

alliance against Germany, for political rather "*""""' P""*- 

than military reaions. November 29. — The Auttrian War Office re- 
November ZO.-Lord Kitchener. Briti»h War f""* Pt^OB'"* '" /" iova.ion of Montenegro 

Secretan-. confer, at Athen. with King Con- """" "•" ""[''l,'"' Z*V^ ■ • ,. 

Haniine and Premier Skoulogdi^ ^ Emperor Will.am of Gertnany. v..it. Emperor 

,, ■ ,. , . . ■ . ,. ,. Franci* Joseph ai Vienna; it 11 said to be the 

NoTcmber 24.— It is understood at Athens (hat fi„, meeting of the Teutonic monarch, since the 

the Greek Government has yielded to the de- outbreak of the war, 

niand. of the Allies that in the event of with- ]„ ,„ engagement at Prisrend. Serbia, Bul- 

drawal from Serbian to Greek territory "he g^rian troops capture 16,000 Serbians. 

Allied troops will not be di.armed and mterned, „ u.^.i. il^ 

or otherwise interfered with November 30.— At the opening of the German 

,,,_.,. ,„ „^ , Reichstav, President Kaempf declares that finan- 

Novetnber 26.— The Austrian War Office de- rially and economicallv Germany has every 

Clare, that Gontz (a strongly fortified town is „^^^ ,„ contemplate the future with firm de- 

being systematical ly .hot to pieces by Italian termination and unshaken confidence. 

artillery. „.....„ „ The French Chamber of Deputies sanction* 

Lord Kitchener, Britwh War Secretary, con- the calling of the das. of 1917. for service in 

fer. at Rome with Italian military and civil ,(,e spring of 1916 

*'***'''•■ An explosion at the DuPont powder work* 

November 27.— It i. reported that English and r.ear Wilmington. Del., kills thirty-one men. 

French troops landed at Salonica, Greece, total 

I2S.000 men and that debarkation is going on Xhe First tVeek of December 

at the rate of 4000 a day. 

November 28. — The German War Office an- December 1.— Three member, of the Austrian 

nounces (hat "with the flight of the Manty rem- cabinet resign.- the Mini.tcr. of the Interior, 

nant. of the Serbian army into the Albanian Finance, and Commerce. 

mountains." and the establishment of communica- It is officially stated in the Italian Parliament 

lion with Bulgaria and Turkey, the campaign that Italy has joined in the agreement among the 

again.t Serbia has been brought to a close; it is Entente powers not to consider a separate peace. 
I* 



RECORD OF EFENTS IN THE IfAR 



Rumania gives notice that the Danube lias 
been mined, thu« closing it both to Bulgarians 
(with their Austrian allies) and Russians. 

December 2. — The Bulgarian army occupies 
Monastir, in louthern Serbia, the Serbian army 
having been viithdrann the previous day. 

Four officials of the Hamburg- American Steam- 
ship Line, it New York, are convicted by a jury 
in the federal court upon conspiracy charges 
growing out of attempts to furnish coal and 
provisions secretly to German warships at sea. 

The authority of General Joffre is extended; 
he becomes commander-in-chief of all the French 
forces (except those in north Africa). 

December 3. — The Slate Department at Wash- 
ington announces that it has requested the im- 
mediate recall of Captain Boy-Ed and Captain 
von Papen, the naval and military attaches of 
the German Embassy, for improper activities. 

December 4. — King Constaniine, of Greece, 
declares to a representative of the American As- 
sociated Press that both he and his people desire 
to remain out of the war, although sympathizing 
with the Allies; he pledges his whole army to 
protect a retreat of the Allied army if driven 
out of Serbia, if withdrawal is then made from 
Greek territory. 

An official statement at London admits the 
defeat and retirement of the British expedition 
in Mesopotamia, with casualties amounting to 
4S00. 

Henry Ford, the millionaire automobile manu- 





\ND 


MRS. H 


NBY FORD 


OF D 


TROIT 


rdaj. 




r 4, the 5c 




.'."."=■! 












r "dttT^wh 




te-«! 


















































lly 


nterested 




d r««l.. ol 



Kc presidency o( tbeir friend. Misi lane Addams 
ago. Miu Addams was to have tailed with the 
irty, but WM prevented by illnesi. The wholly 

;uirai or engaged in war. It was the unaaimoui 
linion of public men and newspaperj in Europe that 
- proposed Ford peace conference could have no 



im New York with more than 
iit neutral European countries 
bring about an immediate end 



facturer, sails fri 
150 guests to vi 

of the vtar. 



The Second Week of December 
December 5. — An Austrian cruiser and several 
destroyers enter the Albanian port of San Gio- 
vanni de Medua and sink ten steamers and sail- 
ing vciscls discharging war munitions. 

The Italian Parliament expresses confidence in 
the Salandra ministry, by vote of 405 to 48. 

December 6. — The United States Government 
dispatches a note to the Auslro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment, declaring that the sinking of the Italian 
steamship Anrona before the passengers (some 
of them Americans) had been put in a place of 
safety, "can only be characterized as vranton 
slaughter of defenseless noncombatanta" ; the 
note demands that the sinking be denounced, that 
the aubmarinc officer be punished, and that in- 
demnity be made for American citizens killed or 

Russia orders the enrolment in 1916 of the 
class of 1917 (nineteen-year-old youths). 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



A RECENT SNAPSHOT OF KING FERDINAND OF BULGARU (AT THE LEFT) TALKING WfTH GENERAL IVANOFF 

An official Briiuh ilaiement describci the op- the Iialiani have lost conirol of practically the 

erationi of a Briliih lubmarine io the Sea of nhote of Tripoli, which is noor domioated by 

Marmora, lasting three days; a Turkish de- Arabi and Senuui tribesmen, 

■troyer and five supply vessels were sunk, and December II.— General de Castelnau is ap- 

a railroad tram damaged. pointed Chief of Staff in the French army. 

December 6-7. — A German attack on ihe 

French line* in the Champagne district results ^, ^,. . jrr i i ri l 

in .he capture of trenches over a front of half r**" T^*"''' ^«* <>/ Decrmber 

» mile. December 12.— The French Minister of the 

December 7. — Austria reports the deitruction Interior states that sixty-four spies have been 

of the French submarine Fresnel. condemned to death by court-martial in France 

An imperial Russian rescript postponet indefi- since the beginning of the war. 

nitely the opening of the Duma and the Council December 13.— It is stated at Berlin that Ger- 

of the Empire. . man and Ausiro-Hungarian submarines have 

December 8. — Fire destroys the town of Hope- gunk SOB ships since the beginning of (be nar, 
nell, Va., rendering homeless the employees of with a total tonnage of 917,KI9. 
the great powdet plant located there. December 14.- It is understood at Washing- 
December 9. — The German Imperial Chancel- (on that the State Department has protested to 
lor, Dr. YOD Bethmann-Hollvreg, replies in the France against the removal of Germans or Aus- 
Reichstag to a Socialist inquiry regarding peace; irians from American steamships, by French 
he calls attention to the success of German arms warships. 

and to the satisfactory economic position, de- Bulgarian reports indicate that the Serbian 
clarea that Germany cannot propose peace with- and Anglo-French armies have been driven en- 
out seeming to indicate weakness, and gives as- (irely out of Serbia. 

surances that if the Entente powers make pro- jy^. Helfferich (Secretary of the Imperial Ger- 

posals "compaiible with Germany's dignity and man Treasury) states in the Reichstag that a 

safety we shall always be ready to discuss them." ^ew vote of $2,500,000,000 is required ; the total 

Reports from the Serbian theater of war indi- already authorized is $7,500,000,000, five-sixths 

cate that the British and French expedition is of which has been raised by the three war loans, 

being forced by the Bulgarian army to retreat The Greek army withdraws from Salonica and 

toward Greek territory, and that the Bulgarians (he gtrip of Greek territory reaching from the 

and Austrians are continuing to press the Serbi- coast to the Bulgarian frontier, leaving the 

ani in Albania and the Montenegrins and Serbi- Anglo-French army in entire control, 

ans in Montenegro. December IS.— General Sir Douglas Haig U 

December 10. — Turkish reports declare that appointed commander-in-chief of the British 



27 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS 

armies in France and Belgium, lucceeding Field and bii cabinet ; il it understood ti 
Martha) Sir John French. bui untatiafaciory. 

December 17. — The reply of the Austrian Gov- M. Ribot, French Minister of Finance^ informt 
ernment to the American note regarding the the Chamber of Deputies that the war ig coating 
Antona sinking is discussed by President Wilson France $420,000,000 a month. 



RECORD OF OTHER EVENTS 

{From November ig to Dtctmbir IJ, /gis) 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS 

December 1.— The Senate Democrats meet to 
consider changes in mica, regarding length of 
debate during the coming session. 

December 2.— The House Republicans choose 
Mr. Mann (111.) as leader. 

Decen^er 4, — In the Senate Democratic caucus 
the proposal to change the rules and limit debate 
is rejected by vote of 40 to 1. 

December 6.— The Senate Republicans reelect 
Mr. Gallinger (N. H.) as leader. 

December 6. — Both branches of the Sixty- 
fourth Congress meet in the first session. ... In 
the Senate, Mr. Clarke (Dcm., Ark.) is reelected 
president pro tern. ... In the House, Mr. 
Clark (Dem., Mo.) is reelected speaker. 

December 7. — Both branches assemble in the 
House Chamber and are addressed by ibe Presi- 
dent upon the state of the Union; the address is 
devoted mainly to recommendations for more 
effective national defense; the President asks for 
the enactment of laws (o deal with disloyal resi- 
dents involved in foreign intrigue, and urges an 
adequate merchant marine with the Government 
assuming initial financial risks. 

December 10.— In the Senate, Mr. Smith (Dem,, 
Ga.) offers a resolution directing an investiga- 
tion of British interference with neutral trade; 
Mr. Lodge (Rep., Mats.) proposes that investi- 
gation also be made of the law and facts in- 
volved in the destruction of American ships by 
Germans and Auslrians. 

December 16. — In the House, the Democratic 
majority adopts a resolution extending the Emerg- 
ency War Revenue Act for a second year. 



December 8-9.— President Wilson confers with 
the Republican leaders of the Senate and House, 
and it is understood that assurances were ex- 
changed that proposals for national defense will 
be aonsidcrcd on a non-partisan basis, 

December 9. — Oscar S. Straus is appointed 
chairman of (he Public Service Commission for 
the New York City district. . . . Secretary of 
War Garrison transmits to Congress, through 
the President, his recrommendaiions for an en- 
larged army and reserve force- 
December 11.— The annual report of Post- 
master-General Burleson shows decreased postal 
revenues of $21,000,000; savings in expenditures 
reduce the deficit to $11,000,000. . . . The Inter- 
state Commerce Commission allows increases in 
passenger rates upon railroads in eleven West- 



Underwood (Dem., Ala.) 
that under ordinary circumstances (he Under- 
wood Tariff Act would produtx sufficient revenue. 

AMERICAN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 
December 6.— Governor Whitman removes 
from office Edward £. McCatI, chairman of the 
Public Service Commission in the New York 
district, for retaining ownership of stock in a 
corporation subjecn to his supervision. 

December 7,— The Democratic National Com- 
mittee decides that the Democratic 



shall meet 


n St. Louis on 


Jun 


14: a 


resolution 


OtUrrUAXmni 












is adopted 


declaring ih 


t Presiden 


Wilson's 




HON. WIL 


LI AM T 


STONE. 


MISSOURI 




record dem 














E SENATE 




TTEE 




December 


g.— Secretary 


of the Treasury Mc- 
















Adoo, in 


his annual report. 


decla 


ei that a 




Besides the 




eitions »h 


h wil 






nation- wide 


business boom 


bas 




he recom- 


du 


""rU^ioaT 


*"! «"■ 


n of Congr 


.^.bea 


d tra 


pon 


mends incr 


•set in the ta 


on 




and tug- 


s' 




ooMder the 


propoi 


ties 


gesis new forms ot taxat 


on. 






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h Niongua 


Colomb 


>, and Ha 


i) 







THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



December G. — The Spanish cabinet under Pre- 
mier Da to resigns, having met nitb opposition 
' I plan 10 give precedence to military pro- 



salii. 



1 dectai 



the surrraBiits cfaose Mrs. Catt to succeed Dr. Anna Ceeding 130 a 

n™3 Ts/.^^iSr..Si""$>;^'<",,'"^ D„™b„ 4, 



December 7.— Premi 
Japanese Diet (hat naval expansion it the first 
necessity before Japan; he declares that ihe 
economic and financial outlook is propilioui. 

December 9. — A new ministry Is formed In 
Spain, headed by former Premier Count Alvaro 
de Rom a nonet. 

December 11. — Yuan Shib-kai, President of the 
Republic of China since its formation in I9IZ, 
accepts the throne of the restored monarchy, 
offered by the Council of State; it ia announced 
that 1993 representatives out of 2042 favored the 
change of governmcm. 

December 16.— Vice-President Camille de Cop- 
pel it elected President of the Swiss Republic by 
the national assembly. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH 
November 21.— The Secretary of the Interior 
announces that the Government's experiment sta- 
tion has produced radium for less than one- 
third the former telling price- 
November 22. — Ten pertons are killed in a 
head-on collision between two passenger trains 
on the Central of Georgia Railroad, near Co- 
lumbui. 
November 29. — An epidemic of typhus fever is 
[ported from Mexico City, the fat a lit let ci- 






■The great Pa nam a -Pacific In- 
1 Exposition at San Francisco comes 
end; it is estimated that the total allend- 



December 12. — The annual report of Secretary 
of the Navy Daniels recommends the expendi- 
ture, during the next five years, of $500,000,000 
for new warships, aerial craft, and reserve em- 



opponents of women suffrage ; the visits were 
apropos of the proposed national constitutional 
amendment. 

December IS. — The report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture shows that the year's harves:t were 
worth to the farmers live and a half billion dol- 
lars, an unprecedented total, . . . The Demo- 
cratic Senatorial primary in Tennessee is carried 
by Congressman Kenneth B. McKellar. 

December 17. — The President signs the meas- 
ure extending the War Revenue Act throunh the 
year 1916, . . . The President nominates Henry 
P. Fletcher (now Ambassador to Chile) to be 
Ambassador to Mexico. 

FOREIGN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 

November 30, — President Machado, of Portu- 
gal, receives Premier Costa and the other mem- 
bers of the new cabinet. 

December S-6. — Chinese revolutionists si 
Chinese cruiser Chao-ha at Shanghai, and lii 




RECORD OF OTHER EVENTS 



December 6. — An equeitrian italue of Joan of 
Arc is unveiled in New Vnrk City, Ambassador 
Jusserand, of France, delivering ibe principal 

Decembtr 6. — The War Department announce* 
ihit a commission of ten eminent engineers, geo- 
logists, and scientists (headed by President Van 
Hise of the Univeriiiy of Wisconsin) has been 
designated to go to Panama to investigate and 
report on the subject of earth slides. 

December 17.— Mrs. Carrie Chapman Calt, of 
New York, is elected president of the National 
American Woman Suffrage Association, succeed- 
ing Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, who retires. 

OBTTUART 

November 19.— Dr. Solomon Schlechier, a noted 
New York rabbi and authority on the Talmud, 68. 

November 21.— Herbert Rucker Eldridge, a 
vice-president of the National City Bank, of 
New York, actively engaged in promoting trade 
with South America, 45. 

November 22. — Dr. Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, 
for many years minister from Costa Rica to the 
United States 58. 

November 23. — Bishop David H. Moore, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 7S. 

November 24. — James Fountain Sutton, a promi- 
nent New York art collector, 70. 

November 25.— Carl A, Langlotz, for many 
years professor of German at Princeton Uni- 
versity, and composer of the melody for "Old 
Nassau." . . . Dr. George Reuling, a prominent 
Maryland eye and ear surgeon, 76. 
November 26— Cardinal Fran- 
cis S. Bauer, Prince Archbishop of 
Olmiltz, Austria, 74. . . . Wash- 
ington Ailee Burpee, the Pennsyl- 
vania seed cultivator, 57. 

November 27.— Gustave C. Lan- 
genberg, a well-known portrait 
painter, 56. 

November 28. — Jean Marie Fer- 
dinand Sarrien,, former Premier of 
France, 75. . , , Carl Axel Robert 
Lundin, of Cambridge, Mass., noted 
as a maker of large telescopes, 64. 

November 29— Paul Fuller, a 
distinguished New York lawyer, re- 
cently special envoy to Mexico, 
67. . . . William Edward Bemis. 
vice-president of the Standard Oil 
Company, prominent in the de- Jl™ "' '" 
velopmeni of foreign oil fields, 51. 

December 4. — Augustus Pitou, a widely known 
theatrical manager, 73. 




December 
Cuban wars 

December 
U. S._ N. (re 
English poet 

December 

versity, 48. 



:Th. disddgtiii 



nd uk?ng it to a Britiaf port "for in- 



S. — Gen. Jesus Rabi, a hero of the 
for independence. 

9.— Rear-Admiral Nicoll Ludlow, 
:ired), 71. . . . Stephen Phillips, the 
and dramatist, 47. 
10.— Edward Van Dvke Robinson, 
political economy at Columbia Uni- 
. . . Prof. Hans Gross, a famous 
minologist and detective, 6B. . . . 
Abraham Gruber, long prominent 
in the Republican organization of 
New York City. 54. 

December 12.— Waller Learned, 
compiler of anthologies of verse, 68. 
December 13.— Francis Marion 
Cockrell, for thirty years United 
States Senator from Missouri, 81. 
. . . Viscount Alverstone, former 
Lord Chief Justice of England and 
a member of the Alaskan Boundary 
Commission, 73. 

December IS. — Enoch Wood 
Perry, a well-known artist for- 
merly United Slates consul at 
Venice, 84. . . . James J. William- 
son, a member of the fanuius 
Moseby's Confederate Rangers, 81. 
, . , Auguate Germaine, the French 
dramatic author, S3. . . . Capt. 
Edward O'Meagher Condon, Civil 
War veteran and Irish patriot, 74. 
16. — Gen. Jeptha Garrard, a noted 
, of the Civil War, 80. 



UNCLE SAM AS SEEN 
BY FOREIGN CARTOONISTS 



A MATTES OP SOUTINE 
"This ealli for a nole,— Mr. Secrettry, juit bring ni« in ■ copy 
Germany— -lluniaiiity' lerici."— From Punch (Londoa) 



IT IS often useful to have the opinion of foreign countries, — English, French, and 
the neighbors when they arc in candid Italian, as well as German and Austrian, — 
mood. The present opinion entertained in is not flattering to the vanity of Uncle Sam. 



THE DISINTERESTED NEUTRALITY OP I 
THE MUNITION SELLER 
From L-lllu4lraiioni (MiUn) 



VNCLE SAM AS SEEN BY FOREIGN CARTOONISTS 



tchirtto (Turin) 

Even the neutral countries are hardly more facing page, we may be assured that its pub- 
polite than the belligerents. While car- lication is not displeasing to the rulers, nor 
toonists do not always express official opin- distasteful to the English public. It is in- 
ion, it must be remembered that the publica- tended to be disparaging, — ^to convey the idea 
tion<! of England, Germany, and all the coun- 



. S. ANCONA 



J 



THE AMERICAN REVIEH^ OF REVIEWS 



ENGLAND AND THE SHIPPING IHADE 
The weak protest of the neutialg has come into tbc 
AMEBICa's protest tight hands, lor John Bull hi« oevtr yet considered Ihe 

"My dear John Bull, please be kind enough to act ■■ "*'"' °' """l^'- .,„,.. «,,„-., 

tbough you wete ool In you. own houie." From Meggtndorfer.BlalUr Q (Munich) 

From Vtk Q (Berlin) 

very humorously contrasts Uncle Sam's fierce 
that the Aneona iliplomacy, for instance, words with his mild deeds. Canadian, 
would be insincere. French, and other cartoonists of Allied coun- 

The Italian cartoon at the top of page 31 



THE "loadeo" note 



l^ing to force the United Sutes into war): "Giddip, "flood __t 

on; ni kick out from "vAy c 

eludes a 
O (Berlin) From UH © (Berl 



giddap." package?" 

Thi Hoise (Wilton): "Hold on; 111 kick out from "\VV certainly; w] 
behind pretty soon." -'-■ ■-'- ' 



UNCLE SAM AS SEEN BY FOREIGN CARTOONISTS 



FAIR FLAY 



President Wilson uriei Grey, the Britiih foreign 
minisler and Beibmana-Hollweg ihe German Chancellor, 

From BeriJitm Janki (Budapeit) 

tries, including the clever draughtsman of 
Hindi Punch, at Bombay, have a very low 
opinion of Uncle Sam's sincerity and moral j 
principles. 

As for the German and Austrian cartoon-' 



THE NEUTRALITY OF THE MUNITIONS-SELLUt 

Jokathan: "See, my dear Gernun, this ii the only 
erence between us: You make ilaughter. and I 
lake goodi far the slaughlfr." 

Fram Ulk O (Berlin) 



THE AMERICAN REI'IRIV Of REflElVS 



AT THE LOOM OF TIME 



ists, we are reproducing enough recent ex- sort of drawings their governments encour- 
amples to show how they feel and what age them to publish. Uli't comment on 



From Paiquina (Turin) 



UNCLE SAM AS SEEN BY FOREIGN CARTOONISTS 



THE SWOKD OF ISLAM A VISION THE BOVAL ITALIAN SLEEP-WALKEHS 

Thi British Liok: "The fine old d»x9 at Su*i "Just a couple of slepi mor*. Hclene, well bave it 

■ill soon be over." ioon." r . s w 

From KltddtraialKh C (Berlin) From Lmtisi BlBittr O (Berlin) 

the very claborirte argument sent by President fer that American protests against England's 

Wilson against the British Orders in Coun- trade interferences arc humbug, and that 

cil is particularly pertinent. The note is America's real concern is in the profitable 

represented as arriving in a big box, con- business of shipping supplies to England, 
taining a couple of submarines for British 
use. The German reader is expected to in- 



36 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

3B<( MCSI MM «■»»«« e^BUlt (It 



KOOKTCII C»K hil 





.!iv h. 






men, the Slaali Zittuna and Mr. Bryan 
bote.— per bapi the "mailed Hit" will do 








n) 



THE UKrTED STATES AND GEBUANY 
(An Italian view of Ihe way Uncle Sam allowi faim- 
■elf to be treated in hia diplomatic negotationi wilh 
Geinuny) From FiichiellB (Turin) 




UNCLE SAM AS SEEN BY FOREIGN CARTOONISTS 



Tht German lub- 
iBg'wIrnid Id ""HaVe a 



«il[' pUv ■Y«nke 
Doodle' Jor you." 



THE MOSEV-IENDER AT HIS AWESICAN UNCLe'S 

oridcd foolijh"itn*i-o°"y' which TroughTmc to Uil' slate. "I 



men, about receiving these loans. I will deli 
From McaBiniorftr.BlatttrQ (Munich) 



WAR SCENES— EAST AND WEST 




: WAIT- AN ITALIAN RED CROSS DOCTOR 
HE WOUNDED DISPATCH 

STAKDS 



M^AR SCENES—EAST AND If EST 



A FItENCH BATTHtY IN ACTim AT THE DARDANELLES 

(The emply ghetls can be seen slacked up in Ihe rear of Ihe gu 



THE BLACK SEA ENTRANCE TO THE BOSPHORUS. SHOWING THE TURKISH FORTS W EITHER SIDE 

AT BOTH ENDS OF THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN.— THE LAND ATTACK ON THE CAaiP(H.I 
PENINSULA. AND ONE OF THE POINTS EXPOSED TO RUSSIAN ATTACK ON THE BUCK SEA 



THE AMERICA}^ REVIEH' OF REVIEWS 



9 laUfDHUoau Kvn BeTTlce> ctm Korx 

BRITISH TROOPS IN CAMP AT SALONICA 



A CROUP OF ARlttENIAN REFUGEES IN CAUCASIA 



WAR SCENES— EAST AND If EST 




42 THE AMERICAN REVIEJV OF REVIEWS 




A HAPPY SCEHL IN THE RECOVERED PORTION OF ALSACE 

it-faccd villagers, in this section of Aluce again under French mle, arc 
with the soldicri of the Republic) 



Y SHIPPINC SCENE ON THE NEW YOIK WATERFRONT 



AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 

How War Orders Have Produced an Industrial Revival and a 

Host of New Millionaires 

BY J. GEORGE FREDERICK 

WAR, for Europe, is meaning devasta- tient and turned him into a. jumping jack, 
tion and death ; for America a bumper Just what have been these famed war or- 
crop of new millionaires and a hectic hasten- ders? Have they been wildly exaggerated? 
ing of prosperity revival. The coming of Stripped of all the color and excitement of 
war orders has created more value, by five pussy-footed confidential agents, rumor- 
times, than the war orders themselves! spreaders, and stock -manipulators, the "war 
When the great war began, America had orders" placed in this country comprised, 
about 4100 millionaires. How many will nevertheless, a gigantic industrial piece de 
it have when the war ends? Nobody knows, resistance. A grand total of about two 
— but if one is willing to count those who billion dollars in war orders of one kind and 
have been made "millionaires on paper" since another is estimated to have been placed in 
die war began, whether from war orders di- this country. The DuPont powder firm and 
rect or not, and estimate those who logically the Remington Arms people naturally secured 
will become millionaires if the war con- a great slice of war orders. The DuPont 
tinues two years more, there will be a crop firm, on excellent authority, has war orders 
of at least $00 more millionaires. totalling about $320,000,000. It paid a 200 
. The making of 500 more millionaires is a per cent, dividend on October 1 last, sending 
mere detail compared with the psychological the stock up to 750. Before the war it 
brace which war orders have put into a slack sold at 129. Stockholders of DuPont since 
and snail-paced return of prosperity. It is 1912 cashed in, or could do so, at 503 per 
as though an energetic doctor had pumped cent, profit. In other words, a 100-share- 
OXygtH or a saU solution into a limp pa- holder if he chose could make $93,000 profit I 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



I (boxed) 



formed in eight months into a full-fledged city 
with every convenience, populated by 29,000, 
and having an assessed valuation of about 
$3,000,000, ail this only to be burned to 
the ground in a few hours on December 
9, with scenes comparable only to the law- 
less days of '49, — men sitting on smoking 
ruins all night, rifle over knee; lynching 
of a marauder, quelling of riots by the 
pistol point and militia on duty. The mys- 
terious warnings of posters, the explosion 
killing twenty-five or more, leaving only a 
crater to mark the spot, — these are the ex- 
ternal creakings of a mammoth mill of death, 
probably the largest ever reared up on the 
face of the earth. 

With clock-like regularity, ton upon ton 
of powder and explosives in their heavy cas- 
ings, grimly marked, are stocked and shunted 
to ship, or by rail to Canada (where, by the 
The DuPont plant is really five plants in way, a major part of the ammunitions is for- 
five newly-made cities, — City Point, Hope- warded for loading in English and French 
well, and DuPont City, all three situated on bottoms). The Adriatic sailed early in De- 
the James River, near Petersburg, Virginia; cember with 18,000 tons of various kinds 
and Penn's Grove and Carney's Point, both of ammunition. Sailing from Wiiming- 
on the New Jersey side of the Delaware ton, Russian steamers frequently carry 
River, opposite Wilmington. 2,000,000 pounds of the death-dealing stuff 

There are in the Virginia manufacturing in one bottom, 
center alone about 210 factory buildings. bethlehem steel 

The semi-monthly payroll is about $900,000 bethlehem steel 

at this group of factories alone, and some The Bethlehem Steel Company is in a 
skilled workmen make from $10 to $20 per class by itself. It is the most gigantic smithy 
day. The gun-cotton manufacturing capacity for the forging of engines of destruction 
of this group of factories is now about 920,- which the western hemisphere possesses, and 
000 pounds per day, and orders are in hand it surpasses the Krupp and Creusot plants in 
SuflUcicnt to run the plants for nearly a year, many particulars. Its profits arc authoritative- 
The Carney's Point smokeless-powder out- ly expected to leap to $45,000,000 next year, 
put daily is 730,000 pounds. The cost of The company is doing at least $200,000,000 
making it is about 50 cents a pound ; the more business than in normal times. Charles 
war price received for it is 
about $1, — a daily profit 
on this one item alone of 
$365,000. This means 
over two million dollars 
profit weekly, which is at 
the rate of' $100,000,000 
a year. 

The magic and the 
tragedy of the drama of 
munitions-making at the 
DuPont mills are alike 
fascinating. Ten thousand 
men worked to produce the 
additions to the mills, erect- 
ed within several months 
and now accommodating 
20,000 extra workmen. A 
group of corn-fields, worth 
at most $15,000, were tran*. bailroad SUPPUES FOR russia-flat cars and cartbucks 




AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 



THE CONCESTIOH OF FREIGHT ON WEST STREET, NEW YORK 

M. Schwab, to whosfi foresight in going early $7,10 each, which leaves a profit of $5,49 
after war orders is attrihuted the entire per shell to any factory, achieving maximum 
"war bride" boom, gets not only a salary but efficiency if price obtained is $12.50. On 
a 10 per cent, bonus on business done. The 15,000 shells per day this would be a profit 
rise of this stock from around 46 to about of $81,000 per day! But this is very opti- 
600 acted like a high-tension electric cur- mistic figuring, for under hectic war-time 
rent to Wall Street speculation and gal- conditions the shelb arc costing the makers 
vanized into life a whole string of dormant from $9 to $10 each. Somewhere in the 
Stocks. Even railway stocks and bonds, which neighborhood of $2.40 is being wasted on each 
had long gone a-begging, are now going shell (or $30,600 in one factory alone each 
actively forward. day) ! 

Although it does not figure so prominently It is altogether likely that from 20 to 
in speculation, barbed wire is a very great 33^ per cent, of the money spent by the 
The slaughter Allies in America has gone either to excessive 
e unthinkable if commissions (to English as well as American 
" Barbed wire, intermediaries) or to sheer abnormal cost 
city, keeps op- and waste in the factory. It is quite like- 
American wire ly that both are almost unavoidable, for 
e million tons certainly it is too much to be expected in 
ort at the pres- these times that business be done in the con- 
received for it servative, close-figured way it is done ordi- 
Ker than before narily. Productive capacity was necessary 
to mobilize at once and at all costs in those 
dark days for the Allies when the English 

W THE WASTE ^^^^ ^^^^-^^ ^^^ ^^^j, ^^j j,!^^^ ^^^-^^ 

particularly im- plentiful German explosives. But to-day the 
rs. One Brook- situation is changed. There are few, if any, 
r day at $12.50, orders for shells now coming to this country. 
IT day, which is Quite naturally the Allies prefer to roll up 
per year, if ca- no heavier trade balance here than is abso- 
Scientific man- lutely necessary, and have done marvels in 
trated that aver- their own countries in the way of shell pro- 
complete cost of duction. They have even bought out small 



46 THE AMERICAN REVIEff^ OF REFIEffS 

machine shops in America and transported their faithful performance. Another bond 

them bodily across the ocean in order to is put up to insure deliveries. Manufac- 

increase home shell production. turcrs get 25 per cent, advance upon the 
amount of the order at the time placed ; but 

E ON A BUSI- ^ bond is put up by the manufacturer to 
cover this. Irrevocable letters of credit for 

The buying of war munitions has also the balance are put in the bank by the con- 
been well standardized on a business basis, tracting government; otherwise the manufac- 
Thc "munitions bonanza" has burst, as all turer would be taking a chance. American 
bonanzas must, by their very nature. Those manufacturers have to guarantee only de- 
ambitious to sell war goods cannot longer livery to some seaboard point, free on ship- 
operate the backing-and-filling tricks which board. Thus does a sorely tried nation 
were common some months ago, when mys- across the water do business at long range 
terious manufacturers were adroitly kept in with a manufacturer in Oshkosh or Podunk, 
the background, and a circle of smooth U. S. A. It applies to items large and small 
agents gouged the anxious Allies for maxi- in the roster of war needs, and has quieted 
mum price, — or quite as often "stung" them down the somewhat shameful intrigue and 
for fees to produce A "manufacturer" who subterranean tunneling which was at first 
proved to be something quite different. prevalent. 

There are now quite definite formalities 

to the selling of war supplies. If you wish speculation in horses 

to get even a. hearing you must name the Take, for example, the experience of a 

company which is going to sell the stuff, if man who had several thousand horses to sell 

you are posing as an agent. A commission for use in the European armies. This man 

is then sent over to inspect the plant and spent hundreds, even thousands, of dollars 

to see if it can qualify as to manufacture or entertaining war agents to get their orders, 

finances. If everything passes then the com- One group after another "fizzled out." He 

mission on this side is authorized to enter kept on and after several expensive experi- 

into contract with the manufacturers. Prices ences be finally got on the track of a deal 

and contracts are all agreed upon on the that was bona fide. Naturally it takes time 

other side, and the agents here art instructed to develop a big proposition of this kind and 

simply to execute them. Contracts are drawn while it was developing his option on his 

up, bonds furnished by the manufacturer for horses expired. It was a case of putting up 



A YARD FULL OF SHELLS AT THE BETHLEHEM STEEL WORKS 



AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 



A STRING (X' HORSES FOR THE FRENCH ARMY 

I dollars and with them. These horses were practically 
position being worthless on the dealer's hands. He had 
icy he had al- to dispose of them for what he could get. 
tion. Unfor- The result was that after the losses on re- 
continue his jections were subtracted from the profits 
made on the horses accepted he found that 
as reported in instead of poclceting $15,000,000 profit he 
re flying wild had made dear just $15,000! 
m $2,000,000 

ie deal made severe tests of quality 
id spent thou- Many another example of the speculation 
lown all the indulged in might be cited, — this one, a real 
sure enough" case, makes it graphically clear how even 
those who secured war orders did not secure 
im the West, the fabulous wealth in some way popularly 
d to pass the supposed to be connected with war orders. 
\ horse might As a matter of fact, since the lamentable 
little scar, or experience of France early in the war, when 
proportion or an American contractor sold a large order 
of shoes of flimsy construction (and severely 
f-inch shorter damaged American reputation in the act) the 
was rejected, inspection standards have been very rigid, 
idous propor- Random samples of the goods are now cau- 
were rejected tiously selected for test and the war-order 
fakir who tries to "put over" the familiar 
] that he had trick of top layers of standard quality and the 
of the horses rest mediocre has no chance. American rep- 
he turned to utation is now excellently safeguarded on 
r channels he war orders, for the irresponsibles who might 
'ere all right, enormously harm American prestige by graft- 
it the reasons ing on quality are not allowed a smell pf 
the real ones war orders. 

ot risk buying This feature of the war-order situation has 

ight be wrong not received the attention due ft. Reputa- 



48 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEffS 



CATTLE FOK THE EUROPEAN MARKET 



a promise of a $27,000,000 war order. This 
project is criticized by rival cities as "bloody 
advertising," and others dub it merely a 
clever stoclc-promotion scheme; but it illus- 
trates the hold which war orders have had 
on the imagination of the country. 

Bluntly speaking, war orders acted like 
a great splash in a stagnant pond. The 
noise of the splash was exciting and was 
soon over, but the ripples resulting from it 
have been countless, far-reaching and in- 
sistent. Stupendous circles of trade have 
been started and the unnatural, diffident 
stagnation oi before-the- war-orders times 
has been dispelled, some say, for all time in 
America. It is an amazing fact that war 
orders started the sluggish current of trade 
to the extent of billions of dollars. Factory 
windows lighted all night, the jamming of 
railway yards, the cry for mercy and an- 
tion for quality and square dealing has had "ouncing of embargoes by various freight 
its reward and many a manufacturer who handlers, has been just the tonic needed to 
has not been successful in securing war or- 
ders has now an opportunity to reflect over 
the significant reasons. 

AMERICAN CITIES AS WAR-SUPPLV CENTERS 
Another curious phase of war orders' rela- 
tion to reputation has cropped up in respect to 
cities. The enormous international spotlight 
in which, for instance, Bridgeport is work- 
ing has been a matter of actual civic pride, 
gruesome as it may seem. An ancient riv- 
alry between New Haven and Bridgeport 
has been spectacularly settled. Other cities, 
sensing the value of war-order spotlight, have 
sought war orders as a civic proposition. 
Galesburg, 111., for instance, sent a represen- 
tative to New York to bring home some of 
the famed war-fat, and now a proposition to 
make rifles stamped "Made in Galesburg, 
U. S. A.," is being financed at $300,000 on 



i WEIGHING 280 f 



U3S ARE CROWDED 
[ CARS WAITING TO BE UNLOADED 
at tbt FcnnsylvsDla Yardi in fccKy City.) 



bring the old-time American business tem- 
perament to its feet and set it going at some- 
thing like the old pace. 

People who were last spring reluctantly 
persuaded to buy a month's raw material 
ahead are now excitedly clamoring for any 
amount, — small or large,- — at a premium t 
Factory workers who only last summer had 
three ten-hour days a week doled out to 
them as though it were a charity, are now 
working every day until ten at night on 
overtime, and getting overtime rates on all 
over eight hours! A few months ago there 
were 300,000 idle freight cars; now presi- 
dents of railways arc losing sleep because of 
shortage! It is a mad world suddenly come 
upon us I 

It is fascinating to fallow these circling 
ripples of trade radiating from war orders. 



AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 



THE. FREIGKr-C<»«£STED WATESFRONT ON THE EAST SIDE OF NEW YORK 

ON THE STEEL INDUSTRY producing 40,000,000 tons of stccl annually. 

St important raw ^' *^" ^'""^ *'^^ production was about 

ar orders is steel. *.' ■000.000. Strangely enough the produc- 

vine steel in the ''°" °' **"' "* *^^ present time is at the 

■i.1 need, of shell '«' "'.J"" »>»"' ">' predicted 4^000,000 

But the effect *' — ^"^* ** moment of Mr. Schwabs 

as first of all to ^"'•'^'1^'" Steel "ten strike," — and five 

the demands for y^^^ ahead of his prediction! It proves once 

c and for struc- "'•"'^ ^^^^ '^^ optimist is far more often 

lew additions to '"'^''^ ^^"^ ^^^ industrial growth of this 

laterial for more '""""t'T than the pessimist. The steel stocks 

the goods ; more ^'""'^ virtually become war stocks through the 

And now to strong and directly sympathetic influences of 

of the war, ' the war-order prosperity upon them. The United 

luantities of' steel States Steel Corporation is about to spend 

irincsof its own, ^15,000,000 in enlarging the capacity of its 

>ds for use after various centers; while immense enlarge- 
ments, consolidations, and reorganizations 

industry is posi- ^'^^ appearing among the independent com- 

s admitted that P""'"' ^ t "^"'.' *'"' ^^'^^^ ^^''^ fluttered 

■ wild and some "P^^td. Mtdvale steel stock, for instance, 

ill be 'almost im- '"'^^ ^^""n 50 to 97. Then, too. about eight 

pted Even now "^^ munitions companies have been formed, 

;d before accept- "''''' » *""' "^'^ capitalization of approxi- 

ib, then the first """^"v $250,000,000. 

ites Steel Corpo- the buying of machinery 

cpticism by pre- Another of the important ripples is the 

juntry would be machinery field. With such widespread fac- 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl'IEfVS 



tory activity machinery- tool demand quickly 
became acute, — not only for use in America, 
but for France, England, Russia. It is 
strongly suspected that Germany got a lot 
of it, for Denmark imported $2-(5,000 worth 
in the last fiscal year, as compared with 
?48,000 in 1914; and Sweden $625,000 in- 
stead of $310,000. France has bought near- 
ly $9,000,000 worth as against less than 
$2,000,000 the year previous. England 
bought $12,000,000, as compared with 
$3,000,000 in 1914. Rus- 
sia bought tu'o and a half 
million as compared with a 
little over one million. 
Canada has also been a 
heavy buyer. 



Let us take a look at 
some of the stimulation 
which war orders have 
pum)jcd into various other 
commodities. There is 
copper ; everybody knows 
how it sagged down almost 
to the point of complete 
break. One-time powerful 
companies were reduced to 
bankruptcy. Now it is the 
I of the lead- 



ing copper people to prevent the mzricet 
from acting like a broncho! Not only are 
the Allies buying copper, but it is now ru- 
mored that German agents have contract- 
ed for some $40,000,000 worth for delivery 
after the war. Copper is now five cents 
above the average price for the past twenty 
years, and some producers are making 100 
per cent, profit. 

Then there is crude rubber, which has 
taken a sharp jump upward until it is now 
68 cents a pound, and tire manufacturers 
are announcing substitutes for rubber. Even 
with a record crop throughout the world, 
corn and wheat have jumped up until Can- 
ada has had to commandeer the price. 

Cotton is selling at 13 cents instead of 
tYi cents a year ago. while cotton-seed, 
which sells normally no higher than $22 
a ton, now sells as high as $50. The South, 
which has had a lean time of it. is now sud- 
denly bulging. 

Most curious and impressive of all is the 
way in which every nation in the world, 
belligerent or neutral, is converging upon 
this country for supplies. Chinese, Japanese, 
French, English, Belgian, Italian and other 
trade commissions have visited us, bent on 
trading more with us, Germany herself is 
reputed on good authority to have actually 
placed orders here for no less than $10,000,- 
000 worth of copper, cotton, wool, lard, 
wheat, farm machinery, etc., for delivery 
after the war. 

There is obviously a realization growing 
of the utter congestion of orders for staples 
which will take place after war destruaion 
ends and construction begins. It will likely 




AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 



then be a peaceful contest for the materials 
with which to repair the monstrous damage. 

THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED LABOR 

The situation in labor is in keeping with 
the general manufacturing boom. It is a fact 
that not in years has there been such a posi- 
tively frantic demand for skilled labor as 
ceti payrolls for 
;ld not by any 
related to war 
ens, where ma- 



weclts' time. Those who cannot work fast 
enough and arc discharged merely smile and 
walk right into some other plant I I have 
seen some absolute incompetents, fresh from 
some remote rural districts, keep a $4-a-day 
job indejinitely, though discharged every 
week or so. Often the same company in 
another department will hire the same man 
back several times! 

As a matter of fact the most serious prob- 
lem confronting industrial centers like 
Bridgeport or Detroit, etc., is the housing 




MOTORTRUCKS 



52 



THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVIEWS 



problem. A family which decided to take 
in a roomer in Bridgeport and advertised 
was overwhelmed with nearly 1 00 appli- 
cants. A cot in a hallway is bringing a 
parlor-bedroom price, Bridgeport has add- 
ed nearly 50,000 population within a short 
time, and Detroit 80,000. But while this 
housing problem is being put up to the build- 
ers and social workers, manufacturers them- 
selves are performing Aladdin's-lamp feats 
in putting up new buildings. The Reming- 
ton Arms Company put up a new factory 
a thousand by three hundred feet in thirty 
days and another similar one in three days. 
Three shifts of workmen working eight 
hours each, — those working at night using 
the glare of high-power electric lamps, — 
were necessary to perform this miracle. In 
these busy industrial centers one is now 
greeted with the sight of moving-picture the- 
aters crowded in the forenoon with night 
workers, and stores open all night. 

Detroit, as a result of the war, is one of 
the magic cities. Since the first automobile 
company started there with $250,000 cap- 
ital in 1899, the making of care in Detroit 
has now reached the astounding annual total 
of $350,000,000. The city is the Mecca of 
skilled workmen from all over the country, 
and only New York, Chicago, and Phila- 
delphia are doing more building construc- 



tion than Detroit. During 1915 about 250 
new companies were incorporated there, and 
about $20,000,000 worth of new capital 
raised. Facts like these explain why De- 



THE WAR-OUEK SFUHT 


TO POPULATION 




Bejort 




Cilf. 




Notii. 


Bridgeport, Caaa 


90,000 


140,000 


Hopewell. V> 





18.000 


Penn's Grove, N. J 


2,000 


5,000 






5,000 
1,000 


Du Pont City, Va 





Cirney'. Point, N. J. . . 





3,500 


Pelersburg, Va 


25,000 


32,000 


Wilmington, Del 


87.411 


110,000 




600,000 


682,000 


Bethkhcro, Pa. 


12,837 


19,200 




38,5 SO 


47,500 



jm rrlM «r HuttUu MMk 
lalth atllTM* • bCutrUl- 






|.|...3....S..,|., 



troit has been picked as a phenomenon of 
enough national interest to take moving- 
picture films simply of the town's growth. 

NEW WEALTH NOT VET DISTRIBUTED 

A careful estimate of the general situation 
throughout the country indicates that 90 
per cent, of all manufacturing business in the 
country is sold up, or is over-sold. To explain 
why general business is still far from satis- 
factory under such conditions it is not neces- 
sary to think of the temporary nature of war 
orders, for I have already shown that the 
war-order business may now be demonstrated 
as a mere psychological drop in the bucket. 
The real explanation undoubtedly lies in 
the fact that .while laborers and mechanics 
of all kinds are busy as bees, at high wages, 
and manufacturers of most kinds, too, yet 
a great proportion of salaried employees are 
still under the handicap of previously re- 
duced salaries, because the sudden wealth 
has not yet been really distributed. The 
staples are doubling themselves up with ac- 
tivity, but the average middle-class luxuries 
and comforts have still to feel the impelling 
force of prosperity. It has thrilled only 
the larger arteries of the nation's business, 
and has still to reach the complicated net- 
work of capillaries. 

ISFLUEN-CE ON THE STOCK MARKET 

As a matter of fact the most astonishing 
part of the whole war-munitions business, — 
and the most paradoxical, — is that the addi- 
tional values put on stoekt and bonds, 
general values and personal fortunes since 
war orders began to pour in have amounted 
to about five times the total amount of the 
uar orders. This may seem almost impos- 
sible, yet the wide effect of war orders on 
stocks is not appreciated generally. Take 



AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 




UNDEB- PERCY A. HOCKEFELLEH FRANK A. VANOERLIP 

(Son of William HocLe- (President of the Ma- JAMES j. hill 

the Erie ''"" "'^'l ""* ".' "'^ '^''^ '''"'^' '-.''^ ^''''' *"<'.I>^'-'"' (Ruler ^ of the C 

nronenvl ' n««*MWva'le' StTe^'Iombi- "f'"the '"orld%mbftbu""l°B". promi'™!* ii."lire''Xi 

property) nalion) ternaiional Corporaiion) French loan negoiiaii 



the oil stocks, for instance, which few people the company he had formed to make Lee- 
have noticed. It is a fact that something Enfield Rifles was merged. As Mr. Dodge 
like $150,000,000 in extra value has been must be realizing personally from $15,000,- 
added to oil stocks within recent months. 000 to $20,000,000 more from the Reming- 
What has happened to automobile stocks ton company's profits and advance in value, 
as a result of prosperity's stimulus to auto he may be said perhaps to be the largest indi- 
purchasing, is considerably more remarkable, vidual gainer of the war-order wealth. 
Following are the gains in points of the 
automobile stocks listed on the Stock Ex- 
change in the past year: 



General Motors 167 

Total Poinli Gained 786 

Such gains in stocks mean in reality gains 
in the personal fortunes of, first, the undcr- 
ed enough to 
:k and bond is- 
1 the inside of 
war orders, or 
em, or by gen- 
rhe underwri- 
Company, for 
sums, as the mr. c 

OSt twice that (Recently president of {A newcomer in Wall 
^t .L C k™ Ihe Cuoranly Trust Co., Street who is handling 
of the bubma- g„,j director in many com- giganlic moves in the game 

than a million i^j";^J,f°,",X'.!y ""^ "*" ?I,nO "''''"'"* *'"' """ 
up one cent of 

underwriting There are about 425 names of men on my 

aac Rice, is re- list of those known to have made money in 

0,000 himself, hundreds of thousands of dollars by either 

if the Reming- war stocks directly or by the sharp general 

to have made upward trend of values. There must be at 

; the Midvale least 200 more of whom I have no record, — 

secured when men who have taken their profits and said 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEffS 



big figure 



nothing. Not all and readjustment. It is a curious fact that 
have been so reticent many of those with the largest war orders 
about their win- have lest ready money now than before, for 
nings, . however. A the simple reason that with labor making 
Pullman car filled more demands, and endless calls for readjust- 
with forty-two peo- ments and new conditions costing much 
pie flush with war- money, they have actually had to scutry 
order profits came to around for capital. It is true that the stocks 
New York not long of those whose securities are listed or avail- 
ago. They were able to the public for speculation have ad- 
guests of the treas- vanced largely, but as a rule the officers and 
directors have naturally not 
desired to sell their holdings 
for fear of control passing 
from them, as well as for 
future profit reasons. Con- 
sequently the only satisfac- 
tion many of them have to- 
day is to take a sharp lead 
pencil and figure out how 
much they are worth, on pa- 
perl It looks fine, but as 
yet it does not pay for the 
many luxuries and other 
things they plan to buy after 
a while! 

In general it may then be 
said that a considerable part 
of the country is literally 
stuflFed with new wealth, but 
as yet it is comparable to 
bank checks either un deposit- 
ed or as yet uncollected. 
Such a condition surely ex- 
plains the spotted, expectant 
character of general business, 
which so short a time agp 
was prostrate. It has not yet 




urer of a munitions company, 
and they are reputed to have 
spent $100,000 on their trip. 
This treasurer is building a 
$200,000 home. To get the 
property he paid $5000 for 
plots which had cost the own- 
ers but $400! Automobiles 
of curious, fanciful individu- 
al designs are being built for 
individuals who wish to 
spend their money as whim- 
sically as possible. Magnan- 
imous and spectacular gifts 
of parks, hospitals, etc., are 
being made in an effort by 
these new millionaires to put 
to benevolent use their new (The President of the Beth- had t 

,.„ KL lebem Sieel Co. and a domi- 

wealth. nant figure in Ifae large wbt- 

John N. Willys, whoSe "der bu.in«.) 

entirely unique business 

career is the modern Aladdin's-lamp of clothes and get a 

story, b worth to-day personally at least square meal. The 

$60,000,000. Ten or twelve years ago he tailor is making a 

was a mechanic-salesman. His factories fine suit, all right, 

cover seventy-nine acres to-day, and his firm and the cook is busy 

takes in more money than Henry Ford's preparing a big ap- 

company. He has given $300,000 to the petizing meal; but 

Toledo Club, and equally lavishly elsewhere, business i s pacing 

He is but one of the new crop of million- the corridor, hun- 

'aires, whose numbers are now rapidly grow- grily licking 1 1 s 

"ig- chops, waiting to en- 

As a matter of fact, however, most of the joy what it has 

new wealth made it as yet only on paper, achieved. MorcParis 

Those manufacturers who have received gowns, for instance, 

large war orders even with deposits of than ever before are 

money, have had to expend all of it and coming through the 

more on enlarged facilities, new machinery, custom houses. 



: to buy a new suit 



T. COLKMAN DV PONT 



AMERICA'S BUSINESS BOOM 



55 



PRIKaPAL ITEMS IN 


TOTAL OF allies' WAR ORDERS 


AMOUNTING TO ONE BILLION DOLLARS 


Ammunition 


Automobiles 


Cars, locomotives and railroad 


Explosive materials 
Projectiles 
Ordnance parts 
Machinery 
Aeroplanes 


Tires and accessories 
Copper and brass 
Horses and mules 
Flour and grain 
Boats and launches 
Shoes and leather 


supplies 
Woolei^ cloth and trimmings 
Blankets and furnishings 
Barbed wire, tools^ etc. 
Food supplies 



WHEN THE WAR IS OVER, 

Curiously enough no excitement is caused 
by the authenticated fact that no more orders 
for shells are coming into this country; — 
for the simple reason, I repeat, that we are 
now in a position to be indifferent to war 
orders. The good that they could do is now 
fully accomplished, and the harm that might 
have come from their discontinuance in the 
past is now^ purely 
speculative matter. 
It is true that a 
great many business 
men have real fears 
about war order 
discontinuance. But 
the wiser ones are 
paying almost n o 
serious attention any 
longer to such fears. 
Even in the matter 
of munitions, logic 
points to the fact 
that if peace is declared next week no nation 
at war will feel safe without a large store 
of war supplies.. Munitions-making will un- 
questionably continue apace in this country 
for a period of several years after the war is 
over. The gradual diffusion of wealth now 
being effected will steady the natural momen- 
tary financial shock of the peace day (which, 
surely, under any circumstances, will be 
amply foreshadowed in time to ease the 
blow ) . 

Business men of light and leading, used 



UNCLE SAM'S bill TO THE ALLIES 

For War Goods Delivered 
(First eight months of 1915) 

Automobiles $65,463,000 

Copper 70,000,000 

Horses and Mules 86,000,000 

Explosives 65,000,000 

Leather 55,000,000 

Shoes 24,000,000 

Barbed and other wire 14,000,000 

Miscellaneous (food, etc) 100,000,000 

Total $479,463,000 



to cautious weighing of words, do not hesi- 
tate to say that the country is now nearer to 
being bomb-proof from the depressions which 
have affected us than at any time in our 
history. 

One of the signs that points unmistakably 
to the sure grasp and firm faith which Amer- 
ican business men now have regarding the 
future of business, after the war clouds clear 
off, is the formation of the American Inter- 
national Corpora- 
tion, capitalized at 
$50,000,000, t o 
finance and conduct 
large constructive 
industrial and com- 
mercial enterprises 
i n foreign lands. 
Some of the bright- 
est brains of Ameri- 
can business are on 
the board of direc- 
tors, and it is ac- 
cepted as a foregone 
conclusion that the enterprise will represent 
the successful entry of the United States 
in the great drama of world-wide com- 
mercial supremacy, for which part, by com- 
mon concession, the United States is cast. 
It is already being said that young business 
men may well henceforth take upon them- 
selves a dignity and preparation commen- 
surate with the great commercial perspective 
which American business now begins to call 
for at the hour of its destiny and the pass- 
ing of its insular point of view. 




56 THE AMERICAN REVlEiy OF REVIEIVS 







THE WAR'S VAST HORIZONS 

BY FRANK H. SIMONDS 

I. The Year Ends Badly for the her allies still triumphant, in better military 

Allies posture than a year ago and endangered only 

by economic pressure within their bounda- 

FOR the enemies of Germany the year is ries and a prospective shortage in numbers, by 

ending badly on the field of battle. In no means assured and not yet revealed on 

Mesopotamia a British army is retreating to the firing line. 

escape destruction. In Macedonia an Anglo- What is the Allied statement for the 
French force is falling back from Serbian tw^elve months? First of all, the German 
territory, haying failed to succor the gallant advance in the west has been permanently 
Slavs and being now in danger itself. Allied checked. Neither in Paris nor Berlin is 
prestige is shattered in the Near East and there the faintest thought that a new cam- 
shaken in the Far East. paign will carry the Germans to Paris or to 

Looking back over the twelve months it is the Channel. The destruction of France and 

impossible to view them as other than the approach to Britain are no longer possi- 

months in which German success in the field bilities of the war. Superiority in men and 

has rivaled that of Napoleon or Louis XIV. munitions on the western front is assured 

Poland, Serbia, and Lithuania have been con- to the Allies for the period of the war. 
quered, a road has been opened to Constan- The security of France and Great Britain 

tinople and to the Osmanli ally, and Bulga- thus made certain, the work of the British 

ria has been persuaded to cast her lot with fleet has shone forth in full splendor. Ger- 

the Central Powers. man commerce is a thing of the past; and 

On the west, half a dozen Allied attacks Germany is to all intents and purposes a 
have been halted ; and the battle-lines remain beleaguered fortress, not yet perhaps facing 
but little changed since the closing shots of starvation, but plainly suffering from a 
the Battles of Flanders put a term to Ger- shortage of certain kinds of foods, and many 
man offensive effort in France and in Bel- of the materials needed to make war. Not 
gium. In half a dozen places the Allies yet possessing on the Continent the influence 
have made progress. They have taken vil- or the power of Napoleon I, at the moment 
lages and hills. North of Arras and east of of the meeting at Tilsit, William II is fa- 
Rheims they have progressed for several cing the same difficulties, the same economic 
miles. But these advances have been mean- pressure, which brought Napoleon to his 
ingless, save as they have indicated an ever- knees ultimately, because he never could 
growing Anglo-Frehch strength and have es- reach Britain or destroy the British fleet, 
tablished the conviction in Paris and London Germany has indeed occupied 8400 square 
that the deadlock in the west can be broken, miles of France, a twenty-fifth of the area 
when ammunition is available in sufficient of the country, which before the war main- 
quantities, tained some 2,500,000 people, but was 

But east and west it is necessary to point cleared of men by mobilization in advance of 

out that the success has been with Germany, the occupation. But France and Britain have 

In France and Belgium she undertook to cleared German colonies, have conquered 

hold her enemies in check and she has held Togo and Southwest Africa, and are at the 

them. In Russia she planned to take War- point of ending German rule in the Kam- 

saw and roll back the Russian masses from erun, while Japan and Australia have low- 

the Carpathians to the Niemen and beyond, ered the German colors in the Pacific. If 

and she has done this. Finally, she broke Germany holds Belgium and a fraction of 

new ground in a campaign to the Golden Northern France, she holds them as a coun- 

Horn; and here she has accomplished with terbalance to British control of the sea, and 

ease and rapidity that fullest measure of pos- Anglo-French possession of her colonies, 
sible success, which was denied her in Russia In sum, the passing year has seen the Ger- 

as it had been in France in 1914. man failure to win in the west made abso- 

As the year closes it shows Germany and lute. It has also seen the collapse of the ef- 

67 



58 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

fort, by submarine activity, to blockade Bri- her eastern boundary a Polish state, pro- 
tain, and thus to free German commerce, tected by Austro-German arms, which will 
It has seen the issues of the war become act as a buffer state against Russian expan- 
Polish, Balkan, and Asiatic, — not French or sion? This is a policy of protection wholly 
Belgian. It has seen the problem change analogous to that of Louis XIV, who sought 
from one of world-power with immediate to make Flanders and Alsace barriers against 
European supremacy, to the problem of a re- hostile advance to Paris. For the future, 
adjustment which shall leave Germany a in Europe, Russia is the great menace to 
"place in the sun" and an open road to fu- Germany, the foe who must be faced in that 
ture world power. near time when Russian population has passed 

200,000,000 and, conceivably, revolution or 
II. The New Phase reorganization has made Russia strong. 

But even the insurance against Russia is 

It is to the new phase that is now opening relatively insignificant. What Germany is 
in the war that I desire to call attention in now fighting for is the right to dominate 
my comment for this month. The war has Central Europe from the Baltic to the Black 
changed wholly in the current year. It has Sea and control Western Asia. Austria has 
changed quite as much in the minds of the become a mere tool, Hungary an ally, whose 
Allies as in those of the Germans. The integrity and safety depend upon Prussian 
hope of crushing Germany and destroying protection. Serbia is conquered, and Bulga- 
her unity has perished, or should have per- ria, having thrown herself into Prussian 
ished. Out of the storm of seventeen arms, can exist only as Germany assures it 
months of war German unity has come un- against Russian attack. As for Turkey, the 
shaken; and those who still talk of a parti- Russian, Italian, British, French fleets and 
tion of Germany limit their expectation to armies are at its doors, and without German 
the restoration to France of Alsace-Lor- aid its doom is sealed, 
raine. A peace now, that restored Belgium to its 

The recent words of the German Chancel- previous state, left France intact, turned 
lor in the Reichstag revealed a necessity to back Russian Poland to the Czar and per- 
convince the German people that the govern- mitted Italy to take the Trentino and 
ment would not refuse to make peace on Trieste, to take Albania and the Egean is- 
terms that were reasonable in view of Ger- lands, which permitted the British and the 
man success and outward prospects. But French to divide German colonies, would 
they revealed a similar recognition of the still leave Germany not merely the advan- 
f act that the foes of Germany were not tage, but far on the road to the world power 
ready or willing to make peace on any terms of Bernhardi and to the domination of Eu- 
compatible with German honor or present rope for which Napoleon and Louis XIV 
expectation. strove in vain. 

What, then, are the enemies of Germany Once this mighty empire had been reor- 
fighting for? What are their terms of ganized, Germany would be ready to retake 
peace? It is impossible to say, because, first Trieste and return to the port of Antwerp, 
of all, the Allies are fighting a state of mind, while it could organize a new and deadly 
What Europe is facing is one more of the thrust at Britain both across Suez and by the 
wars that have been fought to preserve the Euphrates Valley and the Bagdad railroad 
balance of power and to establish the fact to India. 

that one race, one nation, cannot rule in Unquestionably before undertaking a new 
Europe. Peace now in the minds of the war Germany would seek to placate France. 
French and the British, of the Russians and Between the Republic and the Empire there 
the Italians, would be -but a truce, another is no rivalry save that which grows out of 
pause such as that of Nimwegen or of Alsace-Lorraine. To-day Germany is willing 
Amiens, a breathing spell while Germany to return to France Metz and the French- 
reorganized for a new attack, having har- speaking districts of Lorraine, to buy off the 
vested the profits and sought to guard French and abolish their grievance. But if 
against the errors of her first venture. France were out of the question, could Rus- 

The year that is to come is to determine sia and Britain combined defeat the Gcr- 
one thing. It is to determine whether Ger-* mans? Has not the true stumbling block 
many can bring home any profits from the been the French military strength, and was 
great efforts she has made. Can she free not the Battle of the Marne the real defeat 
Poland from Russian control and erect upon of German plans? 



THE WAR'S VAST HORIZONS 59 

To-day Germany desires peace because peace, like that France accepted at Vienna a 

there is nothing to be won that is essential hundred years ago, which left the France of 

to her plans, if she can but hold that portion 1789 intact and took away only the con- 

of her conquests which she means to hold as quests of the Revolution and the Empire, 

the guarantee of her future greatness. She Such a peace will not merely free Belgium 

desires peace because the economic pressure and Northern France, but also Serbia. It 

upon her is terrific, and her people are begin- will leave the Balkan nations free to develop 

ning to suffer and perhaps to murmur. But without peril from without. It will abolish 

by peace the Germans still mean peace with the peril to future peace which German su- 

profit, with an assured future bought by the premacy at Constantinople possesses, 

terrific losses of the last months of slaughter. Some time in the^ next year the Allied 

statesmen and soldiers believe that the Ger- 

III. Why Peace Is Impossible '"^^ "^^c'^*"^ ^*ii I'r^^'^ ^o^"- They believe 

that the cost in life and treasure will be bc- 

If Germany, warned by the example of yond the resources of one nation, which 
Napoleon, is now ready for peace, it is only a with weak and burdensome allies is facing 
"victorious peace," a peace of her own sort, four great powers and is deprived of com- 
She recognizes that she has reached that munication from the outside world, 
point to which Napoleon came in 1809, When that time comes the enemies of 
when having made France great, he persist- Germany are not now looking forward to a 
cd in war and in consequence lost his throne, mutilation of Germany. They do not ex- 
while his country lost his conquests and those pedt, any more, as they did a year ago, that 
of the Revolution. But her enemies cannot Germany will fly into a dozen parts. A year 
make peace on any terms that are conceivable has made clear that they are fighting a na- 
in the premises, for such a peace would spell tion, — not an emperor; and combating the 
ruin. dream of a people, not the conception of a 

Even if Germany were prepared to-day to few ambitious men. They do not expect, — 

evacuate Belgium, cede Metz and the certainly not those who possess any sem- 

Frcnch-speaking districts of Lorraine to blance of reason, — that the people of Ger- 

France, persuade or compel Austria to give many will destroy their rulers or submit to 

up Trieste and the Trentino to Italy, Ga- outside interference with their internal life, 

licia to Russia, even if she were willing to What the Allied statesmen and generals 

surrender her African colonies to Britain, do believe is that the drying up of Grerman 

these nations could not and would not make resources in men and money will produce a 

-peace, for even with these concessions Ger- German sentiment for peace, — for peace 

many would still threaten the future of all which, aside perhaps from Alsace-Lorraine, 

her foes. may leave Germany intact, but will take 

In Paris, in London, in Petrograd the from her all her Austrian, Balkan, and Rus- 
conviction persists that if the war continues sian conquests and leave her, as France was 
Germany will be unable to endure the ter- left after Napoleon fell, still great, but de- 
rific strain ; that, inferior in population, prived of all that she had won in her bid for 
wealth, resources, deprived of ocean trade. Continental supremacy, 
she will presently break down as did France It is in this spirit and with this purpose 
in 1814, despite the splendor of Napoleonic that the new year is opening. The struggle 
victories and the greatness of imperial con- is clearly circumscribed now; and the issues, 
quests. They believe that another year or which will be settled, and having been set- 
two of war will bring home to the German tied, will give form and substance to Eu- 
people, as the Napoleonic Wars brought rope for another century, are beginning to 
home to the French, the fact that the con- appear. The question to be decided is the 
quest of Europe is impossible and that the question of German supremacy in Austria, 
price of pretending to be a supreme race is Poland, and the Bdkans. The fate of Bel- 
found in misery and death, in taxation and gium and France has been decided and the 
suffering, not in wealth, in happiness, or in future of both is assured. Great Britain 
glory. has not been scratched, and she has already 

The Allied economists and generals have gathered in most of Germany's overseas em- 

figured it all out. They believe that for a pire and swept the ocean of German ships 

price that the Allied nations are capable of and commerce. 

paying and should pay, Germany can be de- We have passed from a war of conquest to 

feated, worn down, brought to agree to a a war of endurance. If Germany can out- 



60 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

last her great foes, she has won the war, would lie open to German invasion. The 
not as she hoped to win it, for France and value of sea power would be abolished, be- 
the British Isles are secure. But she has cause Germany would possess an empire corn- 
restored the German Empire of the Middle pletely self-contained, beyond the peril of 
Ages in all its territorial grandeur, and she food shortage or munition deficiency, 
will be able to give to the form the strength All this, too, in the larger sense, Germany 
and unity the ancient empire never pos- has already achieved. I dwell on these de- 
sessed. If she can endure the attack until her tails because I desire my readers to grasp 
enemies are exhausted, she will rule from the real futility of peace proposals at the 
Hamburg to Aden, from Schleswig-Holstein present moment, and the little bearing any 
to Arabia, and her halt at Suez and the Per- terms that have yet been suggested have upon 
sian Gulf need not be long. the real questions that remain to be settled. 

I suggest that they take an atlas and on a 

IV. Vast Horizons niap of Europe and Asia trace with a black 

line the present frontier of the Central Pow- 

Because in these pages and elsewhere em- ers, always recalling that in saying Central 

phasis has been laid on the failure of Ger- Powers they mean. Germany, which has be- 

many to obtain a decision in any field, save come in every sensfe the master of the alli- 

only in the Balkan, which is incidental, no ance and the captain of the fortunes of the 

one should mistake the real magnitude of whole group. 

German success or the true grandeur of that To do this is to perceive why the Allies 

empire within whose frontiers, mainly cannot make peace to-day, why they arc 

marked by trenches, the Kaiser rules su- fighting and why they must fight until they 

preme. To-day it surpasses in population conquer or succumb to exhaustion. But quite 

and approaches in area the Rome that ruled as plainly they will perceive why Germany, 

the world. with all this great prospective empire within 

A few months hence it may be possible to her grasp, with armies still unshaken guard- 
go by rail from the banks of the Scheldt at ing every frontier, cannot on her part sign 
Antwerp to those of the Tigris at Bagdad on a peace which will restore the boundaries of 
railroad trains under the direction of Ger- 1914, so far as she is concerned, and in the 
man military authorities. Only at the Bos- Balkans and at the Dardanelles erect bar- 
porus and the Taurus mountains will the riers which will for all time, hereafter, pre- 
journey be interrupted by a short trip by vent her from again taking up the pathway 
boat or stage. From Kiel to Mecca, the rails of world dominion. 

will presently run with but the same short Not less plain are the reasons why the AI- 

breaks. lies rightly recognize that any peace now, 

Given the wonderful German genius for that fell short of placing a permanent barrier 

organization, German efficiency, German in- to German expansion by land into Asia and 

dustry, who can fail to grasp the possibili- Africa, would be but a truce and an illusion, 

ties of such an empire or perceive that in no To-morrow Britain would have to fight for 

long time it would become supreme in the Egypt, because the nation that holds Syria 

whole world. Once the millions of subject will be master of Egypt, if there remains to 

races were organized into armies, could the it power to expand. French and Italian, as 

French, the Russians, the Italians, and the well as British rule in North Africa, British 

British, separated by this solid block of ter- India, Russian Black Sea provinces, all would 

ritory and each outnumbered, collectively be endangered, 
make head against this empire? Germany has not merely challenged Eu- 

German naval power would then be trans- rope, she has in a measure made good her 

f erred from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, challenge. She has laid the foundations for 

Behind the forts of the Dardanelles it would the mightiest empire that Europe has seen 

lie safe, while German submarines, based since the days of Rome, and has opened the 

upon Turkish ports in Anatolia and Syria, way to reproduce in no small degree the 

would sweep the eastern Mediterranean, greatness and the world supremacy of Rome. 

Mohammedan hopes would be harnessed to Berlin is already a prospective rival of the 

Teutonic ambitions, and the Green flag ancient imperial city, whose claims can only 

would cross Suez to take up the road of the be abolished by the defeat of Germany, by 

other conquerors who advanced from Cairo an Allied victory that can impose such terms 

to Gibraltar and beyond. Egypt conquered, as Europe imposed on France at Vienna, — 

not North Africa alone, but Central Africa terms that left France, but swept away a 



THE WAR'S VAST HORIZONS 61 

world empire, both in fact and in the minds men, Britons, and Italians have combined 
of the French people. against Germans. 

It took Europe forty years to lay the peril 
V. Parallels of the Past of Louis XIV. From the long series of wars 

France emerged greater by several provinces, 

Now, turning back to the familiar analo- but exhausted. She had added a fortress here 
gies of earlier European history, it will be and a few square miles there to her frontier, 
recalled that the efforts of Napoleon and but within her boundaries the prosperity 
Louis XIV failed ultimately because both which Colbert had organized had vanished, 
were faced by a wellnigh united Continent, and there was already in process the long, 
sustained and supplied by a Britain supreme steady march to the abyss of the Revolution, 
on the sea. In the case of Louis XIV, Eu- In a word, the state of mjnd of France, of 
rope early recognized the peril, and one coali- the ruling classes, and of the crown, which 
tion after another sprang into existence as he was responsible for the mighty venture, was 
made successive bids for world power in the dead. 

German sense. In the case of Napoleon the The Napoleonic episode was far shorter, 
several great nations were slow in coalescing. From the rupture of the Peace of Amiens to 
Austria was overthrown at Austerlitz, with the abdication of Fontainebleau was little 
only Russian aid; Prussia fell single-handed more than a decade, — ^perhaps the most mar- 
at Jena. Friedland was the defeat of Russia velous decade in the history of any race. But 
alone. But when the peril was appreci- from the glories of the Napoleonic period 
^ted Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden France emerged still territorially intact, but 
joined hands with England and the end was cured of the larger portion of the madness 
assured. which had cost so many millions of lives and 

In the present war the coalition was mo- ended in disaster and defeat, in two invasions 
bilized with the coming of war. Only Italy of France and the occupation of Paris and 
stood outside, her indecision costing her French territory for long months by alien 
future allies heavily last spring, when Rome armies. 

dedded a month too late, and Russian dis- By successes less complete, less brilliant, 
aster came in consequence. But to-day a lacking in the tactically decisive character of 
treaty has been signed, wholly analogous to Napoleonic successes, Germany has marched 
that of Chaumont, which bound the oppo- far on the road of the First Empire. She is 
nents of France together and committed the now confronted by the same obstacles that 
signatories to war until France was restored overthrew Napoleon. She has now to last, 
to the limits of 1789, Italy's adherence sup- as Napoleon strove to last. And she must 
plying an important detail of December's follow the same methods. She cannot make 
news. peace, because her foes fear her too much to 

After seventeen months of war, too, Ger- give her even a small fraction of her con- 
man statements supply the clearest evidence quests. She must undertake new offensives 
that there is not the smallest weakening of and organize new invasions. With the 
purpose on the part of the Allies, and Beth- spring she must resume the invasion of Rus- 
mann-Hollweg is the best witness of the sia or send new forces across Asia Minor to 
solidarity of the enemies of his sovereign, force a crossing at Suez and repeat in Egypt 
Hindenburg has supplied the phrase, "Our the successes of the Balkans. Cairo and 
enemies are not yet battered enough.'* Petrograd alike beckon her, as Moscow and 
Hence the war must go on; even the Ger- Madrid beckoned Napoleon, sinking ever 
mans make no concealment of this. deeper and deeper in the meshes of a war 

What the end will be, when it will come, that had been won if it could only have been 
— these are things beyond the field of such ended. 

comments as this to speculate upon, as they Unless Germany conquers France or Rus- 
are beyond the capacity of any man alive to sia, or collapses in consequence of internal 
forecast. But it is clear, it is certain, that weaknesses, there is no prospect that peace 
all other attempts such as the present Ger- will come in 'the current year. There is, 
man bid for supremacy on the Continent indeed, little prospect that before Autumn, 
have failed for precisely the same reasons at the earliest, German armies can be driven 
that arc discoverable in Europe to-day. They in upon the frontiers of Germany. But the es- 
have failed because Europe perceived the sential thing to remember is that the war has 
peril and men of all other nations combined become one of endurance, not of campaigns, 
against the men of one, as Russians, French- always excepting the possibility of a truly 



62 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

decisive campaign, of a battle like Leipzig, As for Germany, granted that she desires 
for example. In truth the analogy for peace, that her people are weary of the blood- 
Americans of the Civil War is unmistakable, ta;c and suffer discomfort and hardship from 
for if Germany is to.be beaten, as I believe food shojtage, does anyone suppose that she 
she will be, it will be by the same process desires peace so earnestly that she is prepared 
that ultimately overcame a South long vie- to give over her conquests in France, Bel- 
torious on the battlefield and unconquerable, gium, and Poland without any recompense? 
while there remained m^n and food. Does anyone suppose she is prepared to with- 

draw from the Balkans and permit the erec- 
VI. As Europe Sees It ^^^^ of ^ strong Serbian state which will for 

all time bar the way to the Bosporus? Does 

Beyond all else I am anxious that my anyone believe she is ready to surrender Bul- 
readers should see the situation as Europe garJi'to the wrath of the Czar, or consent 
sees it at the opening of the new year. In that Austria should be shorn of the Galician 
America the casualty lists, the accounts of province, of Trieste, and the Trentino, of 
human misery and suffering, of lives lost, Dalmatia and Bosnia? 

cities destroyed, provinces ravaged continue But unless Germany is willing to consent 
to dominate the minds and shape the emo- to these things, above all to the abandonment 
tions of those who witness the spectacle from of the Balkan hegemony, she cannot have 
afar and appreciate only vaguely the issues peace now or at any time that can be fore- 
at stake. But the European point of view seen now, short of the general exhaustion of 
is wholly different. Americans should recall Europe. For, in going to the Balkans, Ger- 
the attitude of Europe toward our own Civil many has thrown down the real challenge 
War. For us there was no peace short of to Europe; and the issue of the war will 
the decision that only battle could give to be decided in the Near East. If she can 
the question of national unity. Europe saw hold her gains here, her influence, her su- 
only the horrors and the destruction ; and premacy at Stamboul, Germany will threaten 
their own incidental hardships; and clam- the future of all her opponents save only 
ored for peace in the name of humanity. France, and even for French North Africa 
But, North and South, Americans knew bet- there will be a threat in Prussian power at 
ter; and the ''patched-up peace'' did not Suez. If she can hold what she has in the 
come. East, — and the western gains arc now re- 

Now the mood of France is not different garded as nothing but territory for bar- 
from that of the North in 1864. The ques- gaining, — Germany will emerge from the 
tion, — not now of national existence, France war an empire, with only the United States 
answered that at the Marne, but of national and Russia as possible rivals in all the 
security, of the future, — is still in the issue, world. 

France believes no sacrifice too great to roll The year that is opening, then, promises 
back the peril of the German colossus, and to be the most momentous in human history 
by retaking the "lost provinces" erect a bul- since that which saw Leipzig and the decline 
wark against a new invasion. This may be of the Napoleonic power. Within the next 
possible or impossible, but it is France, from twelve months it seems likely that there will 
the lowest to the highest; it is the temper be decided the question as to whether the 
and the will of a nation. Latin and Anglo-Saxon civilizations are to 

In Britain the state of mind differs only survive unmodified, whether the British and 
in degree from that of France. German French ideas of liberty and national life are 
terms, the best that can be hoped for now, to persist, vindicated by successful resistance 
would mean a deadly peril for the empire, to the gravest peril they have known in cen- 
pcrhaps the beginning of the end. It would turies, or whether the German idea is to 
mean an empire threatened at Egypt, men- establish itself in a position that will enable 
aced in India, an empire whose prestige had it, hereafter, to resume the campaign to domi- 
been shattered on half a dozen battlefields, nate Europe and the world. It is this that 
and still lacked the reviving influence of the French and the British see to bt the is- 
the victories, to the British mind assured, sue of the hour. It is this vision that 
when their armies are at last organized and makes peace talk impossible, all peace un- 
in the field. The mood that conquered thinkable, until the German idea is banished. 
Napoleon is unmistakable in Britain and the or France, Britain, Italy, and Russia, ex- 
desire for peace decreases as the ultimate haust, abandon their task and resign their 
cost of any possible peace now becomes clear, future. 



THE WAR'S VAST HORIZONS 63 

VII. Bagdad and the Balkans of the French forces in the Vardar Valley. 
At the same time new Bulgar and German 
It remains now in the brief space that is troops began to descend the Struma Valley 
left, merely to chronicle two Allied failures, and to threaten to interpose between the Al- 
both chargeable to British causes, the defeat lies and their Salonica base. The Monasdr 
before Bagdad and the retreat from Serbia threat was moving east along the Salonica- 
upon Salonica. As these lines are written Monastir railroad, the Struma thrusts were 
both seem not impossibly destined to end in coming west along the Dedcagatch line. In 
complete disaster. In any event they have addition the Greek King was showing in- 
t(^ethcr shattered the Allied prestige in the creasing hostility, and there was the grave 
Balkans and their story will be told in every peril that the Greek army, mobilized in the 
bazaar from Cairo to Fez and from Bagdad rear of the Allies and outnumbering their 
to the banks of the Ganges. forces, would open fire, completing a circle of 

Of the Bagdad expedition all that can be fire and iron about General Sarrail's devoted 
said is that a gamble, begun with perhaps army. 

16,000 men, later reinforced to 60,000, mis- There was then nothing for it but to re- 
carried when success was in sight. Had Bag- treat; and the retreat is now being made. If 
dad fallen, the whole Arab world might have all goes well the Allies will succeed in reach- 
sprung to arms agamst the despised Turk, ing the hills north of Salonica. There they 
Islam might have been divided, Syria pro- will be in the position of the Turks in the first 
voked into revolt, and the road from Con- Balkan War, after their defeat at Ycnidje- 
stantinople to Suez permanently closed. Then Vardar, when they were threatened by Greek 
the Turkish frontier would have been thrown forces coming east and by Serb and Bulgar 
back upon the Taurus mountains. Mesopo- columns coming south and west from the 
tamia would have become a possession of the Vardar and Struma valleys. 
British Empire, an outpost of India, and the Presumably the Allies will take over Sa- 
grandiose German dream of an advance lonica and attempt to make it a fortress, a 
along the Bagdad railroad to the Gulf of base for future offensive operations, when 
Sinai and to the Indian Ocean destroyed. their armies are strong enough. They will 
But the venture failed, completely. Ten endeavor to imitate the example of WelUng- 
mites from Bagdad the British army was ton and find a new Torres Vedras for Sa- 
thoroughly defeated by Turkish troops, hur- lonica, the Lisbon of the Balkan Peninsula, 
ried east over the newly constructed links In But will Greece consent? If she does not, 
the Bagdad railroad, and then compelled to will the Allies have to fight the Hellenic as 
retire in hurried retreat for more than a well as the Bulgar and German aonie^ per- 
faundred miles, with other and longer march- haps reinforced by the Turks? Again, if 
es ahead of it, threatened by the Arab hosts they t^e ship, following the Peninsular pre- 
tan and the cedent of Sir John Moore at Corunna, not 
Turkish cm- that of Wellington at Torres Vedras, will 
on after the Greece promptly join the Central Powers? 
^n bitted by Will Rumania see in the collapse a potent 
ith ammuni- argument for joining the two Kaisers? 

To add to the sum total of Allied misfor- 
my last arti- tune in the Near East, there is the growing 
f the success conviction that the Allied armies on GalUp- 
ts to relieve oli Peninsula are doomed, unless they can 
le arrival or speedily be withdrawn. The weather condi- 
nch outposts tions and the difhcullics due to a lack of 
' could open wharves and docks make the operation haz- 
the Serbian ardous in the extreme and neither London 
jyed and the nor Paris would be surprised to learn of a 
ia and Mon- terrible and complete disaster in this field. 
exposed to a No portion of the whole war has been so 
veil as Bui- dismal a failure as this Balkan-Dardanelles 
g Veles and episode. The responsibility for this, both on 
ly arrived at land, on water, and in diplomacy is directly 
i across the chargeable to the British. They have blund- 
ered unceasingly. They failed completely to 
led the rear grasp the real situation in the Balkans. They 



64 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

forbade a Serbian attack upon Bulgaria, be- list of failures that are as yet known only in 
fore Bulgaria began to arm. They sacrificed part to the world, there seems to be no pun- 
Serbia to mistaken notions of Bulgarian pur- ishment ; and from failure there is apparently 
pose and Greek conditions. Now they arc no lesson learned. For the same mistake that 
reported to be anxious to withdraw from the lost at Neuve Chapelle, cost the British the 
Balkans altogether; but France and Russia possession of the key to Gallipoli, the hill of 
emphatically oppose such a course, believing Sari Bahr, once taken by them ; and the Loos 
it would throw Greece and even Rumania operation ended as a local success because 
into the arms of the Central Powers. Hill No. 70, having been taken, could not 

be held because the victors were not sup- 

VIII. British Failure ported. 

In 1915 the British have failed in the field 
It is no exaggeration to say that the Brit- as the North failed in the opening years of 
ish blundering in the Balkans, taken in con- our Civil War. They have failed to develop 
nection with their mistakes in the western a general, and their army still lacks the co- 
field, has severely taxed French and Russian herence and the discipline of the French or 
patience. Those who have recently returned the German. If the British fleet has main- 
from Paris report a marked dissatisfaction tained its prestige, nothing of the sort can be 
with British methods and a disappointment said for the army. It has fought with 'very 
over British failure unequalled since the war great gallantry, but it has added nothing to 
began. The Balkan episode has only served the glory of the men who won the First Bat- 
. to accentuate the feeling stirred by similar tie of Ypres. It would not be an exaggera- 
'British failures at Neuve Chapelle, at Festu- tion to say that at the close of the year, the 
'bcrt( at Loos. It is possible to exaggerate the British army stands at the lowest ebb in its 
meaning of this feeling. France recognizes fortunes since the early years of the Na'polc- 
that she must preserve her alliance and ap- onic Wars, before it found Wellington and 
pi^eciates the value of the British fleet. But itself. 

the sentimental enthusiasm of a year ago has Again, as a new year opens, the Allies of 
disappeared. It will hardly return unless Britain are looking to her army, which, if it 
British high command shall soon give evi- has at last "arrived," should supply the de- 
dence of capacity not yet even vaguely fore- cisive factor in the campaigns that arc to 
shadowed. come. But there are doubts, apprehensions, 
The simple truth is that the year, in anxieties, not felt a year ago. There is criti- 
French and Russian eyes, has been a year cism in France and in Russia, — a real dread 
wht^'^. rrjiafortiincs arc wholly charg;eable to lest when April comes again the British will 
British failure. Instead of the million :hai ' mprepared, as they were last spring, and 
Kitchener was to contribute to the spn.i^ ( icrniany will be able to direct, what it is 
drive, there were but a few hundred tho :- lurrct^ must be her last bid for decision 
sand men available and the lack of mum- ag.i . r f*us"sia, take up the road to Moscow 
tions condemned this force to inaction, to and Petrograd, still confident that her west- 
local defeat at Ypres, and enabled the Ger- ern lines will hold. 

mans «) go east and batter Russia from the On all sides it is recognized that the de- 
Carpathians to the Dwina. As recently as cisive element, if the war is to be decided on 
the Battle of Loos, British incompetence cost the battlefield, must be supplied by the great 
the Allies the possession of Lens as the Neuve British armies th;'f have been raised in the 
Chapelle blunders lost Lille, and the Brit- past year. France has done all that she can 
ish commander was obliged to call upon do alone. Her splendid army can hold its 
General Foch for French army corps to hold present lines. In conjunction with British 
a portion of the ground his troops had car- masses it can attack. But there are lacking 
ried, but could not hold because no supports French numbers to complete/ singlehanded, 
had been provided. the great work begun a* tt e Mftrne. If Brit- 
The Balkan failure doomed a French min- ish armies have the leaders md'the munitions, 
istry and produced a far-reaching change in there may be a rolling l»r **c of German lines 
the political organization of France. But as in the spring. But will he British have the 
the French see it, there was no change in leaders and the munitir s? France frankly 
Britain, and the blunderers remained in fears. 

charge. When French generals fail they go Both in the east and . the west the war is 

to the rear. But those who are responsible turning to a duel bt ' .v e^en the British and 

for British failure in the field, for the Tong the Germans. All the otl^er nations have suf- 



THE WAR'S VAST HORIZONS 



BULGARIAN MACHINE CUNS ON THE FIRING LINE 

fercd huge casiodties. Britain's 500,000 are American critics of England will do well 

trifling compared with the 2,200,000 dis- to recall our own experience in the Civil 

closed by the official lists of Prussia alone. War. The British failure has been ]ike our 

England's resources in men under arms must own, and it has been due to the same causes. 

be almost as great as tho«e of Germany. She It took us three years to prepare for victory, 

has the deciding detneDT in her own hand. Britain is now in her second, and the war 

Can she use it? waits upon her. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVIEWS 




TURKISH ARTILLERY CROSSING OVER THE CELEBRATED BRIDGE OF BOATS. AT BAGDAD 



E AT BASRA. BAGDAD^ PORT ON TIE PERSIAN GULF 



CAN GERMANY GO TO INDIA? 

BY TALCOTT WILLIAMS 

THE English repulse at Bagdad suggests an English advance which had moved with- 
the possibility of a German attack on out interruption up to Bagdad. 
India. The English campaign in the Persian Why a "railroad terminus" at Bagdad? 
Gulf began over a year ago, with the occu- There is none on the map save for a short 
pation of Oman by a brigade, an English line, of no strategic value. No other is men- 
battalion, and Indian troops. This force tioned in any official report. I first heard 
made short work of the disturbance, it could of a through line to Aleppo through a wan- 
scarcely be called an insurrection, in the derer from the home of my youth, Mosul. 
Jebel Akhdar (Green Mountains), which There we played together fifty-two years ago, 
catch enough of the monsoons to grow the and met at last on Manhattan Island to talk 
date and the grape on unknown slopes, and over the defeat which the Alamanni (still 
the little Sultanate was added to the English the Arab term for the German) were about 
Raj. Turkey joined the Teutonic cause to inflict on the Engleez (English). The 
October 27, 1914. Seventeen days later, new railroad was the German preparation 
with Kowiet as a first base, — the one port on for English defeat The map of railroads 
this shore and the only blue-water terminus in Turkey (see page 68) gives all that could 
for the Constantinople-Aleppo-Bagdad-Per- be assembled from every source in the last 
sian Gulf railroad, — Basra was taken. By Bulletin by the staff of the American Gco- 
December 10, Kurna, the confluence of the graphical Society. It was accurate down to 
Tigris and Euphrates, was occupied. The August 1, 1914. 

Viceroy of India visited Basra January 31, The hatched line from Aleppo to Bagdad 

held a Durbar and told the Arab Sheiks shows what has probably been done since By 

that the region was annexed and to be for- the German to render Turkey efficient in 

ever British territory. the Teutonic Alliance. The line was sur- 
veyed and construction begun to Mosul be- 

BAGDAD AS A GOAL f^^^ ^j^^ ^^^ When war came the work 

Half way to Bagdad by mid-April, when was pushed under German direction from 
an attack in force was repulsed, heat and Aleppo. Construction trains were running 
pestilent marshes stayed the English advance by last spring to Mosut, and the road should 
until October. The force had at least thirty have been in some shape to Bagdad by this 
English battalions. The English papers fall. It is in all probability the opening of 
would not be allowed to print a list ; but the this line which confronted the English ex- 
return of the dead issued to the papers by pedition approaching Bagdad with an over- 
the English war office with their regiments, whelming force. The only break left, from 
followed day by day, show this number, — Constantinople, was the Taurus tunnel, 
so censorship works, — and the Indian troops Work was redoubled on this gap, marked 
are about three to one of the English, if the by the break each side of Bagchie, north 
usual Anglo-Indian practise was followed, of Aleppo. The breasts met six months ago. 
In all, taking the way Eastern war wears The tracks should be laid this spring, per- 
down white regiments, there were probably haps are now down. Meanwhile a good cart- 
20,0()0 white and 60,000 to 70,000 Asiatics road, fit for automobiles, has been laid over 
in the English column. the mountains, connecting the railroad tracks 

The force may be larger, but this is about on each side, 
all that could be spared from India. Al- 

, . ^ ^1 "D • J ' BUILDING THE BAGDAD RAILWAY 

lowing for the Basra garrison and communi 

cations, not much more than 50,000 men, of The whole work of railroad construction 
all arms, could have been in the attempt to has been pushed with German method and 
seize the railroad terminus, 18 miles from energy. When the Eastern Railroad to Con- 
Bagdad. This force met a serious repulse stantinople was opened by the capture of 
and has retreated with loss. This may be Nish, it was not munitions, guns, or men 
retrieved, though plainly new forces front that were poured into the dingy, rambling 

67 



68 



THE AMERICAN REVlEf^ OF REVIEWS 



RUSSIA 




I ' A A A J . 



From the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. 

RAILROADS IN TURKEY 
(See the legend in the lower left-hand corner of the map for explanation) 



Station outside of the walls of Constantine. 
For days, trains rumbled in, piled with rail- 
road material of every order. It crossed the 
Bosphorus for Scutari (opposite Constanti- 
nople) and was sped to the line which Ger- 
many was pushing to Bagdad. Labor was 
abundant. The Armenians, first those called 
ostensibly for military service, and later those 
deported, in the most appalling crime known 
to the Mediterranean lands for three centu- 
ries, were organized into regiments of nav- 
vies. These Armenians, with other Chris- 
tians, ill-fed, driven by the lash, gathered 
from fields left without tillage and homes in 
which trembling women, children, and the 
aged awaited massacre or worse, have been 
carrying on the strategic railroad from Scu- 
tari to Basra, whose concession the Kaiser 
wrung from Abd-ul-Hamid in 1899. By 
way of enforcing the patent fact that he had 
English consent, he sent the despatch from 
Windsor, where he was the guest of his 
grandmother on that visit which left Kroeger 
no hope of German aid. That was Eng- 
land's share of his state visit. It gave Ger- 
many its Samoan island, — that was Ger- 
many's share, — and it gave us the revision of 
the Clayton-Bulwer treaty. A railroad far- 
flung to the Persian Gulf, now of prime 
military value, this is the way one land pre- 
pared 16 years ago for "defensive" warfare. 



ROUTES TO INDIA 

I assume, though without knowledge, that 
the same energy which has pushed the rail- 
road to Bagdad and made a railroad terminus 
there, the key to English defeat, has car- 
ried out the German plans of building 
branches to Suleimanieh and Hanukin. This 
brings the line to the Persian border, and 
opens the head of caravan routes, which 
converged at Hamadan last November in 
German hands, Russian papers assert. From 
there the road runs straight and fair to 
Kerman and by Yezd to the border of 
Afghanistan and Beluchistan. There arc 
other points where Persia can be entered by 
an army with a base at Bagdad, but none 
which removes the path to India so com- 
pletely from a flank attack from the Persian 
Gulf. 

The Turkish advance to Urumiah and 
Tabriz, with the occupation of Azerbajian, 
planted the Ottoman troops where they could 
take in flank a Russian movement from the 
Caspian intended to threaten a German 
march on India through Persia. The Tur- 
kish troops have moved along the Black Sea 
towards Batoum and Poti. They have driven 
the Russian back from Erzerum. The Rus- 
sian advance to Van has been thrown back. 
It is possible that the Turkish force in North- 
west Persia, which is a third of thb way to- 



CAN GERMANY GO TO INDIA? 



69 



wards Baku, may, in the end, drive such a 
thrust at this center of oil production as will 
force Russia to concentrate its forces to pro- 
tect the Caspian coast and leave no troops 
for a Persian adventure. Certainly, no Rus- 
sian forces have been spared in this inviting 
and propitious moment so to deal with North 
Persia that when the great war ended the 
northern half of Iranistan would be, beyond 
debate, a Russian province. 

For the fan-like Turkish advance into 
Northwest Persia and around the Caucasus 
on each flank, there is no adequate explana- 
tion except as a movement masking from 
Russian attack a Turco-German advance on 
India through Central Persia. 

Suph a march seems madness. So would 
I unhesitatingly have pronounced it 
two years ago. A march from 
Bagdad to the Indus, with Delhi 
as the next inevitable step, is nearly 
equal to a march from New Orleans 
to the Colorado River, let us say at 
Fort Yuma, with San Francisco as 
the next objective. Of all military 
myths, a land attack on India has 
long seemed to me the mythiest. So 
eighteen months ago (though in 
May, 19«14, I expected and predict- 
ed the Great War as near) would 
have seemed the possibility that 
Turkish troops, directed by Ger- 
man officers, 1200 miles from Con- 
stantinople and 2000 miles from 
the true base, Germany, would 
drive in headlong disastrous rout 
an English force sent from India to cap- 
ture Bagdad and looked on as strong enough 
to accomplish this feat by Lord Kitchener, 
the best living military authority on war 
conditions in the East. For half a cen- 
tury no one has doubted that when Calcutta 
decided to take Bagdad, where the English 
Consul-General has for most of the last cen- 
tury exercised the powers and influence of 
a "Resident," had his military guard, and 
ruled the west coast of the Persian Gulf, 
Bagdad would fall because the English base 
was near by water and the Turkish base was 
over a thousand miles distant. Yet Bagdad 
has not been taken and the English force 
has met defeat for the time being. 

SVEN HEDIn's route 

Gcrmah opinion, however, is already on 
record. When a review was needed in 1910 
for Sven Hedin's "Overland to India," every 
reviewer, informed of his achievement and 
interested in Asian discovery, must have won- 



dered, as one did, I recollect, why a man 
who had long sought and won high emprise 
in fresh lands and deserts new, took, on his 
way to Tibet, the long, dull, and familiar 
path by Teheran, Kerman, and so the length 
of Beluchistan to Quettah. Now that Sven 
Hedin is the welcome guest at the imperial 
and royal headquarters, the favored herald of 
German victory, his choice of routes is plain 
enough. He took the load by which India 
must be invaded by land. The northern 
route by Cabul Alexander selected when 
Bactria had Hellenic sovereigns, and there 
were valleys with tribes that suggested to 
the traveler Kipling's "The Man Who 
Would Be King." 
The Pathan does it to-day. The route along 




• «• JM /W too 

Railways m^m^fm-imm 

Caryaz/an Koutes 



PRINCIPAL CARAVAN ROUTES IN PERSU 

the coast of Beluchistan Alexander took on 
his return, with results disastrous, but it is 
closed by England's command of the sea, 
and it was taken in August, 325 B. C, only 
because "Philip's warlike son" commanded 
the sea through the fleet of Nearchus. 

The route Hedin took from the mouth 
of the Helmund leaves Persia, as Hogarth, a 
foremost geographical authority, says, "where 
Nature has carved the easiest of her ways 
through the western chains." Every line of 
the Swedish explorer's minute narrative runs 
like a guide for a military march. Read now, 
it is plainly the brief abstrac" of a road-guide 
for the German general staff. One sentence 
reveals the way in which a modern army 
might be taken over this and other routes 
to India. "Why do not Englishmen travel 
with automobiles over this trade route," says 
Hedin. "They could drive in a swift, un- 
trammeled route from Rabat to Nushki (the 
terminus of the Indian railroad) in a few 
days." 



70 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

AUTOMOBILES AND PETROLEUM SUPPLY harder Way, through Cabul, reached India 

This was written by a man who knew, *™"e'' ^K^^cl^u*'^'*?'-,^!*^ l^'^ "]-"i: 
five years ago, how the use of the automobile So did Nadir Shah in 1738. An English 
was to increase to a measure before un- o*'^''' ^^^JO"" ^wan Smith, who later .lost 
known the mobility of armies. The auto- *<= reputation he had won in settling the 
mobile caUs for gasoline. The whole Tur- f ™"V^'' l^twecn Persia and the Beluchws 
kish campaign has been directed toward ''V •!« "^1^^™'* "'^^ '"/<=^' ^ro^« '".1871 
Batoum and Baku, the source of oil supply °U''^ l^"^*""" route through Beluchistan: 
and its shipping point. Once the Turkish ^he Persians, should they think fit, may 
troops were by Russian despatches under fire ^"^^ * ^"J-^^^^T ^"^ '" I a'rcction 
of the forts about Batoum. Turkey's early ^nd up to the Sind frontier, without any ma- 
advance in October and November, 1914, t^nal obstacle, finding water and provision 
was driven back in January of this year by ^\^^ whole way. The advance of Persia m 
the Russian forces. The Russians retreated *"'« direction would seem, therefore, to pre- 
at the time Russian retreat was general for a sent questions of grave coiBideration. 
common cause, the lack of munitions. The ^^ ^'^^^'^> without any of the modern equip- 
Persian forces, such as they are, are for Ger- ment could, in the opinion of a British offi- 
many. Turkish forces move towards the cer, shared by another forty years ago^ march 
Caspian supply. They are to-day still on the ^9, India, would it be strange if the German 
way to Baku. The Teutonic alliance holds .General Staff felt this military adventure to 
again the Galician oil wells. From Kerkuk ^ feasible? The Turco-Teuton alliance has 
south for 200 miles to Mendeli near Bagdad f^r^a^ly » railroad which bridges nearly one- 
is a continuous line of petroleu^i territory, "alf the overland route from the Bosphorus 
little worked. Across the Persian boundary ^ India. Does anyone doubt what young 
is another area for which England, just be- General Bonaparte would have done m 1798, 
fore the war, made a special arrangement •( "c could have started at Bagdad instead of 
with Persia giving English control on the Cairo? This winter, nothing but prepara- 
ground of the value of this oil-field for naval t'O" can be done. By next October, when 
and military purposes in the Indian Ocean rain and grass begin, a narrow-gauge mili- 
and India. A pipe line runs to Basra and *ary road can, if the Japanese example in 
was attacked by the Turks at Ahwaz. Ger- Manchuria be followed, cross part of Persia 
many has today, or soon will have, a through *<» t^e plains beyond. India will be 1000 
rail route to Bagdad. A Turco-German ""^e* away (New York to Chicago). With 
army has driven back in rout as strong a automobiles and an oil supply at hand, an 
force as India could spare. army can be moved the length of Beluchistan 

The first run by automobile from Bagdad with a celerity Asiatic warfare has never 
to Aleppo was made several years ago. The known. German troops will hold the com- 
Euph rates bridged, this route is easy. With niunications. A Turkish army, led by Ger- 
a grip on a great oil field and the Turkish i"*"*' *"*=" ^ fought at Gdllipoli, will make 
forces disposed so as to threaten the Russian *« advance. Neither Russia nor England 
oil field, indispensable to the Russian forces, appears likely to reach the column anywhere, 
and protect a march across Persia, a few '* England cannot now at Bagdad, before a 
months would provide a road practicable to 'arge army is concentrated, 
automobiles across long stretches of the 1800 '^•'^ "*^^^^ *° Moscow is the parallel to 
miles that separate the railroad terminus of which most will turn. The same collapse 
what is now a German railroad system and »"*y '^°"^'^- '^•'^ ®P*" °^^^ ^'^ against suc- 
the terminus of the Indian railroad system. <=«^- ^ "^^^^ "° prediction. "Prophecy is 

Over this span, Alexander drove 80,000 ^^^ "^'^^ gratuitous form of mistake. I 
Greeb and mercenaries, and would have ^^"^^ •»"* marshalled the reasons which sug- 
brought back his victorious army,— the first ^^ **'»*• '^ *•>« Anglo-Indian forces cannot 
from Europe to reach the Indus,— but for retrieve the headlong retreat from Bagdad, 
taking the coast-route bacL A figure as at- ^^^V ">»>'- ^ y^^*" *™"" *'* "^"^ *P""S. 
tractive in Arab history, Mohammed ben 1917, be fighting on the line of the Indus as 
Kassim, though alas! ill-fated, dead ere his «"« I"*^'^" ^^" *"^'' another has for 2200 
prime by the base treachery of a jealous Ca- years since Alexander defeated Porus, gave 
liph, Walid, carried an army half as large to to India Hellenic art, and brought back to 
the Sinde, in 711, beginning a rule unshaken Europe the first words of the teaching of 
for three centuries. In 1398, Timur, by a Buddha. 



THE RUMANIAN SPHINX 

BY T. LOTHROP STODDARD 

AMID the roaring inferno of Eastern great Boyar estates. A middle class hardly 

Europe there stands a land apart. Its exists. What in Rumania passes by that 

northern borders tremble with the thunder name consists of a recent mushroom-growth 

of Teuton and Muscovite artillery; the of offidals, professional men, and numerous 

waters of the great river which bounds its aspirants for those coveted posts and prefer- 

southern frontier are alight with the flames ments. 

of burning Serbian villages red against the In the business life of their country the 

midnight sky. This land, while not a "great native Rumanians take little part. Mer- 

power" as diplomacy knows the term, bulks chants, manufacturers, bankers, shopkeepers, 

large in an hour when Europe bleeds from even the skilled artisans, are nearly all for- 

every pore. Stretching like a blunted cres- eigners of various kinds. Under these cir- 

cent along the lower Danube, one horn thrust cumstances we must be very careful to under- 

» between battling Russia and Austria, the stand what is meant by Rumanian "public 

other pressed deeply between Austria and opinion." As far as foreign politics are con- 

her Bulgarian ally, its strategic importance is cemed, this means the opinion of the landed 

patent to all. And this geographical signifi- aristocracy and the educated elite of the 

cance is heightened by other considerations, towns, especially of Bucharest, the capital. 

The land itself is rich in natural resources. It used to be said that Paris was France. It 

especially wheat and oil; it is inhabited by a is certainly true that in most things Bucha- 

hardy people, numbering nearly eight mil- rest is Rumania. Large as all Rumania's 

lions and capable of furnishing an army of other cities put together, Bucharest, with its 

500,000 excellent soldiers. This land is Ru- 350,000 people, prides itself upon being a 

mania. center of light and leading in an ocean of 

Evidently, here is a factor which must benighted rusticity, — "The Paris of the 

weigh heavily if thrown into the wavering East." Here live the great aristocratic 

balances of war. The question is, Will it be families, people of the highest refinement, who 

thus thrown into the scales, and if so, on prefer the gay, modern life of the capital to 

which side ? That, however, is a query easier their huge estates, abandoned to foreign 

put than answered. Much rumor has come overseers. Hither flock all the bright young 

out of Rumania this past year, but very little men who wish to carve out a career in the 

news. The nation's destinies are in the political, professional, or literary worlds, 
hands of a strong, cryptic personality, — ^Tohn 
Bratiano; and thus far he has answered both Rumblings of agrarian revolt 

foreign pressure and domestic importunity From all this we can see what a vast dif- 
with one word — "Wait!" Under these cir- ference there is between the articulate public 
cumstances the only way to form an intelli- opinion of Rumania and that of her Bul- 
gent opinion regarding the enigma is to garian neighbor. The shrewd, thrifty Bul- 
glance at Rumania's present position in the garian farmer has his own ideas about how 
light of her recent past. From this we may his country should be run, and makes these 
be able to draw some inferences as to her ideas felt. The Rumanian peasant, accus- 
future policy. tomed from time immemorial to do the Boy- 
Rumania is emphatically a land of con- ar's bidding, leaves such abstruse matters as 
trasts. Its Serb and Bulgarian neighbors are foreign affairs to the birth and brains of 
peasant democracies, with no social classes Bucharest. Only one thing vitally interests 
and with widely diffused agricultural well- him, — land. He wants land for himself 
being. Rumania, on the other hand, is in- and his extremely large family; he wants to 
tensely aristocratic! At the apex of the social be freed from his oppressive dependence upon 
pyramid stands a class of high-bom landed the Boyar and his harsh foreign overseer ; he 
proprietors, known as "Boyars" ; beneath lies wants to get out of the clutches of the Greek, 
a great peasant mass, poor, uneducated, often Jew, and Armenian peddler-usurers who in- 
mere landless agricultural laborers upon the fest the countryside and suck his very life- 

71 



72 



THE AMERICAN REVIEIT OF REVIEIfS 



,AUSTRI 



HUNGARY 



blood whenever his improv- 
ident habits lure him into 
debt Only eight years ago 
he rebelled against these 
evils. There was a regular 
"jacquerie" ; hundreds of 
overseers and userers were 
tortured to death, and it 
needed sharp fighting to 
put the rising down. 

Terrified by this glimpse 
into the abyss, the aristoc- 
racy agreed to thoroughgo- 
ing social reforms; but just 
then occurred the "Young- 
Turk" Revolution of 1908, 
and the Balkan pot has 
boiled so furiously ever 
since that Rumania has had 
no time for internal recon- 
struction. This the peas- 
ants realized, and, with ad- 
mirable patience, they have 
refrained from further agi- 
tation. Nevertheless, the promise of social manians who thi 
reconstruction had been definitely given, and political frontier 




^M\ Bulgaria -^ 



RIMANIA AND HER NEIGHBORS 



people of the Rumanian race preddmini 



'ell outside Rumania's 
ree and one-half mil- 
when the late Balkan Wars left Rumania lions live to the west and north in Austria- 
triumphant and apparently secure, reform Hungary, two millions in the Russian prov- 
was patently on the cards. incc of Bessarabia to the cast. These popu- 

Accordingly, early in 1914, the Liberals lations are all oppressed, both the Russian 
took office for this express purpose, the new and the Hungarian governments striving per- 
cabinet being headed by that well-known sistently to destroy their Rumanian race- 
reformer, John Bratiano. Then came the feeling, root out their language and culture. 
Great War. It is obvious that reform will and turn them into Russians and Magyars 
again have to be postponed, but the peasantry (Hungarians). The effect of these pcrsccu- 
arc frankly impatient, and while their patn- tions upon patriotic Rumanians can be im- 
otism keeps them from weakening the Gov- agined. Although little more than half a 
ernment's prestige by interna! dissension, they century has passed since Rumania became an 
are in no mood to welcome ambitious foreign independent State, its progress has been cnor- 
advcnturcs which might dash the cup of re- mous. Especially since the late Balkan 
form from their lips for many years to come. Wars, Rumania has felt itself almost a 
This is undoubtedly one of the main reasons "great power"; and the desire to rescue the 
why Premier Bratiano plays such a cautious suffering race-brothers by uniting them with 
waiting game. He knows that the peasantry Rumania, thereby at the same time creating 
will stand no nonsense. a really powerful nation, has become almost 

a passion among the upper classes. 
The present war offered apparently tempt- 

The peasants want no war. The upper ing opportunities for the realization of these 
classes are, however, in great part of a differ- ambitious dreams. Both the warring coali- 
ent opinion. Among them we find an intense tions have from the first been keenly alive to 
interest in foreign politics. Well read in his the importance of Rumanian aid, and Ru- 
country's history and accustomed to look be- mania has accordingly received the most flat- 
yond its frontiers, the educated Rumanian is tering attentions, the Entente Allies holding 
an ardent patriot, possessed by ambitious out the bait of Austro-Hungarian Transyl- 
dreams. And small wonder, when we con- vania and Bukowtna, the Teutonic Powers 
sider the present position of his race. The Russian Bessarabia, as Rumania's reward for 
Rumanian state contains about eight mil- armed intervention. Of course it is clear 
lions of people; the Rumanian race numbers that Rumania cannot reasonably expect to 
fourteen millions. Of the six million Ru- get both these prizes. The question has 



AMBITIONS OF THE ARISTOCRACY 



THE RUMANIAN SPHINX 73 

thercfbrebeen which she wanted most and occurred till the Second Balkan War of 

which she stood the best chance of obtaining. 1913. In that struggle, however, Austria 

openlv backed Bulgaria, whereas Russia 

rOMKi HATUO OF KUSS.A „,^j R„„,„i^ „ i„„j^ B„,g„i, „j ,„„ 

If the European war had come a few years 
earlier, there could have been little doubt as 
to which side Rumania would have espoused. 
Up to the late Balkan Wars Russia was con- 
sidered Rumania's worst enemy, and Bessa- 
rabia Rumania's chief want. The feud with 
Russia was of long standing. For generations 
the Muscovite Empire had used the Ru- 
manian lands as a highroad to get at the 
Turks, and the Rumanian people had many 
painful recollections of these Russian occupa- 
tions. Indeed, Russia long earmarked 'the 
whole of Rumania as a future Russian prov- 
ince, and during the first half of the Nine- 
teenth Century she got such a grip on the 
country that, had not England and France 
broken her hold in the Crimean War, there 
would never have been a Rumanian nation. 
The last and worst blow which Russia 
dealt Rumania came in 1878. When the 
Russo-Turkish War broke out in 1877 the 
Muscovite armies demanded, and received, 
permission to cross Rumania to jight the 
Turks beyond the Danube. Presently, how- 
ever, the Russians suffered several unex- 
pected defeats, and stood in deadly peril. At 
this critical juncture the Czar telegraphed the 
late King Carol, beting him as a fellow- 
Christian to aid against the Infidel. Carol 

at once crossed the Danube with his whole king Ferdinand of ruuania 

army, and the valor of the Rumanian in- 
. fantry soon turned the tide and started the supported Rumania in her retention of the 
Russians on their march to Constantinople. Bulgarian fortress of Silistria, long coveted 
How did Russia reward this priceless service? by Rumania as an indispensable safeguard 
By forcing Rumania to cede her Bessarabia for her narrow frontage upon the Black Sea, 
with its almost purely Rumanian population! As a result Russia became for the first time 
Deep and bitter has been the grief of the Ru- really popular in Rumania, and this era of 
manian people at this loss. Their literature good feeling reached its climax with the 
is full of sad references to the "accursed Czar's visit to King Carol in the early sum- 
Pruth," the frontier river which sunders the mer of 1914. At that time there was much 
"free" Rumans from their lost brethren. talk of a marriage between the Rumanian 

heir- presumptive and a daughter of the Czar. 

THE PRESENT ERA OF GOOD FEELING 

The result of all this was that when, in '*"«"^ '^"'^""^ anti-t&utonic 
the early '80's, Germany and Austria formed The effea of all this became apparent 
their patently anti-Russian alliance, Ru- when, less than two months after the Czar's 
mania Joined as a matter of course, and for visit the European war broke out. Hohen- 
many years was frankly in the Teutonic fold, zollern King Carol showed a disposition to 
Her Hohenzollern King Carol naturally did align Rumania on the Teutonic side, in ac- , 
everything to confirm and - strengthen this cordance with the treaty made so many years 
state of affairs. True, as time went on the before. But Rumanian public opinion quick- 
Rumanians partly forgot Bessarabia in their ly showed that, treaty or no treaty, it would 
growing indignation at the way the Magyars not hear of such action. At Bucharest the 
were persecuting the Rumans of Hungary, feeling was that the war had been brought 
Still, no radical change in overt sentiment on by Hungarian influence, and no Rumanian 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 




the practical consequences of this conviction 
is a positive veneration for France as the 
head of Latin civilization. Of course this 
Francophilism hardly reaches down to the 
peasant masses, but Rumanian upper-class 
life is consciously modelled on French life, 
Rumanian literature upon French literature, 
and educated Rumanians usually speak 
French almost as well as they do their moth- 
er tongue. The stranger in Bucharest might 
frequently believe himself in Paris. During 
the last few decades, it is true, an increasing 
number of Rumanian intellectuals have gone 
to Germany for their education instead of, 
as formerly, exclusively to France; and these 
men arc to-day pro-German. But they are a 
decided minority. The main current of Bu- 
charest sentiment cleaves to France, 



PSEMIEK BRATIANO 

wished to do anything to increase the power 
of the hated Magyars. Indeed, during the 
first months of the war, public opinion was 
predominantly in favor of armed interven- 
tion against Austria- Hungary. Several cir- 
cumstances combined to bring about this state 
of mind. 

Besides the new friendship for Russia and 
the intense desire to liberate the oppressed 
brethren of Transylvania from the Magyar 
yoke, there was deep sympathy for Russia's 
ally, France. No one can properly gauge 
Rumanian psychology unless he remembers 
the profound influence of France upon the 
Rumanian upper classes. The underlying 
reason for this ardent Francophilism is the 
curious fact that the Rumanians, though 
sundered by hundreds of miles from the near- 
est outposts of the Latin world, consider 
themselves a genuine Latin people. They 
believe that they are the descendants of le- 
gionary colonies which the Roman Emperor 
Trajan settled upon these lands after his 
defeat of the primitive Dacian inhabitants. 

RUMANIAN FRIENDSHIP FOR FRANCS 

Whether 'the modern Rumanians are, in- 
deed, the sons of Trajan's legionaries, is ex- 
ceedingly doubtful. But, after all, the truth 
or falsity of this theory does not make much 
actual difference. In these race questions the 
essential point for practical politics is, not 
what people really arc, but what they think 
they are. The Rumanians think they are 
Latins; think so passionately; — and one of 



Notwithstanding this continued preponder- 
ance of pro-Ally feeling, however, the pros- 
pect of Rumania's adhesion to the Allied 
cause looks much less likely to-day than it 
did a year ago. For several months after 
the beginning of the European War popular 
pressure upon the Government to strike at 
Austria-Hungary and invade Transylvania 
increased in intensity. From January to 
April, 1915, when the Russian hosts stood on 
the Carpathian mountain crests and looked 
down Into the plains of Hungary, the cry for 
action was almost irresistible. When, at the 
end of May, the "Latin Sister" Italy joined 
the ranks of Austria's enemies, Rumania 
would probably have followed suit had not 
the Teutons already begun their "Galician 
drive" which was to hurl the Muscovites 
clean out of Galicia, Poland, and Lithuania. 

Why, during all those critical months, did 
Premier Bratiano set himself so resolutely 
against public opinion ? For several reasons. 
In the first place he knew that, however 
loudly Bucharest might clamor for war, its 
voice was the voice of the educated intel- 
lectuals, and not that of the great rural 
masses, who were opposed to a policy of ad- 
venture. And adventurous it certainly would 
be for Rumania to plunge in on either side 
before the ultimate issue of the stru^le was 
pretty obviously decided. For a small state 
like Rumania a wrong guess might mean 
nothing short of national death. If Rumania 
joined the Allies, an Allied defeat would 
leave her at the mercy of her infuriated Mag- 
yar neighbors, — a truly frightful picture for 
any Rumanian to contemplate. If she sup- 
ported the cause of the Cer.tral Powers, Tcu- 



THE RUMANIAN SPHINX 75 

tonic defeat, with its correlative Russian pre- even though Russia stood on the Carpathi- 

dominance over Eastern Europe, would prob- ans ; when the Muscovite tide swirled 

ably make Rumania a Russian province. back, broken, into the Galician plains, a 

With regard to a drive against Austria- drive for Transylvania became little short 

Hungary; although the Bucharest intellec- of madness. 

tuals might talk glibly of a conquest of Tran- At least, that is the way most Rumanians 

sylvania, Bratiano's military advisers of the seem to feel to-day. Even Bucharest seems 

Rumanian general stafE could tell a very dif- to have been largely converted to Premier 

ferent story. Transylvania is a nexus of Bratiano's "watchful waiting." ' There are, 

rug^d, forest-dad mountains, easily defens- of course, two extreme groups which stil! 

ible by a small garrison. Furthermore, such urge the absolute necessity of Rumania's 

a garrison could count upcHi the vigorous sup- armed intervention on one side or the other, 

port of nearly half the native population. But the awful scenes enacted for so many 

Though Transylvania is frequently described months upon Rumania's very borders and 

as a Rumanian land, the Rumans really the appalling responsibilities involved in a 

form only about 55 per cent, of the total positive decision, have momentarily chilled 

population, the remainder being Magyars partisan sympathies and territorial ambitions 

and Germans, both of whom despise the Ru- in most Rumanian breasts. When the scales 

manians as an inferior race and would un- of victory shall have begun definitely to de- 

doubiedly fight to the death against a menace scend, warlike feeling may be expected to 

of Rumanian domination. Also, Bratiano' reawaken once more, and, according to the 

realized that not even all Rumania's mili- circumstances of the case, voices will again 

tary forces could be employed in this hercu- clamor for the seizure of the Transylvanian 

lean task. Just to the south lay Bulgaria, or the Bessarabian prize. Until then the Ru- 

burning to avenge Rumania's seizure of Silis- manian people will probably continue to hug 

tria in the second Balkan War. A cool- their present safety and to indorse John 

headed statesman might well hesitate from Bratiano, the cautious pilot of the national 

placing his country between two such fires, destinies. 



IDE PALATIAL BUILDING OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN RUMANIA 



LYMAN ABBOTT AT EIGHTY 

THE history of our country, which is not inisccnces that tell us of his father and uncle, 
very long, may be studied in several and of other personages in an environing kin- 
different ways; But in no other way is the ship, help us to see how remarkable in the 
Study so fascinating or so enlightening as by shaping of our American destinies has been" 
means of biography. Dr. Lyman Abbott's the influence of fathers upon sons through 
ancestors came to Massachusetts about twen- several generations. 

ty years after the landing of the Pilgrim Educational work brought the father and 
Fathers at Plymouth. Doubtless his own uncle from Maine to New York, and Lyman 
comprehension of the growth of New Eng- Abbott grew up and was educated in that 
land and the making of America comes very city. His chapters upon the metropolis of his 
largely through the experiences of father, boyhood and college days give us intensely 
grandfather, and various family connections, interesting pictures of the period, especially 
His own experiences in turn in the early '50's. He went 

will have helped later genera- to college in the University of 

tions to understand better the New York, which then occu- 

American life in which he has pied a building on the east 

for so long a time played his side of Washington Square, 

active and valuable part. He finished the course at the 

Dr. Abbott was eighty years age of eighteen, Jn' 1853. He 

old on the 18th of December. was fortunate in having sev- 

For more than fifty years he eral men of strong personality 

has been prominent before the and eminent scholarship for 

American public, — one of its teachers. He was associated 

foremost teachers in the prin- through these years with 

ciples and practise of freedom. two brothers, a little older 

He has shown great diversity than himself, who were all 

of talent, and remarkable skill that older brothers should be, 

in using the instruments of and who became prominent 

several different professions, lvwan aabott as he lawyers. He soon joined them, 
His work as a whole, how- looked sixty years ago ^^j f^^ several years practised 
ever, has been unified and har- g, gboui twm""^tfi''ol*\tt. law successfully as a member 
monious; and it has always ha?"*!?!! 'mu«t«h'c'''»*d'^h- u^ °^ *^' '^"" °* Abbott Broth- 
been that of a public teacher, g'inringi of > tward") " ers. He was married while 
who believes in orderly free- very young, made his home in 
dom of thought and action, and who aims Brooklyn, and came into close intimacy and 
to lift individuals and communities to that association with Henry Ward Beechcr, the 
high plane of enlightenment upon which con- most brilliant and inspiring of American 
science «nd reason may safely control men preachers and platform orators. Outside of 
in their choices and relationships. his law work, he was devoted to the Young 

Dr. Abbott came of a line of ministers, Men's Christian Association, then in its early 
teachers, and authors. His father and his days, and to reform politics, taking- his posi- 
uncle were proficient and distinguished in tion as a Free Soiler and Anti-Slavery man, 
those general Qplds of professional useful- though not an Abolitionist. His account of 
ness and service in which he and his own the Fremont campaign of 1856, in which he 
brothers afterwards became eminent. A few worked as a young Republican, is of especial 
weeks ago there appeared a volume entitled interest. 

"Reminiscences," from Dr. Lyman Abbott's After about four years of law practise, 
pen. So firm a believer in free will is Dr. Lyman Abbott decided to enter the ministry. 
Abbott, that he holds without question to He found himself in charge of a Presbyterian 
the view that his own life has been worked church at Terrc Haute, Ind., in 1860, when 
out through a series of voluntary choices, and twenty-five years of age. There he remained 
not through the compelling forces of hered- through the period of the Civil War, after 
ity. Yet the admirable chapters in his rem- which for a few years he held a pastorate in 



LYMAN ABBOTT AT EIGHTY 



New Yorfc City. Then came an- 
other change, and his work was 
henceforth to be more actively that 
ai an editor and man of letters. For 
some time he was a literary worker 
on Harper's Aiagaxine, and after 
several other editorial connections 
he became, about forty years ago, 
the associate of Henry Ward Beech- 
er ' in conducting the Christian 
Union, a widely circulated weekly 
paper that now tor many years has 
been known as the Outlook. 

Some men who change professions 
do it in a way that seems to disrupt 
their careers. There arc several 
prominent editors and writers in 
New York who seem almost them- 
selves to have forgotten their earlier 
- periods of pulpiteering. But Dr. 
Abbott has never made any such 
repudiations or harsh changes. He 
was a Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation worker sixty years ago, and 
he is giving Sunday afternoons this 
very winter to addressing the mem- 
bers of Young Men's Christian As- 
sociations. He was admitted to the 
New York bar sixty years ago this 
year, and he is still a member of the 
bar of the State of New York. He 
was ordained a Congregational minister in 
I860, and he has never ceased to be one, 
usually preaching on Sundays, although not 
held to the fixed local duties that belong 
to a parish priest. After the death of 
Henry Ward Beccher, Dr. Abbott con- 
sented to serve Plymouth Church until a 
permanent successor should be found ; but 
Plymouth held him for eleven years (from 
1888 to 1899), when Newell Dwight HilHs 
came from Chicago and entered upon the 
pastorate that he still continues. Through 
all these eleven years as preacher and pastor 
in Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, Dr. Abbott 
maintained his active editorship of the influ- 
ent ia) paper where he remains to-day as 
editor-in-chief. 

His preaching for the last sixteen years 
has been very largely to college students. 
Perhaps no other man in the country has, in 
this or any earlier period, influenced so many 
students as a visiting college preacher. He 
has been singularly fitted to help the younger 
generation in the search for ethical and re- 
ligious truth, because of his own open-mind- 
edness and freedom from prejudice. He has 
written a large number of books in the gen- 
eral field of Bible study and interpretation. 




Wt LYMAN ABBOTT AT EJGHTY 

and of Christian ethics and theology. These 
books have often been disturbing to those who 
preferred to accept traditional views and dog- 
mas. But they have been of great help to 
many who seek to find a faith consistent with 
the use of their own intellectual processes 
and powers. By mental nature and habit 
Dr. Abbott is a rationalist; but there is 
mysticism in his nature and he has the gift 
of imagination. These qualities, and the 
knowledge of men and things that comes 
from long and wide experience, have modi- 
fied Dr. Abbott's tendency always to treat 
matters logically. Otherwise, his proneness 
to reason about things, and to generalize, 
might have been indulged at the expense of 
a less highly developed faculty of observation. 
A lifetime of great and never-failing 
accomplishment has been due to early habits 
of concentration and industry. As a boy 
he was of slight and delicate physique, but 
he learned to care for his health and con- 
serve his energies, and found that wide in- 
tellectual interest and mental work are 
wholesome in themselves. In the college 
debating society he learned to think on his 
feet and to express himself dearly; and he 
has always been one of the most finished 



78 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

and impres^ve extemporaneous speakers of Dr. Abbott has contributed almost countless 
his time. His editorial articles are so ex- articles and notes that have the charm of 
cellently constructed from the logical stand- exquisite literature^ 

point, and so lucid and mature in their We have only faintly suggested the wealth 
phrasing, that many readers might have of memory and allusion to be found in his 
thought of them as having been worked over, recent volume of "Reminiscences." Many, 
and perhaps rewritten painstakingly. But if not all, of the chapters of this book had 
Dr. Abbott is a very rapid writer, and his appeared from time to time in the Outlook. 
work needs no revision. This is because Few men have understood so well as he how 
his mental processes arc so active and so to write and print material that serves its 
highly trained withal, that his editorial article purpose of teaching and inspiring the read- 
has formed itself, — as he takes a morning crs of a weekly journal, while at the same 
walk, or rides in the subway, or reads a news- time having such qualities of permanence as 
paper or book, — before a word is written, to justify subsequent collection and publica- 
At the office of the Outlook Dr. Abbott tion in book form. Dr. Abbott has ere- 
has always had a well-organized group of ated a number of valuable books by this 
associates and aides, and these for many method. 

years past have included, besides Dr. Hamil- Several weeks ago there died in Baltimore 
ton Mabie, two of his own sons. But while a very useful citizen whose career as business 
he is thus relieved of office detail, he comes man and philanthropist had brought him 
from his country home at Corn wall-on- Hud- great local honor and esteem. He had round- 
son for a weekly editorial council, and is in ed out a full hundred years, and had main- 
constant touch through the telephone or tained active connection with useful enter- 
cor respond encc. His pen continues to inter- prises to the very last. The "elder states- 
pret what he regards as the important move- men" and the elder writers and thinkers are 
ments of the time, and there is no falling off a priceless asset to any country when at a 
in the alertness and courage of his com- sufficiently early age they have, in Scripture 
ments, nor in their virile force and practical phrase, so numbered their days as to apply 
wisdom. An example of his method in anal- their hearts unto wisdom. Most careers of 
ysis, statement, and expression of editorial usefulness that end late have begun early I 
view is to be found in his article on the We beg to commend to all students and 
President's message in the Outlook for De- young men the chapters in Dr. Abbott's 
cember 15. Through many years Dr. Ab- reminiscences that tell of his boyhood and 
bott has not only written editorial interpreta- student days. He has built a distinguished 
tions that have helped to shape American career of honor and public service upon the 
thinking and action in public affairs, but lines of character and effort laid down in his 
he has also written much to make the Out- boyhood. That there may still remain many 
look a welcome family visitor by reason of years of so notable a life, will be the wish 
its treatment of the personal and private of scores of thousands who feel a sense of 
problems of faith and conduct. And besides personal obligation to Dr. Lyman Abbott 
all this, as a lover of music and of nature A. S. 



IHE OLD ABBOTT HOMESTEAD. "FEVACRES.'' AT 



EDUCATING THE IMMIGRANT 

FOR CITIZENSHIP 

THE making of Americans out of the orders which had been given in the Eng- 
great mass of the foreign-born who come lish language, 
to our shores is now receiving much more The Bureau of Education not only en- 
careful consideration. The process has too deavors to induce the adult foreigner to 
often been both irregular and haphazard. Left learn English, but goes further back and 
largely to the initiative of the foreigner him- deals with the immigrant children. By co- 
self, or to small organizations, the fusing of operation with the Commissioner of Immi- 
the new elements in our national melting gration, the names of immigrant children of 
pot has not met with the highest measure of school age are obtained from the lists of ar- 
success. This has been a distinct loss to the riving steamships. These names are sent to 
nation as well as to the mdividual. Many school authorities in the districts whither the 
who should have become citizens have children are bound, so that the little pros- 
failed to qualify because of the lack of pective citizens may be promptly searched 
proper encouragement and assistance. Oth- out and brought into the schools. To at- 
ers who have achieved citizenship have tract the adult foreigner to the advantages 
not always arrived at this position of sover- of intelligent citizenship, the Bureau, in co- 
cignty with increased respect for their new- operation with the Committee for Immi- 
found dignity. grants, of New York, publishes a litho- 

For about a year and a half the Bureau graphed poster 30x20 inches in size. This 

of Education at Washington has been en- poster is printed in red, white, and blue, 

gaged in a nation-wide investigation into the with the boldly printed title "America 

facilities provided for the education of im- First," and urgently invites the foreigner, in 

migrants. It has recently begun to estab- six different languages, to learn the language 

lish standards in subject matter and methods of the country. He is told that it means 

of instruction. Circulars and news-letters for him not only the honor of citizenship, 

describing the most effective methods are is- but the securing of a job. These posters are 

sued, together with information regarding being displayed in 25,000 of the principal 

the most advanced facilities offered by pri- post offices, as well as in schools and indus- 

vate institutions and school authorities. A trial establishments throughout the country, 

special department of the Bureau of Educa- The local agencies are also urged by the 

tion, under the direction of Dr. H. H. Bureau of Education at Washington to 

Whcaton, is given over entirely to this work secure from the courts the names and ad- 

of helping to educate the foreign-born for dresses of those who have applied for natu- 

American citizenship. ralization papers. Letters, for which the 

The Bureau not only deals directly with Bureau supplies an excellent form (modeled 
the problem from national points, but co- after the one used in Cleveland, Ohio), are 
operates in various ways with State and lo- then to be addressed to these individuals by 
cal agencies. Especial emphasis is placed on the local organization. These letters inform 
the teaching of English as the fundamental the foreigner of the importance of learning 
requisite in the making of a citizen, for there English, and give him all necessary informa- 
are nearly three million foreign-born whites, tion about the public night school being con- 
ten years of age and over, in this country, ducted in his neighborhood. 
who are unable to speak English. Inability The Bureau of Education at Washington 
to speak the language of the country is not also gives advice and assistance to local edu- 
oniy a bar to citizenship but a barrier to cational departments as to the manner of 
success in business. Moreover, it has been conducting schools for immigrants. In a 
found that accidents in factories and number of cities there is close and helpful 
workrooms have often been directly due cooperation between the courts of naturali- 
to the workman's inability to understand zation and the evening schools in this work 

79 



80 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

of making Americans. The 
courses usually include lessons 
in civics, talks by public offi- 
cials, lawyers, judges, and trips 
to the city hall, the court- 
house, Kbrary, and other pub- 
lic buildings. 

Where such citizenship 
courses for immigrants arc 
conducted, there is usually a 
public reception at the end of 
the course, on which occasion 
the new Americans are induct- 
ed into their citizenship with 
appropriate exercises. The 
ceremonies are held in halls 
liberally decorated with the 
American flag, patriotic songs 
are sung, appropriate addresses 
made, and then the citizen- 
ship papers are handed out. 
A number of cities have, 
within the past year, held 
impressive .public ceremonies 
of this character. 

Baltimore held its reception 
under the name of "New 
Voters' Day." In Cleveland 
the Community Sane Fourth 
Committee arranged appropri- 
ate exercises with the cooper- 
ation of the various patriotic 
and civic organizations. Bos- 
ton held its "New Citizens' 
Reception" in historic Faneuil 
Hall, and in New York City 
the scene of the ceremonies 
was laid in the new stadium 
of the College of the City of 
New York. Philadelphia had 
the distinction last May of ir^^^iUVlf .'rtrojL'c?.,^;^'*"^?^^.^"^ 

having President Wilson prCS- llfbri"". ^'•J"\ Lilhuanian. Hoh™ian and llungaiiin. thi ^mr ,ii 

cnt to make an appropriate ad- eiiaWii'hnirnu ihrmigLiIt iii« country)" "'' '" "^ "'" '" '" "'"" 
dress on an occasion of this 

kind. The Fourth of July is frequently cho- So important has this question of thor- 
scn as the time for these public receptions to oughly assimilating and Americanizing the 
new citizens, and in fact the movement has foreigner become, that the following article 
already become widespread for the setting on the methods used in the City of Los 
apart of this national holiday as "Americani- Angeles for making American citizens will 
zation Day." ' be found of interest. While the article in 

In addition to what the Government and question deals specifically with Los Angeles, 
the cities arc doing, voluntary organizations, the other cities mentioned above have well- 
like the National Americanization Commit- organized systems for carrying on this 
tee, are also actively cooperating in the work work, exercising oversight of the immi- 
of educating the immigrant. A number of grant from the moment of his arrival at 
simple books on civics, especially prepared for the local railroad station, — where he is pro- 
teaching new Americans, have also appeared, tected from the rapacity of cab and taxi 
An excellent volume of this kind is mentioned drivers, — to his evolution as a full-Hedged 
in our book department this month, citizen of his adopted land. 



THE LOS ANGELES EXAMPLE 

BY CHESTER FERRIS 

NOT until recently has any adequate plan us natives, however, remember with shame 
been advanced for training the new ar- our public reception into the family of voters, 
rivals for worthy citizenship. Many believe Surely here a great opportunity is refused to 
that here is a work of great necessity, but are incite new citizens to the highest use of their 
at a loss for a method to accomplish it. Ger- privilege by a ceremony righdy impressive, 
many, in accordance with its Kultur, — ^which An even more disastrous neglect, of 
is its scheme for adjusting every inhabitant to course, has been the naturalization of our 
the purposes of the state, — ^subjects even the millions of immigrants with absolutely no 
passing traveler to closest scrutiny and sur- adequate preparation for citizenship. Some 
veillance, while all citizens are enrolled, coaching they have received, but alack, too 
dated, located, described, and taxed with often the schoolroom was the back of a saloon 
police-like authority and machine precision, whence some boss led them as a flock of 
Liberty worshiping America would not for a sheep to the legal official. Then, entirely 
moment permit such paternalism. Now in ignorant of our history and the meaning of 
full accord with this passion for liberty comes our institutions, unable to speak or under- 
to the front the new provision for training stand our language, blissfully unaware of any 
the immigrants in citizenship. significance of the ballot odier than its sale 

Before passing to a description of the new price of a dollar, they were given the most 
method, it is well to remind ourselves of the sacred privilege possessed by an American ! 
utterly grotesque manner in which the nation Can we wonder that so many immigrants 
has been accustomed to admit immigrants to have proved undesirable, or that corruption 
the suffrage. Prof. Edward Steiner, of Grin- in politics has proved so easy ? Must we not 
ncll College, describes his emotions when as a rather admire the sterling qualities of those 
Jewish lad he took out his final papers. The other millions from across the seas whose 
sordidness which rolled up in the foreign loyalty to America has more than survived 
quarters of our cities had not been able to this act of disrespect to their intelligence? 
overwhelm the idealism with which as chief To meet the situation properly, an ad- 
stock in trade he had come here. The day' mirable plan is executed in the progressive 
for naturalization had arrived. As one up- city of Los Angeles. Determined that this 
lifted, treading on air, he walked the ten shall continue "a city without a slum," or of 
miles to the county seat to become a citizen slum politics, that first citizen and true friend 
of America the Blest. He found the gov- of the immigrants. Rev. Dana Bartlett, of 
ernment office, — a dingy room filled with to- the Bethlehem Institutions, working with 
bacco smoke, idlers hanging about, an ig- others, secured a series of measures by which 
norant politician to administer the sacred to educate the immigrant in the meaning and 
oath of American citizenship. spirit of our American institutions. 

Think of a clap-trap, whiskey-smelling First in time and perhaps in importance is 
politician putting the test for the suffrage to a course of instruction given in the high 
this noble-souled young idealist! It was school during a period of ten weeks, one 
enough to make angels weep. Well, it did night each week, in charge of Prof. C. C. 
not spoil young Steiner. His grasp of the Kelso, of the high school faculty, who de- 
spirit of America was strong enough to sur- votes himself heart and soul to his work. He 
mount the disappointment and he has devel- thus describes the program: "It covers na- 
oped into one of our most enthusiastic citi- tional, State, county, rural, and civil gov- 
zens. Yet what must be the effect of such a ernment. Civics is treated as a biological 
farce upon the thousands of people from study. Society is a living, growing organism ; 
across the seas whom we should wish to new needs and new possibilities are con- 
think that even in their dreams of this land tinually arising. The citizen should know 
of the free, "the half had not been told"? something of the framework of government, 
True the administration is not always nor and so the constitution and its three-fold de- 
probably generally so squalid. Even many of partments of government are not neglected ; 

Jan. — 6 61 



82 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

but the vital things of the political life of recitals of the contribution of various na- 
to-day are emphasized. As social justice is tions to American ideals, programs of na- 
the great demand of our time, the great tional songs and folk dances were rendered, 
problem of American citizenship is how to That month!s class of seventy from the school 
meet this demand. Democracy, as never be- were received with unusually impressive cere- 
fore, is on trial, and intelligent citizenship is mony. On each of the days exhibits were 
absolutely necessary if democracy is to made showing what America is doing and 
endure." planning to do for immigrants through fed- 

Only those who know Professor Kelso can eral. State, municipal, and private organiza- 
appreciate the value of this training, not tions. Not least was a largely attended even- 
only in its mental quality, but in the flavor ing banquet to which the people of the city 
of its social idealism. Let it be said, that each brought a new citizen as guest. Finally, 
beginning with presiding Judge J. P. Works, on July 4, celebrations were held in four 
other judges who deal with naturalization high schools of the city to recognize the new 
have been quick to see and seize the possi- immigrant citizens and also young natives 
bilities. Upon receiving certificates from voting for the first time, strong addresses bc- 
the school, they waive any further educa* ing given by leaders of numerous races and 
tional tests. Now that the approval of the various creeds. 

federal authorities has been heartily given. From Ellis Island has come this suggestion 
the method may be adopted anywhere in the to adapt the Fourth to modern uses. The 
United States. In Los Angeles, while not old animus to the noisy and boastful cele- 
compulsory, the courts urge it, and large bration has been outgrown. We no longer 
nunibers avail themselves of the course in find any exhilaration in denouncing England 
the successive classes. or crowing over ancient victories. The 

Moreover, it must not be forgotten that spread-eagle oratory has had its day. The 
the sentiment of patriotism bursts not full tumult of fire-crackftrs is largely outlawed, 
blown but requires cultivation. In Los An- Shall the day be given over to sports, pick- 
geles a variety of means are utilized to in- nicking, and idleness? No, the Los Angeles 
still love of country and the sense of brother- way has great values to commend it. Such 
hood of all Americans. Thus on the Wed- an opportunity for cultivating love for coun- 
nesday evening of each month following the try and devotion to its ideals should every- 
admission of a class to citizenship, an open where be enthusiastically adopted. The 
meeting is held in the high school audi- Athenians of old had such a holiday for the 
torium. A judge presents the coveted pa- initiation of their youth into citizenship, 
pers, an address of welcome is given by a Why not in America use the Fourth of July, 
prominent resident to which some of their* rich in patriotic association, for the dedica- 
nambcr respond, and there is stirring pa- tion of citizens old and new, immigrant and 
triotic music It is not for them to sing, native, to the highest ideals of our country's 
"my native country thee" and "land where service? 

my fathers died," but they can join with Another stage for the training of the new 
right good will in the stanza adapted to citizen may be provided in the civic centers, 
them: By State law in California, every school- 

„. , ^ , ^ . house becomes a civic center. Here the 

"Adopted country, thee, .it . ^ ^ . 

Great land of liberty, neighbors may organize to promote m any 

Of thee we sing. way the community welfare. Much use is 

For freedom, peace, and right, made in Los Angeles of this opportunity. 

We'll strive with all our might: Speakers are heard, courses of instruction 
From lands not lost to sight . i? -..u • • -. ^« i i ^u 

Our best we bring." given. For the immigrant particularly the 

centers prove a benefit. First of all, perhaps^ 
In this way the new citizen is made to feel when inducted into citizenship, the program 
his genuine welcome into the chosen coun- is rendered by one of these organizations, its 
try. It may be said, too, that many an old aim is carefully explained and he is earnestly, 
resident gains here a new sense of respon- with his family, urged to join. At the civic 
sibility and privilege in his citizenship. center meetings, touching elbows with repre- 

Still further, in Los Angeles, particular sentatives of many nationalities of the neigh- 
use is made of the great national holidays, borhood, his national S3rmpathies are broad- 
notably July 4. In 1915, an International cned, and a new flame is contributed to the 
Festival was held during the greater part of melting pot, by which a new elemental blood 
a week culnunadng in that day. Dramatic is being wrought out in America. 



OUR ADMINISTRATION OF THE 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

BY THOMAS LINDSEY BLAYNEY 

[In view of much recent and current discussion regarding the present management of pub- 
lic affairs in the Philippine Islands, we are publishing herewith an article by Prof. Thomas 
Lindsey Blayney, of the William M. Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. Professor Blayney is a distin- 
guished, scholar, a man of great experience, and an admirer and supporter of President Wilson. 
All the circumstances of his visit to the Philippines, as well as his relationships at home, render 
it impossible that Professor Blayney should have been actuated in his in()uiries, and in the prepara- 
tion of this article for the Review, by any other than the highest and most disinterested motives. 
Professor Blayney was one of the professors honored by appointment during the past year by the 
American committee representing; the Albert Kahn Foundation of Paris. This foundation sends two 
American university professors around the world each year, with the special object in view of 
having them study Oriental conditions and ideals. In correspondence with the editor of this maga- 
zine. Dr. Blayney made the following remarks: 

'7 had heard so many expressions of dissatisfaction from prominent Americans, both Democrats 
and Republicans, in various parts of the world, concerning the present policies of the administration 
at Manila that I determined to go to the Philippines ana satisfy myself concerning the situation 
there, 

"I talked with business men, native and foreign, educators, clergymen, army and navy of' 
ficers, editors, American and British, and many Filipinos of undoubted patriotism and intelligence, 
and I do not hesitate to assure you that the demoralizing tendency of the policies of the present 
American administration in the islands is deserving of the widest publicity, 

*'I am an admirer of President Wilson, and do not wish to be considered as making an attack 
upon his policies. I have no direct or indirect interest in the islands other than that of any Amer^ 
ican citizen who has left nothing undone in the brief time allotted to him to form an unfrejudiced 
opinion, and who cherishes a sincere desire for the prosperity, happiness, and future independence 
of the islands, whether this be within or without the Pale of the American commonwealth" 

On arriving at Manila Dr. Blayney was told that it would be impossible to induce representa- 
tive natives to give their real views upon the situation on account of their fear of the political ring. 
He was, therefore, greatly gratified at the marks of confidence shown him by intelligent and inde- 
pendent Filipinos. This may be attributed to experience acquired by extended residence in Latin 
countries of Europe and to his knowledge of Oriental character gathered through an extensive ac- 
quaintanceship with Orientals in Morocco, India, China, and Japan. Professor Blayney suggested 
a welKknown personage as qualified to give to the people of the United States an unbiased account 
of the situation. We have preferred, however, to invite Dr. Blayney to give our readers the re- 
sults of his sincere effort to get at the real facts of a situation which he describes as "bidding fair 
to become a national disgrace if we allow politics and sentiment to take the place of reason and 
justice." — The Editor.] 

RUSKIN has said, "The art of any coun- varied forms of civic and philanthropic 
try is the exponent of its social and idealism, — necessarily projects into the eco- 
political virtues." After one has visited our nomic, social, and political life of a de- 
own and other great colonial dependencies pendency (the situation being normal) 
in the Orient, he is tempted to paraphrase the quintessence of the best aspirations of 
Ruskin's statement and to assert that "the the race. 

colonial undertakings of a country are the Tested by the foregoing, our own country 
surest reflection of its social and political may well be proud of the record made by its 
ideals.'' Nowhere can the best impulses administrators in Havana, Porto Rico, Pan- 
bom of national virtues be appreciated more ama, and till recently in the Philippines, 
clearly than when seen in perspective as Both we ourselves and foreign critics have 
translated into the administrative policies of found weaknesses in our national life. Nev- 
a great nation in its control of an alien ertheless our recent history has amply proven 
people. that in the last analysis we are both efficient 

A great nation, — a nation whose body poli- and idealistic. This has been shown by the 
tic is sound and whose greatness is measured varied manifestations of our endeavors as 
not merely by its economic prosperity, but by applied to dependent peoples, — the reflection 
all those dynamic potentialities reflected in of the disinterested idealism and nonpartisan 

83 



84 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

motives of our best lawgivers at home and ten regarding the present administration is 
our experienced administrators abroad. prompted by selfish interests. The follow- 

ing observations made in the course of a 
OUR SPLENDID RECORD ^j^j^ ^^ UznWz arc therefore submitted as 

When historians of die future shall have disinterested evidence. These observations 
spoken a dispassionate and final verdict upon deal largely with questions upon which opin- 
the deeds and achievements of the first dec- ions differ at Washington and concerning 
ade of our occupancy of the Philippine which it is very difficult in the United States 
Islands (before some of our less thoughtful to secure first-hand information. They re- 
politicians and papers at home had begun to fleet the consensus of opinion of most repre- 
make political capital out of the so-called sentative Americans, as well as of Filipinos 
''independence movement" in the islands), and foreigners in the islands, and, for brev- 
no more inspiring chapter in our national ity's sake, the opmions and arguments of 
history will be found. Nor will there be the writer are allowed to obtrude as little 
found elsewhere a finer list of names of men as possible, 
representing the best type of American man- 

hood and idealism than the pages that record ^^ ^"^^^^ '"^ sentiment toward 
the first twelve years of American adminis- Americans 

tration and achievement in the Orient. No greater surprise is in store for the 

The present projection of partisan politics traveler upon his arrival at Manila to-day 
into the administration of the Philippine than the realization that American ideals are 
Islands, — the tendency to allow party the- now at a discount in the islands. With but 
cries and sentimental notions to supersede one exception practically all Americans, Fili- 
the dictates of sound judgment and common pinos, and Englishmen speak of a marked 
sense, — ^must needs be looked upon as an in- lessening of respect for Americans and 
cidental, though regrettable, moment in the things American. (The exception is an 
development of our over-the-sca policies. American lawyer having business relations 
Above motives of such a type our real states- with Filipino politicians, and who, the wri* 
men of both parties, as contradistinguished ter understands, has represented Filipino in- 
from political opportunists, will surely rise, terests at Washington.) This was ex- 
There is no phenomenon of our national life plained by the fact that the politicians and 
more passing strange than that which in- public have seen courageous administrators, 
clines many of our good people to accept men whom they at heart admired, but under 
the statements of paid emissaries of the Fili- whose efficient administration the "politicos" 
pino political junto, or of some of our new had chafed and who therefore had been mer- 
and inexperienced officials at Manila, rather cilessly attacked by them, replaced under the 
than those of our fellow-countrymen of long new administration by inexperienced offidals. 
administrative experience in the islands. And when they saw these new arrivals begin 
Especially is this remarkable in view of the to curry favor with the politicians and to 
fact that the statements of men of this last- call themselves "friends of the Filipinos," 
named class could easily be either verified they became bewildered. And this bewil- 
or disproven by appealing not only to the derment gave way to a lessening of respect 
records, but also to residents of character, for Americans in general when it was seen 
To accuse all former officers of administra- that these inexperienced men of the "new 
tion of insincerity or narrow bias, and to regime," by the frequent use of this word 
disqualify the evidence of the best men of "friend," attributed by implication the con- 
cur own blood in the islands (whether trary to the long list of the best administra- 
clergymen, educators, jurists, or students of tive officers the American Government in 
colonial policies) as being prompted by self- the past had been able to send to them, and 
ish motives, must of necessity be but a pass- whom it seemed now the fashion to consider 
ing phase of party blindness and cannot con- as little better than "carpet-baggers." And 
tinue as a fundamental defect in our na- when they found some of the most important 
tional character. of these new "friends" at times deficient in 

Undoubtedly the overwhelming majority statesman-like judgment and poise and not 
of the members of Congress and of the too careful in their utterances of the dignity 
American public, irrespective of party, wants of their positions, there could not but result 
to do the right thing by the Filipinos. Nev- an inevitable slump in their esteem for 
ertheless, there is an unfortunate impres- Americans in generaL It is felt that this 
sion abroad that much that has been writ- situation should be remedied at once ; that so 



OUR ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 85 

long as the American flag continues to fly, that the President could do a real service 

our administrative officers should not fall to humanity by seeing to it that men of this 

below a fixed high standard of attainment, type be not eliminated from the service, 
experience, dignity, courage, and vision; and 

thkt ampk powers should be vested in them ^ «^^« standard of civil service absc 

for the sake both of administrative efficiency lutbly necessary 

and of the dignity of their offices. The wri- And this brings us to the very heart of the 

ter concurs in believing that the early actions question. It is the opinion of all Americans 

and pronunciamentos of some of our high and foreigners that the inviolability of the 

officials of the new administration cannot be civil service must be re-established by Gov- 

lived down. He regrets also to have to add ernor-General Harrison or by his successor 

that the personality and qualifications of two if the good name of our governmental meth- 

of the important American officials of the ods is not to be irrevocably compromised, 

new administration are of such an order that Also that the mere fact of a Filipino being 

he has never seen their names mentioned an aspirant for office should not be a suffi- 

without a general smile of commiseration be- cient reason for his appointment, as has been 

ing called forth. too frequently the case under the present ad- 
ministration. The claim is made by the Ad- 

CURRYINO FAVOR WITH FILIPINO POLm- ministration that such charges are not in 

^'^^S keeping with the facts and that only Fili- 

All Americans and foreigners of experi- P»nos of unquestionable qualifications have 
ence agree in feeling that it is not only a se- been allowed to supersede American officials, 
rious mistake studiously to curry favor with The following incident, the facts of which 
disaffected politicians, but that it is a grave were received first hand by the writer, will, 
error of administrative judgment to hesitate, however, illustrate the "careful" way in 
either at Manila or Washington, in adopting which under the new era Filipinos have been 
effective measures and policies for fear of appointed to offices of trust, 
wounding the susceptibilities of the Filipinos. The post of Assistant-Director of the 
The contention seems established that the Bureau of Agriculture was to be filled, 
"mestizo" politician is devoid of any feel- Without even consulting the American Di- 
ing of gratitude toward the United States, rector of the Bureau, the Governor-General 
That, therefore, discarding any hope of ap- promised the post, at the request of the 
preciation in return, it should be our single Speaker of the Assembly, to a henchman of 
purpose to give to the islands the kind of the latter, the then Governor of the Province 
administration which may command, not the of Pampanga. Shortly before the appoint- 
plaudits of the present, but rather the appro- ment was to be made public Governor-Gen- 
bation of history and the gratitude of fu- cral Harrison at a dinner party casually in- 
ture generations. It is felt at Manila that formed the Director that he had "found an 
anything short of this does not represent the Assistant-Director" for him. Now, it so hap- 
highest and best form of American idealism ; pened that the Filipino Governor selected 
that this is what the great majority of Amer- for the post by the "ring" and accepted by 
ican people want to see practised abroad, the Governor-General had been one of the 
however far at times we may fall short of it most recalcitrant of the native governors 
at home. toward carrying out the hygienic orders is- 

On the other hand, many of the "wild sued by the Bureau for the prevention of the 
tribes" arc considered as having a genuine spread of rinderpest, and a man who had 
appreciation for whatever they realize as be- caused the bureau in the past endless trouble, 
ing done to help them. It is the consensus And yet here he was being placed by the Ad- 
of opinion of informed persons that the gov- ministration in a position to enforce in an 
ernment of these tribes must remain in the executive capacity the very regulations which 
hands of the United States and its represen- he had insistently ignored. The Director en- 
tatives. The Filipino has never shown, nor deavored to impress the Governor-General 
is he likely to show, any real concern for with the utter impossibility of the situation, 
their welfare. And yet, they are considered but it was not until after a number of con- 
to have a future full of promise under the versations, and until the Director had threat- 
capable and sympathetic hand of men like ened his immediate resignation if a man with 
Mr. Dean C. Worcester. It is felt on all such a record were foisted upon him that the 
sides diat the loss of this experienced ad- Governor-General made what explanations 
ministrator has in nowise been replaced, and he could to the Speaker of the Assembly 



86 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

and lound another berth for this ''excellently and discouraged men from remaining in it 
recommended" official. It can readily be or attaching themselves to it, but it has 
imagined that such an uncomplacent Di- reflected upon the sound judgment of Amer- 
rector of Agriculture was not able to con- ican scientists. It is felt that such a thor- 
tinue to serve the "new regime" very long oughly representative American institution 
and is now numbered among those who and its corps of experienced scientists should 
have ''resigned." be placed beyond the reach of the vagaries 

This incident is cited not to insinuate that of any individual, 
the Governor-General promised the friends 

of this Filipino to appoint him, knowing him ™^ Representative of the Philippines 
to be incompetent, but merely to illustrate ^'^ Washington 

the "spirit" that now reigns and the happy- One of the greatest hindrances to a clearer 
go-lucky and reckless manner in which ap- appreciation of the merits of the arguments 
pointments are promised where "politics" favoring a more or less immediate independ- 
and not "efficiency" is the watchword, ence for the Filipinos consists, strange as it 
Such political theories are bad enough in some may seem, in the personality of Sefior Man- 
of our dties at home, but infinitely worse in uel L. Quezon, Resident Commissioner from 
our distant possessions where they bring dis- the Philippines at Washington. It is felt 
grace upon our Flag under the very eyes of at Manila to be very unfortunate that Sefior 
the efficient colonial administrations of the Quezon should have succeeded in establish- 
Dutch and British. ing himself in. the opinion of Washington as 

It is believed, furthermore, that to make a a typical representative of his race. After 
financial showing at the expense of efficiency, meeting practically all the leading native po- 
or to attain this end by stopping expenditures litical leaders, the writer does not hesitate to 
that have heretofore gone for greatly needed assert, that in knowledge of America and of 
public improvements, is neither "making a American ways, in ability to adopt our man- 
record" in keeping with American notions nerisms, to play upon our feelings and preju- 
of progress nor in accord with what are felt dices, and to make himself interesting and 
to be the views of the President of the attractive in society, there is no public man 
United States as regards governmental effi- of his race who can begin to measure up to 
ciency. The loss of men like Governor him. It is vital that this be kept in mind 
Forbes, Mr. Worcester, Dr. Heiser, Captain when our lawgivers are discussing the ques- 
Sleeper, Mr. Taylor, and many others who tion of independence. For it must be remem- 
have recently "resigned," is not only a re- bered that, as high as he stands above his 
proach to present-day methods at Manila — political colleagues in all those attainments 
a matter of grave local importance — but is calculated to influence the susceptibilities of 
looked upon as a distinct setback in the devel- Americans, an immensely greater and, for 
opment of better and more stable institutions the present, practically impassable, gulf 
in the entire Orient in the interest of hu- separates these colleagues from the great 
manity as a whole. mass of the ignorant populace, even in 

Luzon. A great proportion of the Filipino 
MORALE OF BUREAU OF SCIENCE VIRTUALLY p^pi^ ^ave no clearer notion of "inde- 

DESTROYED pendence" than that it is some sort of a 

No institution has prospered more under tangible or intangible thing that will bring 
civil service than the Bureau of Science at them an era of plenty with little work 
Manila. This admirable institution had and no taxes. 

been developed to a point where it had com- 

manded the high respect of scientists in all ^'"'^"'^ poutical meetings not always 
parts of the world, and especially in the representative 

Orient The ill-advised utterances of the Another point to be kept in mind is that 
new Secretary of the Interior upon his arri- meetings organized to further the measures 
val, regarding the abolishment of certain de- of political leaders do not necessarily repre- 
partments of research (with the workings of sent the feelings of intelligent, independent 
which it was said he had not been familiar Filipinos. Native civilians of this latter 
and which seemed to him to be "too theoret- class informed the writer that the rivalries 
ical"), has created, as might easily have been already existing, and the taste for spoils al- 
foreseen, a most unfortimate impression upon ready whetted by an ever, and too rapidly, 
the minds of the people. It necessarily has increasing share in the offices of state, pre- 
not only lowered the prestige of the Bureau, sage certain revolution as soon as a firm hand 



OUR ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 87 

is withdrawn ; that it will require several character and work of the Philippine 
generations of peace and prosperity to train assembly 

r ^li"*?^ E^^"" '^'^ "* ^""'"'' '^^ Another matter of disillusionment for 
for stable institutions. ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ .^^^ ^ ^ jj 

In his connection it should be noted, fur- „f ^^tj^ent toward the independence movt 

ther, that one of the serious mistakes made _^^^ v -^ i - j • ^u •*.. *.• 

L • •-. -. Tiyr -1 • -. X ment is to learn, on studying the situation 

by visitors at Manila is to form an opinion ^„ ^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^ » 

of the 'ntelligence of an audience or delega- ^^^^j ^j^^^ ^j,^ ^^^^j,^ ^^^^ ^^^ j.^.^^^. 

tion in the islands by its general appearance. ^^, . _^^ . ^. x ^u ou-r • a ui 

/- .u • X -.u- il- J J- I • csted patriotism of the Philippine Assembly 

Gatherings of this kind are exceedingly im- . _^^ T ^ ^ . u -u x ^ o -n 1 

^ • II x 1 J -x -.u • •* IS not borne out by the facts. Space will not 

pressive, especially if large and if the visitor ^ . .u -.• x .u 

• i^ -1 • - ..u x^ J « permit even the mention of the many ac- 

is a recent arrival, owing to the fondness ". ^ x -u • it • x ^u i • 

^ . f II ^ -1 J u-^ •» counts of the memciency of these lawgivers, 

of the men for well-tailored white suits, t- ^- u-. u * j u -.u - ..u i -. 

• . . . ^L ^ J ^x At might be noted, however, that the last 

which give them an outward appearance of a ui / j u -u ^u 

T_ J . ^ I,. _ S £ u ;«« Assembly (and, by the way, the very one 

prosperity and intelligence out of keeping u- u 2u •<! • x j A^ 

--u -.u • *-. • ^ J -^u 4.k ,:^^«r which, as the writer was informed, Gover- 

with their attainments and with the environ- ^* i u • . .u i ..u x 

^ X u- u -u nor-General Harrison went to the length of 

ment out of which they come. ,. . . ^ , ^ ^ir u- 

^ complimenting in a telegram to Washmg- 

INDEPENDENCB NOT DESIRED ton) occupied, despite the more or less direct 

r> ^ • t r -.u *. ' ' ^w ^ protests of the Governor, a great part of its 

Certainly one of the most surprising things *;. . , . , J f i-^- i 

- -.u • -1 -x L • X -4. 1-. ^ «.u r^ time with questions relating to political posts 
to the visitor, if he is fortunate enough to , . ; ^ , . ^ -.u ^u -. 

u L ^ ^ u -^ -. II --k -« ^^-,r«4.;. - and appointments, and it was with the great- 
have heart-to-heart talks with representative ^ .r^ . . ,' , ^ ,. ^l t • 

T?-i- • ^ k -. -k ^ 1 ^ V.^i;4.:^«i «« est difficulty induced to discuss the bud- 

Filipinos who are not themselves political as- ^ ^, ^ ^ ^ ^. , 

• -. -11 k - I -k 4. '^jJL J ^- ;« get. 1 he statements we sometimes hear re- 

pirants, will be to learn that independence is ** ,. 4, , , , , 1 x ^k a 

^ J • J -. -k- -J k ^ ^x 4.k:« 4^, - garding the remarkable work of the As- 

not desired at this time by men of this type. ^ . 1 j , ^. ^. -^ x ^k 

r J ^L 1 w J.' ' *L * sembly demonstrating the capacity of the 

Every one of them gave tt as hts opinion that , -^ ^ ^ ** ^ » -^ • 1 

, ^. ' ij . ' 1 1 11 .L 1 , people for self-government, if sincerely 
revolution would certainly follow the low- K •jj.nyrM kj 

X *L n M^- ^^1 ^x -.k-.v> ,„^..M niade, are considered at Manila as based 
enng of the tlag, INot one of them would \ e . e • u j k -^« • .. 

'' ^kx kk^ upon information furnished by parties inter- 

name a time now to be foreseen when he ■: , . , , 1 1 • x -k -k 

*k k^ • J J ij k XI ^^ ested in the successful workings of the theo- 

thought independence could be safely prom- • f #.{. " » 

ised or granted. Each stated, however, that, 

should his sentiments become known, he facts versus theories 

would be a marked man and whether di- ^^^ f^^^^ ^^^j ^^ disprove the statements 
rectly or indirectly, would feel the heavy ^f ^1^^ ^^io would rapidly "Filipinize" the 
hand of the politicos. service. No clearer proof is needed of the 

The writer has been informed from a grave risks being run for the sake of a theory 
most unimpeachaWc source that even one of ^j^j^^ ^^e unfortunate results following the 
the two leading Filipino politicians had re- -resignation" of Captain Sleeper as chief of 
cently become rather skeptical about early in- ^^^ Land Office. This efficient officer had 
dependence in view of recent events m the ^uilt up a remarkable department and one 
Orient. He feared now he had builded ^^at had required years of labor to bring to 
better than he thought and that mdepend- ^ standard that was considered a model of 
ence might actually be granted owing to the efficiency. Deaf to the warnings of men 
support of certain Congressmen not entirely ^f experience, the new administration ap- 
in sympathy with the movement, but who, p^i^^^j ^ TiM^mo to succeed him. This 
like many of their constituents, were begin- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ carefully selected, since it was 
nmg to feel that the present situation is no recognized on kll sides as a test of native 
CTedit to the United States. He recognized j^^nj^ j^ ^ gj^^^^ ^j^^ ^^it work of years 
the dangerously increasing impatience of oth- ^^^ ,^^^^^ i,^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ j^^ f^^^^^ ^^^^ 
ers m Congress and in the public at seeing ^^j however reluctantly, the administration 
ourselves invited to get out of the islands ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ incumbent. An- 
and yet in the same breath being requested ^^^^^ Filipino was ultimately appointed, but 
to permit the Filipino politicians to bury, as ^^^ department was in very bad shape when 
it were, the Stars and Stripes at the foot of ^^^ ^j^^^ j^f^ ^,^^ jgi^^j^^ 
the flagpole, to be resurrected and run up 

whenever they got into international com- Regrettable reflections on American 
plications. His position, however, ren- administrators 

dered it very difficult for him to back There Is another factor which bodes for 
water. many years to come little success to a Fili- 



88 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OP REVIEWS 

pfno administration of the islands. The slow to profit by the results of the very ad- 
ingenious lies, innuendoes, and slanderous at- ministrative policies they have so severdy 
tadcs, under the very shadow of the Flag, criticized, 
upon the character and adminbtration of 

our most highly respected officials in the appointikg a president op the 
past, because their rulings ran counter to universfty 

special interests or prejudices of certain fac- Since leaving the islands, the writer has 

tions, is not considered as auguring well for learned through a copy of the Manila Times 

the conditions that would exist when the that prophecies he had heard made there, and 

Flag comes down, granted even that native which it was hoped would not be realized, 

offidab would pretend to attempt to uphold had proven correct and that the presidency 

hygienic or other efficient measures against of the University of Manila had been given 

the wishes of the masses. The rapid increase to a Filipino gentleman "for whom no other 

of the rinderpest under the regime of Gov- PO»t was available but whose friends insisted 

ernor-General Harrison after the control of that he must be taken care of." TTiis pro- 

the situation had been taken from the gram of Filipinization was too much even 

Bureau of Agriculture and placed under for Secretary Denison who, as a member of 

provincial supervision, and certain "econo- the board of control, at first opposed the 

mies" of administration had been inaugu- Filipino, desiring an efficient American edu- 

rated, should sober the most enthusiastic ad- cator at the head of this important institu- 

vocates of immediate wider autonomy. tton during the first and most important 

years of its development. His protest, how- 

CRiTiasMS ON PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS ^ver, was unavailmg. This stand represents 

Filipino politicians, backed by their party a radical change in his views as expressed 

papers, have long made the expenditures for soon after his arrival in the islands, in a 

the construction of the Benguet Road and much-criticized speech, the general tenor of 

its terminus, — the splendid health resort of which might be summed up \n the since oft- 

Baguio, — a favorite subject of attack in re- quoted assertion it contained: "Why should 

fleeting on the administration of former we insist upon 'hustling' the East against its 

American commissioners. It is true there will, and at its expense, if the East itself 

was an error of judgment on the part of the wishes to lie placid, murmuring mananaf^ 

engineering expert who reported on the It is felt that his other no less famous public 

probable cost, but for this the commissioners statement in regard to a letter delayed three 

should not be held responsible. Radier dian weeks in delivery, is typical of the sophomoric 

being a reproach to the executive ability of theories of government entertained by the 

former administrations, both the road and new administration, — "If the Filipino people 

the resort are now seen to be assets of the prefer to have their letters arrive in three 

highest value, although the road will soon weeks and do h themselves, why haven't they 

lose its importance owing to the construe- the rig^t to do it that way ?*' 
tion of a safer highway in another part of 
the mountains. Personally the writer feels, ^he president not blamed 

after visiting India and the famous British The majority of Americans and foreign* 
"Hill Station," Darjeeling in the Hima- ers at Manila do not feel that the President 
layas, that Baguio is one of the most cred- is correctly informed concerning existing 
itable and enduring monuments to the fore- conditions, and arc therefore unwilling to 
sight and forethought of former commissions, hold him directly responsible for the prcs- 
Mr. Harrison and Mr. Denison, possibly ent situation. They rather attribute it to 
for the sake of consistency, spent the past the short-sightedness and excess of zeal 
summer in Japan and China, and therefore shown by the administration at Manila in 
the government was not transferred to making a "record" such as they might wiA 
Baguio for the hot months. And yet, when to make at home after a political upheaval, 
the writer visited Baguio, it was full of Fili- Some of these offidals seem forgetful of the 
pinos from Manila who now own residences ignorance of the great mass of Filipinos re- 
in what only a few years ago was but an garding our traditional treatment of "office- 
uninhabited mountain-top. This is conclu- holders" in this country upon a change of 
sive proof that, although always ready to administration, and inexcusably forgetful of 
seek out every possible excuse to compromise the supreme importance of maintaining in 
the administration of American commission- our over-the^sea dependencies the well-earned 
ers in the eyes of Congress, they are not reputation of American officials, past or 



CWR ADMINISTRATION OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 89 

present, and irrespective of party, for disin- the feeling in the islands on the 
terested public service. Some of them have jones bill 
compromised the good name and dignity of ^, , ,. . . i <• • 
American institutions abroad by actions and . The feeling of Americans and foreipiers 
utterances which either reflect upon the sin- 1" *«= •«^*"<'s concerning the Jones Bill 
cerity of the intentions of past administra- ? somewhat as follows: It is considered 
tions, or else are not in keeping with the ""possible to foresee what the next twenty- 
views which the American public at Manila fi^«= ^ «ty years may bring m the interna- 
believes to be those of the President relative ^'P'}'^ situation m the Pacific, nor how esscn- 
to administrative decorum abroad. To men- 3l?,l !° "\^"** *°. **'*^ ^^' ^nttrests of the 
tion but one example : ^'^f '"."s »•'«=. 'J*^"' •nventions constantly being 
Only those who have been in Manila and ""«<1« '" "«"?•, ?"<* maritime armament and 
arc familiar with the various undercurrents our commercial interests in the East may ren- 
of sentiment and with the personal histories ^". *e retention of the islands m whole 
of individuals there can form a conception o^ "> P^rt. • Therefore it is believed that, if 
of the astonishment felt by the audience »" unnecessary preamble to such a bill must 
when, as a number of witnesses told the wri- ^ formulated, sound statesmanship dictates 
ter, the distinguished guest of the occasion, f^^^f '» should go no farther than declaring 
a man who incorporates the dignity of Amer- '» »» ^ .'^e intention of the United States 
ican institutions by his exalted position, to grant independence to the Philippine Is- 
placed his arm about the shoulders of a Fili- !«".<ls as soon as in the judgment of Congress 
pino politician and declared that it was }» 's deemed to the best interests of the is- 
"to this man" that he owed his position. J^nds and of the United States to do so. 
and that he would not forget the kindness I* 'S *""•»«■ Relieved that the pohtjcal ele- 
as long as he lived. The remark was con- "«"* would make at first a bold front of 
sidered, for reasons that cannot be touched d'sapproval, but that the great mass of intel- 
upon here, not only as lacking excessively in ^'g^"* »"<• P'=»^«=f"l . «^''.'»"* "^°".'<1 Bf"'* 
good taste, but ali as showing exceedingly *"* » statement with sincere satisfaction. 

• j~^^4^ :^ «.k«4. :* ^^r^fi^A «.K« irTi; A statement or this kmd would do more, it is 
poor judgment, in that it magnined the rili- . , ^ ^ . . u i^ur i ^ V 

pino in the esteem of his countrymen at tfie t"j°"e^'t' t°. *=l«^'''' »]>« ""healthful atmosphere 

expense of the President of the United °{ uncertainty and apprehension existing at 

States, from whom the appointment had ¥^''* «"«* to preclude unprofitable discus- 

sion than anything that has occurred since 
the change of administration. 

how the present administration is 

• regarded foreign opinion on our present phil- 

IPPINE POLICV 

Senor Quezon made the public statement 
at the Lake Mohonk Conference in 1914 It is a striking fact that among the many 
that "Governor Harrison has gained for him- Americans and Britons whom the writer met 
self and for the nation that he represents the in India, China, and Japan, and who were 
confidence and good-will of the Filipino more or less familiar with the situation from 
people." This statement, according to reli- personal observation, there was not one 
able American evidence and that of intelli- who did not feel that the almost nervous 
gent Filipinos, is not in keeping with the eagerness of the administration at Manila to 
facts. Never since the early years of occu- conciliate the politicians, even at the cost of 
pation has genuine respect and esteem for some dignity, and the excessive zeal shown 
America and things American been at so low in changing and "Filipinizing" the service, 
an ebb, for the reasons mentioned above, had proven a grave error of judgment of 
Governor-General Harrison and his admin- more than local importance. That it was des- 
istration enjoy, quite naturally, a certain tined to render the work of the white man 
kind of popularity with the politicians and in the uplift of dependent races very difficult 
factions whose aims he seems to support. But in more distant parts of the Orient. It was 
that he has raised his country or his country- pointed out by the British that, if, as we 
men in the respect of the inhabitants, is an claimed, our interest in the islands was pure- 
altogether different matter. Deep regret was ly humanitarian, we should not transfer our 
voiced on all sides that at the very outset he. political differences of opinion and more or 
had launched himself upon a campaign of less questionable party theories into the ad- 
"reform" from which, in spite of experience ministration of our island dependencies, but 
gained, it is very hard for him to turn back, rather seek to govern them along recognized 



90 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

lines of administrative efficienqr for their against our fathers whenever they contem* 

own highest welfare, and in the interest of plated moving our frontiers further toward 

humanity as a whole. That to trapsfer our the Pacific. Thus far in our history we have 

own advanced theories of democratic govern- never recoiled from following our star of 

ment to an inexperienced people just emer- destiny because of real or fancied dangers, 

ging from a period of almost medieval dark- And it is not believed that we are going to 

ness, many of whom have not the remotest hesitate now, when millions whom we have 

conception of the real meanings of the words led toward a brighter day stand sorely in 

"democracy" and "independence," would be need of our strong helping hand to conduct 

little short of criminal, them over the last and most difficult part of 

the way. 

OUR LEGACY TO THB PHILIPPINES jf ^^ ^^^ „^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

The following statement was made to the fathers, if the splendid, work of American 

writer by an intelligent and highly respected achievement, the self-sacrifidng labors of 

Filipino and is submitted as a final resume countless men of our own race, — the scien- 

of a situation which cannot possibly continue tist, the educator, the administrator, and the 

with credit to our government: soldier, — are to be sacrificed to the empty 

. ^ . , . u 1. • shibboleth "Independence," is it not due our 

\Vhen the Amencan flag is lowered, whether it ^^ ^^^ ^^ j^^^^ ,^ . j j j 

be in one year or in ten years or in a hundred r , ^ u i* / / ^i_ . , www. xi 

years, I feel that the United States will be remem- !« ^^ ""» belief of the writer that we owe 

bered in our island by three principal contribu- it to ourselves, to the Filipinos, and to hu- 

tions to our national life: First, bv a splendid manity to insist, so long as the American 

pervading system of petty Tammany politics, to the hundreds ot schools, city halls, and court- 

the fostering of which the present administration houses of the archipelago, promising liberty 

has very largely contributed. And I feel that the and justice under its stars and stripes, not 

last of these contributions will far outshadow in ^^ ^ /._,, ^^n^'^t ^.a.v^<..#^ l. * / n 

effect the results of the other two to the ever. *? ''. ^^ Pohttcal aspirants, but to all 

lasting misfortune of my race. 5"*^ -^"^^ ^ *^^ Amencan, and not Ftltptno, 

ideals of effidency, administration, and jus- 
No words of tho writer could possibly ticc should reign at Manila. And this can- 
add to the simple force of a statement of not be realized unless we cease die present 
this character. methods of tearing down the laboriously con- 
Such, in briefest possible form, arc the structed work of years achieved by American 
opinions of the overwhelming majority of administrative officers, not because we feel 
men of every shade of opinion and national- it to be in the interest of the people, but 
ity in Manila, both native and foreign, at the behest of the native officeseeker, 
whose opinion, the writer feels, the public whose plea, "independence," seems so irre- 
would care to learn, and by whose judgment sistible to our democratic ears. The indi- 
it would wish in a measure to be guided in vidual man is "free" to-day wherever the 
the solemn hour so fast approaching when a Stars and Stripes float to the breeze in the 
courageous, creditable, and unequivocal de- islands. That he will not be "free" when 
cision should be reached, — a decision free of the Flag comes down is the firm conviction 
political bias and sentimental theories, but of all men of broad judgment and experience 
destined to involve irrevocably the good in the Philippines. 

name of our country, the statesmanship of Every principle of humanitarianism and of 

our lawgivers, and the future welfare of a enlightened statesmanship dictates that we 

dependent people. should jealously guard this heritage of future 

generations and hand it down to them in the 

AMERICAN IDEALS SHOULD PREVAIL IN THE f^^ ^f ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^, aJn^inistration 

PHILIPPINES yj^^Q ^g jjjy ^j^^^ ^j^^y^ ^ ^^ enlightened 

We are told that the islands are a menace people, and not as a handful of political die- 
to us; that by their retention we run the tators, tell the people of the United States 
risk of grave complications. And yet, these what they desire. The American people will 
are the very warnings that were directed then gladly give them what they want. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE 

MONTH 

IN the following pages appear brief condensations of articles on topics of timely in- 
terest gathered from a wide range of sources, — ^American, English, French, Ger- 
man, Russian, Italian, Spanish, — and representing varied viewpoints. Many of these 
articles deal with phases of the great war or with cognate themes. It is impossible, of 
course, to do more than make cursory reference to the great mass of material of this sort 
that is now appearing in the periodical press of the world. To speak of only a few of our 
popular American magazines, we may note that in the January numbers there are articles 
bearing the following titles: "Second Thoughts on This War," by John Galsworthy; 
"The Submarine in War," by Robert W. Neeser; "The West's Awake!" (Canada in 
war time), by Mary Synon, — all in Scribners, while the Century carries the second in- 
stalment of Walter Hale's series, "An Artist at the Front," and Everybody's gives an 
opportunity to a score of leading British writers to tell frankly what they think about 
American neutrality. H. G. Wells, G. K. Chesterton, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Jerome 
K. Jerome, W. J. Locke, Mrs. Humphry Ward, G. Bernard Shaw, Viscount Bryce, 
Maurice Hewlett, William Archer, and Israel Zangwill are among the names that figure 
in this symposium. In the Century, Eric Fisher Wood continues discussion of American 
preparedness, covering in the January article the experience of the nation between the 
years 1860 and 1916. In the same number Mr. J. A. P. Bland writes on "The Far 
Eastern Problem," referring of course to Japan and China, and George Creel describes 
the immigration situation under the rather unfortunate title, "The Hopes of the Hyphen- 
ated." The French soldier's outlook on the war is interpreted for the Century by Mr. 
Arthur Gleason. In connection with Dr. Talcott Williams' article in this Review on 
page 67, our readers will be interested in William Warfield's account of a journey over 
the desert from Bagdad to the ruins of Babylon, in the January Harpers. In the same 
magazine Robert Brucre answers the question, "What Does the Minimum Wage Mean ?" 
A striking feature of the American Magazine is a graphically illustrated article on how 
the war is developing the aeroplane, by Merle Crowell. 

CHINAS VITAL QUESTION 

THE monarchist movement in China is pHed that as a republic had been definitely estab- 

the subject of an article in the North '"*'«^' >{. ^°"*^ ^« gravely improper for him 

J • D • u T> / T ixr T 1 c^cn to discuss such a step. But, while their per- 

^m^rirfl« iJ^v/^i^, by Professor J W. Jenks, .^^a, j^yalty to the President has in no way 

who has given much thought to the problems diminished, the military officials have of late 

of modern China's government and is an en- become more and more insistent, and as they 

thusiastic admirer of President Yuan Shih- were practically unanimous, it was impossible 

1 I • / 1 _ * ^1 . ^.1 .. 1 for the President, with the solemn duty of pre- 

kai (who, since this article was written, has serving internal peace and concord always before 

become Emperor). Like other observers of him, to dismiss them with a blank refusal. He 

China's present situation. Professor Jenks ^** ^*c«^ ^y ^ powerful body holding very em- 

identifies the monarchistic movement with ,t»,^,b^*^^,^l^t 're'surS 

the militanstic. He quotes the words of a have been the inception of intrigues and the 

distinguished English newspaper correspond- formation of secret societies to bring about by 

ent at Peking. Mr. WiUiam H. Donald: [^-fotV.: Vfi'^iy'V::^' ^i^U^^'^l'.l 

The most despotic and autocratic ruler, if all his 
The military party have been at the bottom most powerful supporters were united in a desire 
of the nnovement for the reestablishment of the to compel him to take a certain course, would 
monarchical system of government from the out- not be able forcibly to resist them. That was 
set Ever since the establishment of the republic exactly the position in which President Yuan 
the President has been periodically approached Shih-k'ai found himself. He could not openly 
by high military officials and urged to change resist the demand made by the military party, 
the system of government Invariably he re- the most powerful force in the State, but he 

91 



92 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

oould, and did, divert its activities into a proper offered to Yuan Shih-k'ai; it may be that real 

imd constitutional channel. public opinion ascertained for him in other ways 

^ T» . 1 xr » . . Ti ^*'^ declare to the contrary. In either case it 

As to President Yuan s intentions, Pro- may well be that Yuan Shih-k*ai will confound 

fessor Jenks claims no prophetic gift, but those who, throughout his career, have accused 

thinks that we may reasonably judge a man's *!'"» <>t plotting and planning for his own ambi- 

:m«^4».%4-:/>mo *»r>r« k.'o ^^^¥ ir- ^^\^a^ ,.e tion ; that he will consolidate at his back the grow- 

mtentions from his past. He reminds us j^^ .^,^„g,h of southern Chinese progressive 

that Yuan saved his ruler, the empress dow- ©pinion ; and so at last find himself free to carry 

ager, from her own kinsman by marriage, into effect, with the certainty of popular approval, 

the Emperor Kwang-Shu. He saved the «*><>»« ^^^K PIf ?>««!. reforms whidi are vitally 

:«%n.«««.:^l e^« ^i k:<» :»«r««.«*^«.^ m^^^^^r i^kNi^ necessary m China, in order that she may stand 

imperial son of his inveterate enemy, Ch un, „p^„ ^^J ^^„ ittt\nA be no longer meniced by 

the regent. Furthermore, it is frequently fear of foreign aggression, 
forgotten that when the republic began four t !_• / i_ i . 

years ago in China, the little Manchu empe- ^" ^'^^ acceptance of the crown there is 
ror was retained in his title and his civil list nothing fundamentally inconsistent with the 
He is a pensioner of the Chinese Republic conception of Yuan s character which Pro- 

fessor Jenks elaborates m his article. As 

The wisdom and patriotism of Yuan Shih-k'ai President of China, Yuan had already defied 
have not as jret failed China. Is there any real the military cabal and he had repeatedly 
reason for thinking that he will fail now? Thrice refused the crown. Hb final acceptance of 

invited him to ascend the throne he refused. The merdy desires to give him a longer tenure 
elections seem to show that a crown will be of office than the Presidency. 



THE PRESIDENTS WORKING HABITS 

FROM the standpoint of office routine, thirtjr he attends to whatever routine work is 
punctuality is the great dominating char- powiblc before he begins to keep the appoint- 

acteristic of the present occupant of the White ^ »"* E°:e{:"c.tf.ru7„a1?; T.» ^^rl'Z 
House, if we may trust the statements of ,ome of them three, and a few fifteen. He keeps 
his secretaries as embodied in an article on a card on his desk showing the list of appoint- 
"The Working Habits of the President of ^ents, and checks off with his own hand each 

the United States," contributed to the Amer- ^T which hi h.d?Jn hiJ prdlXough'S: 

icon Magazme for January, by James name of a prominent politician and had written 

Hay, Jr. after the name in blue pencil, "He did not come." 

Not only is President Wilson punctual That "He did not come" looked ominous.) 

himself day in and day out, but he requires ^J^\,}}'^\ '^^ President, having concluded the 
y* e X ^ •II' t appomtments, leaves the office and goes to the 

punctuality from others, including members white House for his one-o^clock luncheon. 

of Congress and heads of departments. Sen- At two o'clock he receives in the East Room 

ators and Representatives calling at the delegations of tourists who want to shake his 

White House by appointment find that each J*"^' *"^! i^ >* '• necessary, he has a long con- 

/ ' 1*^, ^ \ ^ I ^i_ ^ rerence with some member of the Cabmet or a 

conference is expected to last from three to diplomat. After that, he plays golf, takes a walk 

five minutes. After each caller leaves the through the shopping district of Washington, or 

office, Mr. Wilson himself makes a short- go«» ior an automobile ride. 

hand note of the caller's business. (It is ^^ »«^«° o'clodt he has dinner. 

^-. * J u -.u -u *. -.u n 'J ^ • u* He goes to bed between ten o clock and mid- 

stated, by the way, that the President is him- „jght^ ^^^^ ^^^^ midnight. 

self an expert stenographer, and that a page 

from his notebook is "as clear and dean-cut The President's office methods are de- 

as a piece of engraving. ) scribed as remarkable for accuracy and ex- 

Following is the daily program of this very actness. He files all his important papers 

hard worked and very punctual man: ^ith his own hands in a filing case just back 

His personal stenographer, C. L. Swem, who ^* ^'^ ^^^^ '" ^"^^ White House study. His 

was with him in New Jersey, reports to the study POwers of concentration are great, and after 

in the White House proper at 8:55, at which time devoting his mind entirely to a single subject, 

the President dictates replies to the important on dictating a speech or a state paper, or writ- 

S« ^ffic^' irSay^Jr^lf .Vn '^'ciri:: '^-^ •* «"* - {"-'"and and then reading it to 
takes his place at his desk in his private office in ^^^ Stenographer, practically no changes are 
the White House offices. Between ten and ten- required. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 93 

WOMAN'S EMANCIPATION IN GER- 
MANY AND SCANDINAVIA 

AMERICAN women will be intensely The protection of motherhood, — the Mut- 
interested in the first book to be pub- terschutz idea, — is the dogan of the Grerman 
lished in English that tells concretely just fenunists. This movement desires to im- 
what Feminism means in Germany and prove the institution of marriage. As the 
Scandinavia.^ The impression that German author of this book states: 
women are hopelessly domesticated is quite 

erroneous. The author, Katherine Anthony, ^hc woman movement approves of its mono- 
, . u u V '1.1 J: gamic basis, but attacks its proprietary rights, 

wntes that it would be quite as sensible to Monogamy purified of proprietaiy rights is the 
represent the American suffrage movement ideal of the main guard of European feminism, 
by quotations from Mr. Elihu Root and • . • The Mutterschutz movement goes further. 

Congressman Bowdle, as it is to accept the ^ P°^ ?"^y demands the abolition of proprietary 

^ ^ ^ £ ^t A 17 J rights in marriage, but questions the eternal 

Statements of the Oeiinan Emperor and validity of monogamy itself, if not as ideal 

Empress in regard to what German women morality at least as practical morality, 
arc thinking and doing. 

In Germany before the war there were The book goes to show that in Germany 
800,000 more women than men, in Austria- and Scandinavia with die entrance of women 
Hungary 600,000, while in Sweden, Fin- into economics the woman question really 
land, and Denmark, the men are outnum- began. The industrial enslavement of 
bered by nearly 300,000. It will readily be women brought them the independence that 
seen that industrial and social changes in the relieved them from home tyranny, and this 
status of women are bound to result, if for independence turned their desires toward the 
no other reason than the mere preponder- "triple possessions of man, — property, fran- 
ance of women. chise, and education." 

The will to organize is very strong in Exlucation was the first storm center. It 
Germany and Scandinavia. In the last has shifted until at present the feminist 
twenty years the women of Germany have movement centers around the child, and 
built up the Burui Deutscher Frauenvereine, woman's admission to the franchise, 
a great union of women's clubs, which has The suffrage leader, Hedwig Dohm, who 
a membership of half a million women, has passed her eightieth year, recently wrote : 
The leader of the union is the capable editor ''Long after I am dead and burned, my ashes 
of Die Hilfe, a social and literary weekly, will glow when the portals of the Reichstag 
Dr. Gertrud Baumer. The first organiza- are opened to women." 
tion for the purpose of emancipating women In Sweden women have the communal 
in Germany was the Allgemeiner Deutscher vote; Finland has had complete woman 
Frauenverein (General Woman's Union), suffrage since 1906; Norway gives full citi- 
which was founded in 1865. Their program zenship rights to women; and Denmark on 
defined the goals and tasks of the woman's June 5, 1915, enfranchised its women, and 
movement, and explained the position of this abolished property qualifications, 
movement in the fields of education, eco- 
nomic life, marriage and die family, and The program of feminism is the development of 

11. |.r . .^ J ^ ^ * new science of womanhood. . . . Most of the 

public iite in community and state. ^^nts of women hare exactly the same justifica- 

In the jnatter of granting the full privi- tion as the wanu of men, and there is nothing 
leges of education to women Germany and "cw about them except that the sex whose chief 
Scandinavia arc ahead of this country. At characteristic is "wantlessness" is beginning to 
^ ^1 c J • t r^ • acquire them. It was Luther who said that no 

present the Scandanavian and German uni- ^loak so ill becomes a maid or wife as the wish 
versities are practically all open to women, to be clever." The founder of Protestantism 
Registered in the German universities in the would assuredly be appalled at the number of 
summer semester of 1914 were 4117 women, thinking women in Germany to-day; women who 

i>»,.««:- 1 u J -.L r • • -. philosophize m the open and publish their ideas 

Pru^ia, however, has opposed the feminist ^^^r their unabashed signatures But in the midst 

demand for female education by imposing of a discussion which sometimes seems to be too 
exceptional rulings for the admission of academic and theoretical, voices are not lacking 

women to the universities. T^^^ ^^^}^ *^^ 7"^ ^""* Y®" Nathasius. "We 
have talked enough of woman's emancipation. Let 

> Feminism in Gcrmanylnd Scandinavia. By Rather- "» ^f KJn to live it. No philosophy carries such 
ine Anthony. Holt. 200 pp. $1.36. Conviction as the personal life. 



94 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

AMERICAN ILLITERACY 

AN article contributed by Winthrop Tal- million less in 1910 than in 1900. The pub- 
bot to the North American Review He schools are largely responsible for this 
corrects at least two prevalent misconcep- good showing. Illiteracy is still a hindrance 
tions: First, that the percentage of illiterates in the South, but it can no longer be regarded 
in the United States is practically negligible ; as a peril. It is an actual menace only in the 
and, second, that most of the adult illiteracy manufacturing States of New England, and 
of the country is confined to the Southern in the States of the Middle Atlantic division. 
States. Mr. Talbot refers to the figures of which for ten years, and in the case of New 
the last census to show that five million adult York State, for twenty years, have failed to 
American citizens are wholly unable to read reduce their percentage of illiteracy and have 
and write ; that millions more read only sim- also increased enormously their numbers of 
pie words, and that still other millions able illiterates. Connecticut, indeed, has actually 
to read hesitatingly rarely do read. gone backwards, having increased not only 

It seems almost superfluous to frame an in numbers of illiterates but in percentage of 
argument to show that illiteracy is a serious illiteracy as well. 

barrier to democracy. We have believed this It is not in the South, then, that illiterates 
so thoroughly in the United States that com- are steadily increasing in number, but in 
pulsory education was long ago introduced in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
most of the States, and it has always been New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illi- 
assumed that illiteracy was a foe to repre- nois. North Dakota, Nebraska, Montana, 
sentative government. Massachusetts, in- Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, 
deed, has restricted the franchise to those Utah, Nevada, Washington, and California, 
able to read the Constitution. Yet, as Mr. The heaviest increase is in New England and 
Talbot points out, we ignore the illiteracy the Middle Atlantic States. Here is a 
of millions of unschooled men and women, — significant contrast: "During the twenty 
children in mind, though adult in years, — years from 1890 to 1910, the number of 
apparently forgetting that the first requisite illiterates in Virginia, North Carolina, South 
for government by representation is literacy. Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, and Florida, 

Now comes the sensational part of Mr. decreased from 2,027,951 to 1,427,063. In 
Talbot's article. This is his statement that Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
there is to-day a steady increase of illiterate New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 
white people by scores of thousands in New the increase during the same period was from 
England, in New York State, in Pennsyl- 790,772 to 1,103,872." 
vania, in Illinois, and in eleven States of the Another fact brought out by Mr. Talbot 
Northwest. These illiterates are not negroes, is that the proportion of foreign-bom illiter- 
Indians, Chinese, Japanese, or Hindus, but ates, as compared with native whites, has 
young white parents who will rear families lately been increasing rapidly. In thirty 
and will live among us for the next forty years there has been a marked decrease in the 
years or more. "In large degree they are number of native white and negro illiterates, 
herded aliens mingling foreign tongues in and a significant increase in the number of 
village outskirts and dty slums, increasing foreign-born illiterates. Indeed every class 
accidents and disease, filling hospitals, alms- of illiterate has decreased except the foreign- 
houses and asylums, and, as defectives, laying born, and since the last census their increase 
bigger and bigger taxes on that community has been so great as to out-balance the de- 
which ignores their existence." crease of all other classes combined. 

For many years we were familiarized with As a check to this startling growth of 
the statement that nearly one-fourth of the illiteracy among us, it has been proposed that 
population of the Southern States is illiterate, more should be done through die public 
What are the facts to-day? Mr. Talbot school by way of furnishing instruction to 
shows that each Southern State has cut its adult illiterates. As Mr. Talbot puts it: 
percentage of illiteracy more dian 25 per "We require the untaught child to go to 
cent, during the last census period, from school; has not the time come to insist that 
1900 to 1910, and that in the South Atlantic, the untaught child of later years, the adult 
South Central, and West South Central di- illiterate, shall also be required to go to 
visions, which include all the Southern school until it learns at least to read and 
States, the number of illiterates was nearly a write ? Can there be any question that five 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 95 

millions of illiterate adults mentally isolated it can best be broached and treated through a 
from exchange of human experience with State commission of citizens who have 
their fellows are a menace to representative earned the confidence of the public. Ken- 
government, democratic institutions, Indus- tucky has established such a commission, but, 
trial prosperity, and the good of the whole as Mr. Talbot suggests, no States are in 
United States?" greater need of such commissions than those 

The article suggests that since this is a of the Middle Atlantic division and espe- 
subject requiring special investigation and cially the State of New York, which harbors 
the widest publicity, knowledge concerning a greater number of illiterates than any other 
the extent of the evil and suitable remedies. State in the Union. 



RUMANIA COMPARED WITH SPAIN AS 

TO MILITARY EFFICIENCY 

ALTHOUGH Spain is more likely to with the army and with the probable field of 
play a part in eventual peace negotia- operations, suffice to prevent the formation 
tions than to be drawn into active partici- of effective plans. In Rumania, on the other 
pation in the war, the article on her present hand, the army inspector is destined to as- 
military organization by Senor Pedro Jeve- sume the position of chief of staff in case of 
nois in Nuestro Tiempo is interesting from a foreign war, and of commander-in-chief 
its frank statement and criticisms. under the king. 

As a modest standard of comparison, and As to the strength of the respective armies 
in some sense as a model, he takes Rumania, on a peace footing, Spain has 111 battalions 
noting at the outset that while Spain expends of infantry and 108 squadrons of cavalry, 
annudly some $32,000,000 on her military while Rumania has 130 battalions of in- 
establishment, the cost of Rumania's army fantry and 88 squadrons of cavalry. In light 
is less than $20,000,000. And yet Spain has field artillery Rumania is far superior, hav- 
no properly constituted general staff, nor are ing 153 batteries, with 612 pieces, against 87 
the materials available for the formation of batteries, with 348 pieces, for Spain. Of 
such a staff in case of war. heavy field artillery Spain has nothing to 

The writer recognizes that the young king, show, while Rumania has 33 batteries, with 
an enthusiast in military matters, would al- 132 pieces of four to six inches (Krupp or 
most inevitably be in active command of the Schneider). The same disparity exists in 
army, and yet the king does not know what siege guns, of which Spain has only four 
generals are to command the different army batteries, comprising sixteen pieces of anti- 
groups, nor has any provision been made for quated model, against Rumania's nine bat- 
the staffs of these groups. teries formed of thirty-six modern guns. In 

The immediate military entourage of the the other branches of the service Spain is 
king is formed of officers lacking definite at- cither only slightly in advance of Rumania, 
tributions or definite missions, their service or inferior to the latter country, 
being rather ceremonial than military. They In conclusion Senor Jevenois states his 
are neither expected to elaborate plans of case as follows: 
concentration or campaign, nor to visit and 

study the frontier regions in order to work The Rumanian army is not perfect, it has its 
out the course of the initial operations. ^^?;^'* ^"* '* '» organized for foreign war, 

How totally unprepared Spain now is for .'Z'^n/JIIJ/nTSL \Vho J^^^^^ 

, . , '^ , *^ .- i'<> preserve order at home, or at most to engage 

active partiapation in a great ^ya^ is cleariy in some colonial or African expedition. Hence 
brought out by Senor Jevenois' statement though our model may have its defects, they 
that no one knows precisely to whom the ^«'' f»r ^^^^ o^ our own, for they do not affect 
chief command, under the king, would be ^* T^ essence of military efficiency as ours do. 
. L 1 rr II 1 We have abundance of so-called commanders 

given, nor what officers would compose the and officers, with their appropriate titles, but 
staff. It IS true that in the Ministry of War can it be said that there exists any practical 
the third assistant is supposed to occupy him- difference between a civil governor and a mili- 

self with plans of campaign, but the complex ^\^ §?V^"^'^» ^"^^ commander of a brigade or 

rmifi'n* ur<^«.V ♦!%•«. f«li« 4Z lu^ ^u ^£ \u' ^^ * division composed of units that have never 

routine work that falls to the charge of this been brought together? 

ministry, and the lack of direct familiarity The worst of the matter is that we do not 



96 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

even enjoy the virtues of our defects, since self-sacrifice, their discipline, and their almost 

although we have many officers, many com- exaggerated sense of honor, but something more 

manders and generals, die life they lead, one than the possession of these estimable qualities 

conditioned by the resources provided for them is requisite to make a body of officers. Neverthe- 

and the duties they are charged with, prevents less, the solution of the problem is in our own 

them from being anything more than govern- hands, all that is needed is good judgment, 

ment employees in uniform. Many of them energy, and capacity for work. A war minister, 

have less experience than the Rumanian reserve a general or a civilian, preferably the latter, 

officers, who are at least called upon to par- since he would be more unprejudiced, can make 

tidpate in annual maneuvers. us strong, really independent, free from all ex- 

The only advantage our officers can claim ternal influence, and both respected and feared 

over civilian office-holders is thtir spirit of outside of Spain. 



THE BOY SCOUTS 

THE history of the Boy Scout organiza- longer or shorter periods during the summer, 
tion in this country has been fully told There are also week-end camps near many 
in this Revibw^ as well as in other maga- cities, where the boys go on Friday night 
zines, and it is so recent a matter that our and stay until Sunday night or Monday 
readers hardly need to be reminded of its morning. In the smaller cities there are 
outlines. In the Educational Review for opportunities for walks on Saturday after- 
December, Dr. Henry S. Curtis, who has noons. The best place for the organization 
long been associated with the playground of Scouts, however, and the place where it 
movement, and with other developments of is most needed, is in the country village, 
outdoor life in America, describes some of There the country is easily accessible; there 
the activities of the Scouts from the point of is opportunity to go out for week-end camps, 
view of a student and director of outdoor and to take long walks and excursions. It 
sports. seems that all the arts of scouting can be 

Dr. Curtis is an enthusiastic believer in practised most easily from a village head- 
the principles of the Scout movement. He quarters. 

is naturally attracted by scouting, because it As to the fundamental virtues developed 
is an outdoor life, suggesting the woods, the by scouting, Dr. Curtis places special em- 
mountains and streams. To do scouting phasis on courage, truthfulness, friendship, 
efficiently much walking is required, 1)ut kindness, democracy, and thriftr Courage, 
besides this necessary walking, the boys take of course, was essential in the old-time scout, 
long "hikes," and since this is almost the who was nearly every day in peril of his life, 
only way by which one can come to know So, too, in pioneer life on the frontier, the 
a country intimately, it is the easiest way conditions of the wilderness developed cour- 
to acquire a love of nature, to know a dis- age in both boys and girls. "Heroic cour- 
trict and its people. Another thing that is age," says Dr. Curtis, "is a racial quality 
almost inherent in the idea of scouting is that only needs opportunity and enc(hirage- 
making camp. The Boy Scouts are taught ment to develop." The courage of police- 
to build their own camps, and to cook their men and firemen in our cities is an instance 
own meals. Dr. Curtis mentions a Scout in point. Since modem life offers few op- 
competition in which each boy was furnished portunities for the training of courage, we 
with a stick of wood, a hatchet, a pail of should the more gladly welcome the Scout 
water, and two matches. With these the movement which is giving this training, 
boy was required to build his fire and sup- The Scout law declares: "A Scout's 
port his pail, and the boy who could soonest word is to be trusted. If he were to violate 
bring the water to a boil won the contest, his honor by telling a lie or by cheating, or 

Dr. Curtis admits that the Scout move- by not doing exactly a given task when 
ment encounters a real difficulty in the citiesw trusted on his honor, he may be directed to 
It is true that many scouting activities, sudi hand over his Scout badge." "It is one 
as carrying messages, can be carried on in thing," says Dr. Curtis, "to tell a boy that 
cities, but the real work of Scouts presup- he must not lie because it is wicked, and it 
poses woods, fields, and streams. The cities is a very different thing to show him that it 
are beginning to establish Scout camps in the is not honorable or courageous to do it, and 
country, to which the boys are sent for to show him that he belongs to an order 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 107 

THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY FROM THE 
MANUFACTURER'S STANDPOINT 

CAN manufacturers who are now work- who sees to it that the rules arc obeyed, 
ing a ten-hour day change to an eight- It would be quite possible, as Mr. Morri- 
hour basis and still produce goods in the same son concedes, for. a plant to change from ten 
quantity and at the same cost? Many evi- hours to eight and, by operating under rule- 
dently think that t^ey cannot do this, but of-thumb methods, increase its costs. On the 
Mr. C. J. Morrison, who has acted as con- other hand, if the work is properly planned 
suiting engineer for many large industrial and dispatched, so that the worker always 
concerns and is the author of several books has a job, the necessary delays and costs can 
on problems of his profession, has become actually be reduced. Three large concerns 
convinced that not only can manufacturers cited by Mr. Morrison have lately made this 
cut their working day to an eight-hour basis, change from ten hours to eight hours, and 
without diminution of output, but that even their experience is worth noting. They oper- 
more goods can be produced than before and ate in entirely different lines and employ 
at lower costs. diversified labor groups. All the well-known 

. In the December number of the Engineer" trades are represented among the employees. 
ing Magazine (New York), Mr. Morrison One of these concerns was a large printing 
cites several interesting experiments recently plant doing practically every line of printing, 
ccmducted in American manufacturing plants Competition was keen and the managers real- 
which seem to bear out his contention. He ized that the change to an eight-hour day 
maintains that those manufacturers who see could not be made unless costs could be kept 
in the eight-hour plan only an increase of from increasing. They therefore studied the 
costs quite overlook the fact that the work situation carefully for many months, and 
accomplished and not time spent in the shop took measures to stop leaks and wastes, giv- 
is the determining factor. In one instance ing particular attention to problems of 
where a plant was operated on a ten-hour power, light, heat, humidity, and handling 
basb, it was conclusively shown that the em- of materials. New methods of planning and 
ployccs were not working over eight hours, dispatching the work were installed, and 
that they started late, quit early, and were when all these changes had been introduced, 
idle for considerable periods during the day. the eight-hour day was inaugurated. The 
The proprietor was urged to put the plant result from the first was a material reduction 
on an eight-hour basis, but he replied, "We of costs and increase of profits. The higher 
prefer to operate ten hours and let the men dividends paid on the stock have led to a 
take it easy." Mr. Morrison holds that this marked increase in its value. Many printing 
is just what the men themselves do not want, plants that have been forced to an eight-hour 
They would prefer an eight-hour day and basis have lost money, and some have gone 
are willing to work energetically during the into bankruptcy. The success of the one 
eight hours. Furthermore, if Mr. Morri- cited by Mr. Morrison seems clearly due to 
son's observation is to be depended on, most the efficient organization of the plant 
of the so-called loafing in factories is occa- The second concern mentioned by Mr. 
sioned by factory conditions and not by lazi- Morrison had Government contracts and 
ness on the part of the employees. He has when the law was passed restricting work 
not found many men who are shirkers. on such contracts to eight hours a day, this 

The unions themselves have made rules plant was operating on a ten-hour basis, and 
for their members, requiring full time of all the contracts had been taken on estimates 
actual work. The rules made by one of the made up on that basis. The same careful 
strongest unions in the country, all of whose preparation was made as in the case of the 
members work on an eight-hour basis, re- printing plant that we have just outlined, 
quire the men to give eight hours of actual and the consequences were very satisfactory 
"work, stipulate that the men must be in their to the management. Every contract came 
working clothes at their assigned places for out under the estimates, and during the past 
^irork before time for starting, and must not "lean years" the factory has been operating 
leave their places, clean up, or remove their at full capacity because of its ability to under- 
working clothes until after time for quitting, bid competitors. 
Each shop has a representative of the union Manufacturers of a household article that 



108 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

IS extensively advertised throughout the came out below the former figures, and the 
United States and to some extent abroad, consumer has received more for his money 
had been working two shifts of eleven and during the past year than ever before, 
thirteen hours, respectively, because their Mr. Morrison further shows that in many 
product requires a continuous operation of cases it is far more profitable to run the plant 
the plant. Although all their competitors in two or three shifts and thus have it pro- 
were operating under the same conditions, ductive during sixteen or twenty-four hours 
they decided to run three shifts of eight hours every day, instead of standing idle seven- 
each. Plans were made for a continuous twelfths or two-thirds of the possible work- 
production at a uniform rate, regardless of ing time. In most industries competition is 
the seasonable fluctuations and sales. The steadily becoming more severe. This means 
production would exceed the sales in most that costs must be reduced and labor kept 
seasons, while falling short in other seasons, satisfied. In Mr. Morrison's view the logi- 
The advantage was to lie in steady employ- cal solution of the problem lies in modem 
ment and running at the same rate through* methods of management, combined with con- 
out the year. In this case, also, the costs tinuous operation of plants. 



GENERAL GOETHALS ON THE 

PANAMA SLIDES 

AT this writing the Panama Canal is First, those caused by the material assuming its 

closed, for an indefinite time to come, na^"''^^ slope, in cases where the banks were left 

1 « 1 J I'j ^ /^ 1 u J -.L '^ steeper than the angle or repose for the particu- 

by huge landslides at Culebra, and the situ- i^r material throu^ which the excavation was 

ation IS so disconcerting, from both a mill- carried, 

tary and a commercial point of view, that Second, those due to the fact that material more 

the Government has sent an imposing com- ^^ ^^" P"?"^*^!? "poted-j. relatively harder 

I ' ^'C 4, * 7 J u strata, which aacltned iMV^n ise cutting. When 

mission of scientific experts, nominated by ^^^ eji^viuion reacl»d a imdwar or below the 

the National Academy of Sciences, to make imertection of the hacifter f^ne wiUi Ae tlides of 
investigations on the Isthmus and prepare a the prism the superwupairri iuss mwirtl into the 
report for submission to the President **S?7*^f^ .*"*' , . , , . ^ ^ ^ 

Two recent reports on the slides have been „/J^:^r.« I'd^l^ing'S^ SZ. «".:."'".! 
made by General doethals to the Secretary ing produced by the concentration ^ Ae weights 
of War. One, bearing date October 26, is of the banks due to the removal of the material 
published in the Engineering News (New ^''9!? ^^/ P"*""- , . . .,.,.,.. 

York) of November 25; the other, dated whE%L";M:d%tr;kr«ui':rr bSLl.r„g 
November 15, appears m the New York Sun up structurally of the natural nyrterial, and they 
of December 5. The latter is the more com- were called **breaks" in contradistinction to the 
prehensive. In both the writer gives the *'»^««» although after the break occurred the 

l.;<.4.rx^r ^t «.k« ^^^^^t. «-j ^««i;-.- *i*j^ 1 movement of the mass above the fractured strata 

history of the present and earlier slides, and .„,^ ^^ excavated area produced the same gen- 

such a forecast of the future as is possible eral effect as a elide of the other classes, 
in the light of present knowledge. The third class, or breaks, were the most seri- 

The most serious earth movements have ®"* *"^ difficult slides encountered, and our pres- 

been the Cucaracha slide of 1913. the Cule- ::;^t*oS7id"«;%n:%',;ftThrv"i.;?„"S'^ 

bra slides of 1910, and the greater Culebra Culebra, north of Gold Hill. While breaks oc- 

slides of 1914 and 1915. The Cucaracha curred at various places along the line of the 

slide was thoroughly cleaned up by October, «anal, those in Gaillard Cut, or the excavation 

1914. and the result, under a year's test of '^'?"«*" .'^"^ continental divide, were the most 
^, cu ^ V V Aw^«.c, u"^^^ » y^<*»^ j> i^«. "A serious, because of the heterogeneous masses of 

permanent water conditions, appears to be material which composed it and the depth of 

stable. the cutting, which affected the territory adjacent 

The processes by which these slips occur ^^ ***« ^"^ ^^^ * considerable distance, and the re - 

are thus classified by General Goethals in the ^°^" ^''^^^^^^ ^*^^" ^"^^ quantities of material. 

^ ■ The history of the struggle with these 

n..^.»^:t,<r .,r»^« ♦!.- -.-..- - *u *rj .-i.* i. slides and breaks shows how sdence and 
Liepenamg upon the causes, the slides which . . *, • i i_ i_ t 

were encountered while excavating for the locks ingenuity, as well as patient labor, have been 
and the canal prism were of three distinct classes, matched against the blind forces of Nature. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



GROUP OF RUTHENIAN PEASANTS ¥R£M THE VICINITY OF LEMMBC 

WHO ARE THE RUTHENIANS? 

THE Austrian province Galicia, which course (o violent meaaurei. in their struggle for 

has been the chief scene of the bloody H''"?' f". '•""*' '"ns-jaS'- unjustl}- miking the 

^ ^ u^ _*._■ _jTi J Polish rCEime accountable tor a social status still 

contest between Austna and Russia and g„„3, ;« ^ ^j f„„ „hich many of the 

which shares with Russian Poland, BelEium, Polet themselves suffer, thus opening an ever- 

and Serbia the sad primacy in desolation and nidcning breach between those whom common 

suffering, would require, from whomsoever sufferings in the past and common hopes of 

™y b. d„M„ed .o dee,™™ i,s des.i„«, '-- '*"g t'Sc "oVh, X"S,' S?"..!!, 

the solution of an exceedingly troublesome ;„ ,he right in so far as they claim due respect 

ethnic problem. For Austrian Poland is only for their Polish individuality in Eastern Galicia, 

in part inhabited by Poles, over two-fifths of *'"' *<•■■ '•>«'■" national interests, have none the 

the population belonging ,o .he Ru.h.nian Ir.h'TZ.t d;:lgr„"B''a'.d'ry t =1'™.'"]; 

branch of the Slavonic race, corresponding ^ historic past, against which the newly awa- 

to the "Little Russians," of whom there are kened spirit of the Ruthenians voices an ener- 

about 35,000,000 in the Russian empire. Ketic protest. Galicia, historically one, must be 

By historic traditions and by social con- '^V'^'^ polme.lly according lo the distribution 

.-.- .1 ,a LI i L D I of "Is ethnic elements. This is inevitable, and 

ditions, they differ notably from the Poles, ,1,, p^ianj ,„ ^hi^h its grtat national poet has 

and also in religious belief, the latter being assigned the mission of being the cradle of the 

generally Roman Catholics, while the Ru- "'" Slavonic spirit, must make this voluntary 

thenians belong to the Greek Orthodox ""'"^^f "P"";*""'".' "'"^ '<"^= ?'"=""' 'V 

^1 LL iiLT? /-"LI- fraternity, and the civilization of the Slavonic 

Church, but not to the Eastern Catholic p„p|„. a, Herzen wrote in his "Kolokol" 

Church of Russia, which recognizes the Czar (The Bell) : The Rulhenian lands belong to the 

as its spiritual head. This vexed question nation inhabiting and cultivating thera; neither 

is treated by Signor Giorgio d'Acandia in R"'.»ia"' nor Poles have the right to appropriate 

Nuova Jniolo,ia (Rone). Of the dissen- 'T.^^V^l^t'l^^rt... mass of the 

Sions which have long prevailed between Ruthenians are agriculturists, the number of 

these two nationalities, he says: seats in the Diet assigned to the rural districts 
is disproportionately small in regard to the popu- 

In Galicia the Ruthenians hive often had re- laiion of these districts, and favors the election 



100 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

oi an undue and crushing majority of Polish despotism, have acquired at last an individual 
members. The result of this is that Ruthenian physiognomy, an individual consciousness, merely 
institutions and societies receive only a beg- through the abolition of the form of government 
garly sum in comparison with the awards freely which oppressed them, and which their social 
voted for Polish institutions. As examples of inferiority' rendered them often unable to cast 
this, while the Polish academies obtain sub- off unaided. The assertion that peoples which 
sidles of 57,000 crowns, the Ruthenian are only have produced little or nothing in the field of 
subsidized 10,000 crowns, the Polish theaters re- thought, of art, or of politics, are predestined 
ceive 113,000 crowns against 14,500 awarded to perpetual infancy and subjection, is an asser- 
Ruthenian theaters, and even in the case of agri- tion without either ethical or political value, 
cultural societies, where it might be expected For if certain peoples, by an unhappy fate, have 
the Ruthenians would fare better, these are put been confined within the narrow limits of a 
off with' 6,000 crowns while the Poles get 33,000 single social class, and forced to become merely 
crowns. a voiceless mass of sorrow and labor, it is none 

These relatively favorable conditions' for the the less true that the spiritual energies they 
Polish inhabitants of Galicia explain their lack have evidenced, although taking the form im- 
of sympathy with Russia and their Austrian posed by their rulers, have had their roots and 
leanings. For Russian domination, or Russian sustenance in their own souls, giving the^ lie 
control, would rob them of their supremacy, and to the charge of "congenital sterility," which 
hence the Poles do not share in the wish for Rus- would if admitted, destroy all faith in the slow 
sian success that animates the hearts of the other but progressive evolution of all the races of 
Slavonic peoples of the Austrian empire. mankind. 

And it is perhaps in the hands of these des- 

The Writer concludes with an eloquent P«ed peoples, which have had to await the 

statement of the part that heretofore op- ?l^"*f " ,,^^ "*^^*:^" .u*"u*"j™ "^ u^^l"^* "^V^ 

^j JU1J 4 L 11 J fa^cfto the sun, m the hands of these peoples 

pressed and backward peoples may be called ^^^^^^ ^s yet linguistic, intellectuml, or political 

upon to play in future times: unity, that are held the keys of the world to 

* * ' •* come. For they bring to the world a primitive 

In the past century Europe has witnessed the consciousness, one free from all class prejudice, 

awakening among the Slavs of more than one and free from the insincerity of that vain and 

of those peoples, sons of the soil, which, lack- inert intellectuality which has for so long sapped 

ing a middle class, enslaved for centuries by the strength of Europe. 



THE RUSSIAN PRESS ON THE PRO- 
ROGATION OF THE DUMA 

THE recent prorogation of the Russian We shall not take up the question of the length 
Duma came as a surprise to those who ^^ *he period for which the Duma has been 

-. u* 1 1 -.u 4. J ^x ^a^i^e, ;« prorogued. There is scarcely any need in 
were watching closely the trend of affairs m ^^^^j*g ^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ '^^^^^ ^^^ 

Russia. It IS true that suspicions of a pos- mean more than a year. But there is a much 

sibility of prorogation were hanging in the more important aspect of this matter. It is the 

air for some time before the sessions of the »ignificance of the event itself. 

Du U-. 4.-. ^\^^ k„ ♦»»- T«n The sessions of the Duma have been inter- 

uma were brought to a close by the Im- ^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^,^^^,y expressed opinions of 

penal order, and that there was a strong cur- hg majority, in the face of a large and important 
rent of opposition to the Duma in the political program that it had set before itself. More 
life of Russia, which found its best exprcs- ^{»an ^^^^ the sessions have been interrupted at 

sion in the "Black Bloc" of the Council of '^L/'J^l^l^l^rWrd'' i^ ffvn '''JTm^uinf 
, _, . _. , .... made its voice neara m lavor oi continuing 

the Empire. But those indications were not uninterrupted the work of the Duma, when in 
generally taken seriously. There seemed to the Duma itself the different parties had come 
be a certainty of a decided change in the to a mutual understanding, wherAy all party 
government's policy, and any interruption of dj<f"ences might be obliterated, and unity within 
^, , /■ 1 1 • 1 • i_ !• u 1 the country might be effected, 

the work of the legislative bodies would have xhe government, represented by Mr. Gore- 
been out of keeping with this change. It is mykin and his colleagues in the Cabinet, con- 
only natural, therefore, that the prorogation wders the assistance of the Duma unnecessary 

should have caused comments in the Russian f * ^^^ P^^*^"^ moment and takes upon itself the 

, , r t_- 1. task of organizing the victory in the world 

press, the general tenor of which expresses struggle, upon the outcome of which depends the 

keen disappointment. fate of Russia. At the same time it assumes the 

The Moscow Russkiya Viedomosti, a sen- responsibility for all possible consequences of 
ous and influential organ, says editorially ®"^^ • decision. 

that the prorogation of the Duma brought The same note of stern warning to the 
the country back to the conditions which government, which declares itself once more 
obtained before the war. strong enough to rule the country and to 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



THE DUMA IN SESSION 

lead it to victoty, is sounded by the Kiev What is the reaion for this suddenncM? What 

newspaper, KievUanh: ' immediaw danger could have compelled the 

govtrnmeni to adopt a meaiure which had been 

-J , . , ■ J . ,.« under consideration for several week* and which 

And lo. thote who have reniamed indiffcrcn^ „,, not coniidered imperative by the rainitieri 
who saw nothing and heard nothing, have pushed themtelvei? 

aside those who have been so responsive to the An aniwer to this question may be found In 
Deeds of the army, who.e he«rl. bled for .t. . . . ,he opinion, of the "Right" (reawionary) presa 

Nothmg can be added o ih>s. The govern- ^^^ ,he declarations of the '■Right" membert of 

ment has assumed a terrible responsibility. God ,he Duma. They are unanimous in siatinK the 

grant that it may never regret this step. . circumstances which brought about the sudden 

prorogation. It was the formation of a progres- 

The Moscow Russioye Slovo, while real- sive bloc, and the program adopted by it, that 

izing the seriousness of the event, appeals to "'" *''""<' '" *>' dangerous by "somebody." 

the country to remember its highest aims at I^J„,r^^"S Z'^'TZZI^^' ^^^'Zt^ 

the present moment: minimum of measures, which could have brought 

peace to I he country, gave promise, it seemed, 

The prorogation of the .Dtima cannot but of productive and fruitful work. But it was (hit 

Eroduce a most painful impression. Let us hope, very thing that was pronounced to be a menace 
owever, that our public organizations, as well 'o the unification of ihc Und, a menace capable 
•s the whole people, will find in themselves °' producing serious disturbances, 
sufficient firmness and self-control to receive 
this intelligence without losing their self-posses- The reactionary organs, to which the 

rh^'«"ndnef:;" Rr.il"arthrpresen. T ^^T^"'' "' ■='""* °'" the prorogation, 
ment: to offer the greatest possible resistance They do not attempt to conceal their satisfac- 
on the battle-front. tion at the fulfilment of their long-standing 

desire. The Moscow Moskovsktya Viedo- 
TTic liberal i!f/irA (Petrograd) points cut moiti, one of the organs representing the 
the fact that, from the point of view of the reactionary movement in Russia, throws the 
Eovernment itself, the prorogation of the blame for the prorogation upon the mem- 
Duma is a badly calculated step. The sud- bcrs of the Duma themselves, who have at- 
denness with which the sessions of the Duma tempted the "dangerous" game of playing 
were interrupted deprived the country of its with the fire of liberalism. Prorogation is 
only possibility of becoming united for the regarded as the logical outcome of the posi- 
aim. tion taken by the majority. 



102 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

WHY FATS AND OILS ARE CONTRA- 
BAND OF WAR 

DISPATCHES appearing in the news- vegetable kingdom are most usually oils, i. e, 
papers on December 10 stated that the substances rich in olein and liquid at ordinary 
T-. J I !^ •^ t /~> L J ^L ■ J temperatures. These oils are chiefly contained 

Federal Counctl of Germany had authorized •„ ,^^ g„j, „f p,,„,^ h^^p ^,„ „„ ^,,„„^ 

municipalities to issue butter and fat cards pine, castor-plant, etc.; sometimes in the fleshy 

similar to the bread cards which have been part of certain fruits, as the olive and bayberry. 

in use for some time. The ordinance goes Some vegetable oils, however, are of a consist- 

a T 1 J--.JJ,. ence similar to that of butter or animal fat, — 

mto effect on January 1, and is intended to nojably the cocoanut and cocoa-bean (chocolate), 

make it possible to reserve the cheaper fats the palm, nutmeg, etc The fatty bodies derived 

for the use of the poor. To this end large from the animal kingdom are ordinarily more 

producers may be required to sell part of »«»'«<•• «"«' "* ""«<• *«• »■■ ""ows. . . . 
their output, up to 15 per cent, of the total, j^ j^ ^^^y^^^ surprising to the layman to 

to municipa ities where a shortage exists, j^^^^ j,,^^ ^j^;,^ ^j,^ alimentary needs of a 
Another cable appearing on the same date la^e can be satisfied by 50 grammes per 

reported an apparently well-founded belief j ^^ industrial demands are 

that Germany could not possibly continue the ^^j^^ ^^ f^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^„. 

war for more than another twelvemonth un- jj ^j^^j, ^^^ ^ f^^ j,,^ f,,^^„ ^^ 

less she received increased supplies of oleagi- ^^^^^ ^^ ^j,^ practices of our ancestors and 

nous substances. ^^ ^^^^^ carbonate or the lye of wood 

These Items of news lend peculiar ap- ^^^ handles may be largely dispensed 

positeness to an article by Francis Marre in ^j^^ especially since the discovery of cheap 

Le CorresponJant {Pans) of November 15 ^^^^^j^ „f producing acetylene gas. The 

on Fats and OiU and the War. Mr. lubricants may be obtained from crude petro- 

Marre gives generous ineed of praise to the ^^^^ ^^ f^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ synthetic graphite, 

magnificent eflForts of German chemists to These* may be used in factories, for automo- 

find substitutes for necessary articles cut off ^iies, and for cars and locomotives. But the 

by the enemies blockade of German ports. j^jj^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ by airmen require castor 

A study of the lists of patents taken out m j 
Germany and neutral countries reveals vari- 
ous triumphs of Teutonic sdcnce, but it is During the first months of the war the lack 

deeply significant that these lists report no of this (castor-oil) was sorely feh by our enemies. 

form of synthesis of fatty bodies. Obviously, »<^^«" ^^l}y ^^^^/^^ *»>« ^*'- **»«y obtained an oil 
^1 ^i. T-fc I T> J J * L comparable to it m every way from the seeds 

then the Dual Powers are reduced to such ^^ ij^ported figs. At the present moment they 

supplies of these substances as their own ter- have sown sunflowers fa/ and wide, from whose 

ritories can produce, pliis what they can seeds they obtain an oil which contents their avia- 

surreptitiously obtain. Mr. Marre remarks ^?^* ^*>o"K*» "^^ perfectly satisfactory. But for 

.111 1 *.u • 'he manufacture of cloth, olein, which is ex- 

with good-humored sarcasm on the circum- ^.^^^^ f,^^ vegetable oili. is difficult to replace 

stance that the neutral lands in communica- by anything except the soluble soaps. It is used 

tion with Germany have suddenly developed to soften and "feed" the fibers of the wool when 

an enormous appetite for fats and oils, de- *^*^"»K carded, and the cloth itself during the 

J. ^1 \.. I. • -..• I process of fulling. The Germans have, how- 

manding three times as much as m times of ^^„^ ^^^,j^^j appreciable economies by utilizing 

peace. He then proceeds to show why it is the soluble soaps so far as possible and partially 

vitally important to the Allies to establish replacing the olein by the oleic acid which is 

a strict embargo on the sending of such sub- «tracied from it and permits the liberation of 

. ^ g^ the glycerine contained m combination with it 

stances into Germany. .„ ^^c olein of oils. 

In the first place they arc essential elements 
of human food, the minimum daily requisite The final section of the article deals with 
being 50 grammes for an adult. Secondly, the question of the relation of fatty bodies to 
they are Indispensable to the manufacture of explosives. Since glycerine is obtained only 
soap and ot cloth. Lastly, they are neces- from grape pomace, outside of fats and oils, 
sary for making nitroglycerine, which is the and Germany has but limited territory suit- 
active principle of dynamite, and which con- able for the cultivation of the vine, it is obvi- 
stitutes 50 per cent, of the smokeless powder ous that she must depend on the latter for 
made by the German formula. the base of her nitroglycerine. 

The fatty bodies which are derived from the Rigorously rectified and brought to a state of 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 103 

almost chemical purity, glycerine is then sub- pHcd this need. But recently Russia pro- 
jected to nitrification, whereby after being washed hibited completely the export of fish oil 
and filtered it is transformed into a new product, , , . c,„^ i ' ^^ j ^^^K«kl,r ^^»^^ ^r^^ 
nitroglycerine, the most energetic of all known bought in Sweden and probably meant for 
explosives. This, mixed with inert powders, gives re-export to Germany. Mr. Marre says, m 
the ordinary dynamites; mixed with active pow- closing: 
ders it gives the nitrated, chlorated, or pyroxyla- 

ted dynamites, and the explosive gelatines. The allied powers have the imperative duty 

of remembering that our enemies can produce on 
T^ . . r ^i. ^ ^1. r^ their own territory scarcely half of the fats 

During the first months of the war Ger- necessary to them for the preparation of their ex- 
many is said to have received formidable plosives of war. In the name of what culpable 
consignments of lard, tallow, copra, and nsh indifference do they tolerate it that neutrals con- 
oil from Holland, Sweden, and Greece. »""« ^^ revictual the enemy who niust be ovcr- 
i»n_ 1. i_i I 1 L 1 ^1. 1 1. thrown, and that they may supply them with the 

When the blockade became closer, the slaugh- ^^^ .ibstances the deprivation of which would 

ter of two-thirds of the herds of swine sup- hasten their defeat and ruin? 



ENGLAND'S NEGLECT OF SCIENCE, 

AND THE PENALTY 

**TT has required," says a bitter editorial crisis that calls for the most intelligent and 

A in England's unrivaled scientific week- economical use of all its resources. 
ly,Artf/tfr^ "nothing short of the most ter- ^ j. unfortunately only too well known to 

rible war of all time to awaken the nation scientific men that for more than a generation 

to its slackness in many things." past the trend of public opinion, at least as 

But even now, it appears, England does represented by politicians, statesmen department 

^ r 11 J J 1 ^ ^ ^ i_ • officials, muniapal authorities, and mcludmg 

not fully understand to what extent her mis- ^ven the heads of many great industrial and 

adventures in the present war have been commercial undertakings, has been to ignore the 

due to her inferiority in scientific matters, position of science in the fabric of civilization, 

and to treat the development of science as though 

Indeed, the nation has as yet not begun either it were a matter of little moment to the national 

to realize how dearly it is paying for its neglect welfare. 

of science, or to reconstruct on a scientific basis Consider the position of science in poll- 

Its politics. Its statesmanship, its commerce, its .. j ui* ir * 

education, its civil and industrial administration. *»cs and public attairs. 

Distrust of the expert, of the man who has made Apart from the handful of university mem- 
it his business to know, is still the fashionable, bers, which includes Sir Joseph Larmor and Sir 
if not the prevalent, attitude toward men of phiHp Magnus as the sole representatives of the 
science. most neglected branch of human activities, there 

is not one scientific man in the roll of the House 

In fact, like another country nearer home, of Commons. In the House of Lords science is, in- 

Britain as a whole hardly knows science deed, represented by two hereditary peers. Lord 

when she sees it. Rayleigh and Lord Berkeley; but there have been 

no scientific men called to the peerage since the 

^ . 1, ^u J '1 J • ^ • ^ deaths of Lord Kelvin, Lord Lister, and Lord 

^1*^"^!^}}^ 4 \ f 1 ''?k"1 /T ^- .fii Avebury. The esteem in which «aence is held 
• paragraph of what they think to be scient fie be measured by the suggestion in Lord Dun- 
news. If the public prefers its sensational tit- ,.'_.. „i..„. t„. ,u- ..f»— -f .u. u..... ^t 
ku _< ^:....> X...:» v...ti.A t.^^ .k-. ...-.nki.t raven s scheme tor the reform of the House of 
bit of science-gossip culled from the pamphlet Lords, that in the future it should consist of 400 
of some pseudo-scientific charlatan and served up members, whereof /too should represent art, lit- 
hot by an anonymous paragraphist, to more sober ^, «»..,. * «j .^: ^^ i xiru *!.•-.• 

J "i X • *• I '^ u u erature, and science! When this amazine prop- 

and informing articles written by men whose ^.:*u„ * ,. ^..^ /^., j ^^* ^^^ ^- . ^5^5 J^* 

^. .^ . .J. ^ .t ^. 11. 1 V 1^ ^ osition was put forward not one voice cried out 

authority is indisputable, the public has itself to • ^,^*..«. „!!„:„.♦ ..,^u : u *^ --.•-..--. :* 

..^^1 r'j'*. J V J** J ^1 *n protest against such an insult to science: it 

thank. Editors and sub-editors do not know ,„,. , r«.,^ir «,«•- :«.^^*».»4 -♦i^^ ^uJu^» 

1 • ^ ^1. ^ jji J wsLi a much more important question whether 

enough science to suppress the twaddle; and, .c. ki.U/*.*- -u-ii ^«.,*:«..- *^ u-\-™ 

consequently, blunders which would be thought '**^ ^'^^""^^ '***" ^^"^'""^ *° ^^ P""- 

amazing if perpetrated in a like fashion in the i^ Js, of course, notorious that higher edu- 
domains of literature or art or history arc put ^' • r* i j lm j • • 

into gratuitous and harmful circulation. ^^^'^" '" England, while producing superb 

types of culture and character, not only 

This has often been said before, on both relegates science (particularly of the practi- 

sides of the Atlantic, but it acquires a new cal kind) to a subordinate position, but more 

and tremendous meaning, in the light of cur- or less consciously feels it to be a jarring 

rent events. Neither sham science nor dilet- note, so far as it has established itself in the 

tantc science can help the nation through a curricula. 



104 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Not ont of the headmaiters of the great pub- application of science to military affairs, but 

Ik tchoolt U a man of •cience. and very few of ^ave also revealed the fact that England's 

the headf of houses m the old universiues, though • i ^- i % • i i-r • 11 

the recent selection of a zoologist and a botanist industrial and commercial life is actually 

to suoh posts oi dignity at Cambridge may be a disorganized to a certain extent by the neg- 

timely concession. If the headmasters and heads lect of science, 
of houses are by training and tradition out of 

sympathy with Kience, is it astonishing that vt 1 u i^ . t^* i> j 
under-masters and Khoolboys, as well as under- ,, ^"J^^ *"*'* * ^^""^ *^? T>isif^t\i warned us 
graduates, grow up ignorant of scientific method *^J>*^ **»« """"TV^^'i prosperit^r of a nation might 
and despise that of which they are ignorant? ^"^ measured by the prosperity of its chemical 
Worst of all, in those departments of our schools ?*'''?/!*^""*-, "* ^*? laughed at as though 
where Kience is admitted, it is treated a£ an in- *"'• ^*?"™ ***^ ^«" a joke. But it cea^s to be 
ferior study. No doubt our public school system f ^^^^\r^ J!"^^""^ "^^^^ ^^! "f^l^ ®^ ?^'*"^ 
turns out many admirable cricketers and a few ^*^« /« ^}^ disappearance of whole branches of 
scholars; but of the living men who have made ^^""""f, ^'i?^" that arc concerned with the technical 
their mark in science, how few can thank the '«PP^'^*^««« ^l**^™*"^^-?': P»^^^^ 
public schools for that achievement! At every ^^^ '^»? <>^ ^« dye-stuff industry; the decay of 
general election the public-to judge from the f^^"*l branches of the glass industry ; the ever- 
press,-is keenly anxious to know how many of incrcasmg pressure in the metal industries, m 
ihe members o/the House were reared at Har- the varnish industry m the watch and clock m- 
row, and how many at Eton. But no one cares ^"'^fy*. *" innumerable branches of the engineer- 
how many Fellows of the Royal Society, or mem- '"« industries, are serious indications. They arc 
bers of the Institution of Civil Engineers, or •ympto™* tjiat something has been rotten m the 
Fellows of the Institute of Chemistry are from administration of the state. 

Harrow or Eton " the public, the nation, and its appointed 

rulers display such blindness, is it wonderful 

*T»i ^* r J • • _x -.u ««4. ,-,*.. that national interests, civil as well as military. 

The unsatisfied exigenaes of the great war i„d„,,,i^, „ ^^11 as agricultural, suffer grievouT 

have not only thrown into strong reliet the \y when forced to compete with nations sedulously 

inadequate preparation of the nation for the trained in the cultivation of science? 



THE MOVEMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL 

BETTERMENT 

AN interesting and valuable feature of and such matters. Another employer is equally 
njodcrn industrial life is the attention r„rnXpoA?nTiri?b^.r'.ir"'thV^%*Ti^^^^^ 
given by many employers, large and small, injured may not suffer. Still other employers 
to the safety, comfort, and health of working concentrate their attention upon the housins prob- 
people. The editor of Machinery declares ^f™-. Some others are earnest advocates of profit- 
that the subject of industrial betterment has ?S-"t„ No -» ^^^^T.! TS trZ^ 
become so important during the past decade fo^e. 
that no large manufacturer or other employer 
can afford to neglect it. Welfare work Mr. Cardullo divides 

In a recent issue of that periodical there roughly into two forms: (1) Making the 
was published an article on safety and wel- factory or workroom sanitary and pleasant, 
fare^work which assumed the proportions of with safeguards for life, limb, and health; 
a small book. It was written by Mr. Forrest and (2) improving the community life, 
E. Cardullo, and dealt with safety, sani- through leadership and cooperation in pro- 
tation, housing, cooperative organizations, viding better homes, facilities for industrial 
profit-sharing systems, pensions, workmen's education, and schemes for encouraging 
compensation, and many other ramifications thrift. 
of the subject. More than half of the waking hours of a 

While the general movement for industrial working man or woman are spent in the 
safety is national and unified, Mr. Cardullo workroom. Mr. Cardullo cites an instance 
finds the rest of welfare work still sporadic to prove the benefit, to the manufacturer 
in its nature. himself, which results merely from the intro- 

duction of proper air-space and light. A 

We see here an effort to make workrooms and prominent textile mill has one shop built 
factories more pleasant for employees, and there 1. *» j «» f «"• ^ 

an attempt to provide better faciliries for the ^^"^ ^^J^J^ ^^ ^"^ ^.*^'' constructed 
midday lunch. One employer will lay stress on recently (both having similar machinery), 
lockers and lavatory facilities, sanitary toilets, The output of the modem shop is 20 per 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



cent, greater than that of 
the older one. The benefit 
to the employees cannot 
well be expressed m figures. 
The most fascinating 
kind of welfare work is 
that having to do with the 
prevention of accidents. 
Workmen's compensation 
laws have transferred the 
burden of industrial acci- 
dents from the victim to 
the industry, and thus given 
stimulus to the "safety- 
first" movement. A thor- 
ough and systematic inves- 
tigation has been made of 
the causes of accidents, fol- 
lowed by an equally thor- 
ough and systematic effort 
to eliminate the causes. 
Cooperation v/as given to 
employers' organizations by 
Government bureaus and commissions, and Regarding the future of welfare work, 
the results made increasingly effective by in- Mr. Cardullo believes that, while changing 
terchange of ideas through such media as conditions will alter details, the fundamental 
the American Museum of Safety. Almost principles will remain. At the basis is the 
as important as the introduction of protective idea that the employer should utilize the 
appliances has been the work of educating powers which he possesses, — capital, initia- 
the workers themselves to be careful and to tive, judgment, and executive ability, — to 
avoid taking unnecessary risks, promote the welfare of his employees. 



SAFEGUARDED GEAR WHEELS 
: device! u ihii enttrelr eliminate ihe 
r. Note how cIok the opentar-i hair 
g i.h«l) 



e woiirj"! 



THE CHILD'S BODY AND THE ADULT'S 
BODY 



ONLY a few generations ago our worthy 
ancestors regarded the child as merely 
the man or woman in miniature, an idea 
typified by the fact that children were dressed 
in replica of their parents' costumes. Nowa- 
days we realize that there are important dif- 
ferences between the child's organism and 
that of cither parent, but it is quite recently 
that the nature and extent of these differences 
have been made the object of extensive re- 
search. The subject is one of great impor- 
tance, since it is obvious that it is vitally re- 
lated to such questions as the quality and 
quantity of food and the proportions of its 
constituents; to physical training; to the de- 
gree and kind of labor permitted, etc. Some 
of the newest data upon the subject are pre- 
sented by a writer in the Nalunvhsen- 
schaftliche Vmtchau (Cothen). We read: 

It 11 commonly known that the child'* rnode 



of breathing differ* from the adult's becaute of 
■he barrel-like shape of the chett; because of 
thii the child breathes more with the abdomen 
than with the breaiL The heart-action differa 
alM. It has another rhythm, ■» can be imroedi* , 
•tely noted by the difference in the pulse-beat 
per minute. 

It IS very obvious, of course, that the 
child's metabolism, that is, the assimilation 
of material from the supplies furnished by 
the blood, must be strikingly different, since 
the adult needs to assimilate only to repair 
waste, and the adolescent organism must not 
only repair waste, but continuously grow. 
It is not so generally known, however, that 
the chemical composition of the elements in- 
volved is different, and the younger the 
child the more does it differ in this respect 
from the adult. For example 74.7 per cent, 
of the new-born infant's body consists of 
water, and only 58.5 per cent of the adult's. 



106 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

And these differences of chemical composi- the child not only as regards the comparative 

tion are quite as striking if we consider the *i" .° V*"l ^"1 '^***' "^"^''V*' ^H ^l"?^ ""^ 

, , ^ rr^t * t u the body, but also as regards the ratio between 

skeleton. The separate bones are much ^^^^^^ ^^j breadth of the skull. In the new- 

softer and weaker in the child and are far born babe the skull is enormously big, about 

richer in blood-vessels; likewise they show one-fourth of the entire length of the body. At 

a comparative lack of mineral substances, two years it is only one-fifth, at six years one- 

rr^, . . i_ ^1 i.'ij> 1. J • ii 1.1 Sixth, .at fifteen years one-seventh, and m the 

This IS why the child s body is more flexible f^,„y ^^^^^^ p^^^„ twenty-five years, only one- 

and supple. It explains why certain train- eighth. 

ing, as in dancing and acrobatics, can best Furthermore, the skull is at least as broad as 

be begun with young children, and also why >«ng »« new-born babes, of ten broader, while in 

^ ' I L ^C.^i^^y i«k^« :., t^^^^^:^ adults the breadth is only three-quarters the 

certain forms of physical labor in factories j^^.g^t. Hence the adulfs face looks narrower. 

and elsewhere should be forbidden by law : The size and shape of the single bones of the 

skull are often very different at different ages 

The proportion of organic^ substances (carti- in the child. Consequently the relative position 

lage and fatty matter) to inorganic or solid of the parts of the face constantly alters. Thus, 

substances in the bone, for instance, is shown by at birth the nostril-holes are only a short distance 

the following table, taking the shin-bone as an below the lowest part of the eye's orbit. Gradu- 

example: ally this distance widens ... in correspondence 

with the continuous alteration in the relative 

Organic Substance. Inorganic Substance, position of the separate parts of the head ; not 

2 months* old child 34.68 per cent 65.32 per cent only does the form of the face alter constantly, 

3 years* old child 32.29 per cent 67.71 per cent, but also the mode of functioning in the chief 
Adult of 25 years 31.36 percent. 68.42 percent sense organs of the head, L e., the eye and the ear. 

At first the new-born child sees practically 

Very striking too is the difference in the pro- nothing, and when able after a while to see it 

portional relationship of various parts of the does so imperfectly. Similar conditions hold 

body to the total weight true with the ear. . . .In the little child the 

Eustachian tube is almost horizontal, while in 

New Born Child. Adult *be adult it bends sharply downward. It is 

Skeleton 16.7 per cent 15.35 percent shorter, too, in the child. This is why infiam- 

Muscles 23.4 per cent . 43.09 per cent mations of the nose and oral cavity affect the 

Skin 11.3 percent 6.30 per cent middle ear much more readily than in the adult 

Brain 14.34 per cent 2.37 per cent Very remarkable is the difference of size in 

Spine 0.20 per cent 0.067 per cent the development of the thymus gland, which lies in 

etc., etc., etc ^be vicinity of the lower throat in the new-born 

babe, and is then almost as big as the left lobe 



e t ^\^ A*a ^ 5^5.. *u:- *-ui* of the lungs. It continues to grow until the 

Some of the difference, wyen in thit table ^.^ » j ^ practically unaltered 

appear to be insignificant; this i. because thq^ ., '^^ ^ ,^ disappear, by degree, in 

•rr»''i!!5"''!Vr"*'"'f5*i°*i,*r°'±''**?™' « veJy short time. It appears, therefore, to 
of the body. They would look *«/ piore un- ./ ^ ^„. function, for a .pecifically 

portant if given in percentage, of their own ^ ^ , „e„bo,i,„. 

weight For instance, the size of the heart is ^ 

increased 12 to 13-fold in the course of the child's w^ . e . ,, ^ ^* i -^ •/: 

development, of the liver eleven-fold, of the I* is of especially great practical signifi- 

lungs about 20-fold, of the brain about four- cance that in childhood the heart is relatively 

fold, etc small as compared to the length of the body, 

while the arterial system, on the other hand. 
As an example of the changes in the pro- is very extensive; but in attaining puberty 
portions of the constituents which compose this relationship is gradually reversed. This 
the body the author takes the case of the is why the blood-pressure in the child is so 
cartilage. In the babe of six months the different from that of the grown person ; 
content of mineral salts is 2.24, in the three- i.e., it is essentially lower in general. It is, 
year-old child 3 per cent., and at nineteen however, higher in the lungs because the 
years 7.29 per cent. Similar differences may lung artery in the child has a greater diameter 
be noted in muscles, blood, bone-marrow, than the carotid artery, 
etc. A notable fact, too, is that the child's The natural consequence of this fact is 
blood is much richer in white blood-cor- that the child liberates more carbon dioxide, 
puscles. The facts cited prove conclusively and breathes more rapidly. To these con- 
that childhood and adofescence are com- ditions are due the greater liveliness of the 
, posed of preparatory and provisory states, child, and knowing this we can understand 

the full enormity of that system of school 
The provisory character of the corporeal forms discipline which demands rigid inactivity of 

Se mUf;id^ia.;n.'';^d:SnX*^^^^^^ -ff ->^^^-- ^^ lo"g ^^- The child's 
of the head up to twenty years, when sex ma- abdominal organs also ditter essentially m 
turity is attained. Skull formation differs in position, form, etc., from the adult's. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 107 

THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY FROM THE 
MANUFACTURER'S STANDPOINT 

CAN manufacturers who are now work- who sees to it that the rules arc obeyed, 
ing a ten-hour day change to an eight- It would be quite possible, as Mr. Morri- 
hour basis and still produce goods in the same son concedes, for. a plant to change from ten 
quantity and at the same cost? Many evi- hours to eight and, by operating under rule- 
den tly think that t^ey cannot do this, but of -thumb methods, increase its costs. On the 
Mr. C. J. Morrison, who has acted as con- other hand, if the work is properly planned 
suiting engineer for many large industrial and dispatched, so that the worker always 
concerns and is the author of several books has a job, the necessary delays and costs can 
on problems of his profession, has become actually be reduced. Three large concerns 
convinced that not only can manufacturers cited by Mr. Morrison have lately made this 
cut their working day to an eight-hour basis, change from ten hours to eight hours, and 
without diminution of output, but that even their experience is worth noting. They oper- 
more goods can be produced than before and ate in entirely different lines and employ 
at lower costs. diversified labor groups. All the well-known 

In the December number of the Engineer^ trades arc represented among the employees. 
ing Magazine (New York), Mr. Morrison One of these concerns was a large printing 
cites several interesting experiments recently plant doing practically every line of printing, 
conducted in American manufacturing plants Competition was keen and the managers real- 
which seem to bear out his contention. He ized that the change to an eight-hour day 
maintains that those manufacturers who see could not be made unless costs could be kept 
in the eight-hour plan only an increase of from increasing. They therefore studied the 
costs quite overlook the fact that the work situation carefully for many months, and 
accomplished and not time spent in the shop took measures to stop leaks and wastes, giv- 
is the determining factor. In one instance ing particular attention to problems of 
where a plant was operated on a ten-hour power, light, heat, humidity, and handling 
basis, it was conclusively shown that the em- of materials. New methods of planning and 
ployees were not working over eight hours, dispatching the work were installed, and 
that they started late, quit early, and were when all these changes had been introduced, 
idle for considerable periods during the day. the eight-hour day was inaugurated. The 
The proprietor was urged to put" the plant result from the first was a material reduction 
on an eight-hour basis, but he replied, "Wc of costs and increase of profits. The higher 
prefer to operate ten hours and let the men dividends paid on the stock have led to a 
take it easy." Mr. Morrison holds that this marked increase in its value. Many printing 
is just what the men themselves do not want, plants that have been forced to an eight-hour 
They would prefer an eight-hour day and basis have lost money, and some have gone 
arc willing to work energetically during the into bankruptcy. The success of the one 
eight hours. Furthermore, if Mr. Morri- cited by Mr. Morrison seems clearly due to 
son's observation is to be depended on, most the efficient organization of the plant, 
of the so-called loafing in factories is occa- The second concern mentioned by Mr. 
sioned by factory conditions and not by lazi- Morrison had Government contracts and 
ness on the part of the employees. He has when the law was passed restricting work 
not found many men who are shirkers. on such contracts to eight hours a day, this 

The unions themselves have made rules plant was operating on a ten-hour basis, and 
for their members, requiring full time of all the contracts had been taken on estimates 
actual work. The rules made by one of the made up on that basis. The same careful 
strongest unions in the country, all of whose preparation was made as in the case of the 
members work on an eight-hour basis, re- printing plant that we have just outlined, 
quire the men to give eight hours of actual and the consequences were very satisfactory 
work, stipulate that the men must be in their to the management. Every contract came 
working clothes at their assigned places for out under the estimates, and during the past 
work before time for starting, and must not "lean years" the factory has been operating 
leave their places, clean up, or remove their at full capacity because of its ability to under- 
working clothes until after time for quitting, bid competitors. 
Each shop has a representative of the union Manufacturers of a household article that 



108 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

IS extensively advertised throughout the came out below the former figures, and the 
United States and to some extent abroad, consumer has received more for his money 
had been working two shifts of eleven and during the past year than ever before, 
thirteen hours, respectively, because their Mr. Morrison further shows that in many 
product requires a continuous operation of cases it is far more profitable to run the plant 
the plant. Although all their competitors in two or three shifts and thus have it pro- 
were operating under the same conditions, ductive during sixteen or twenty-four hours 
they decided to run three shifts of eight hours every day, instead of standing idle seven- 
each. Plans were made for a continuous twelfths or two-thirds of the possible work- 
production at a uniform rate, regardless of ing time. In most industries competition is 
the seasonable fluctuations and sales. The steadily becoming more severe. This means 
production would exceed the sales in most that costs must be reduced and labor kept 
seasons, while falling short in other seasons, satisfied. In Mr. Morrison's view the logi- 
The advantage was to lie in steady employ- cal solution of the problem lies in modern 
ment and running at the same rate through- methods of management, combined with con- 
out the year. In this case, also, the costs tinuous operation of plants. 



GENERAL GOETHALS ON THE 

PANAMA SLIDES 

AT this writing the Panama Canal is First, those caused by the material assuming its 

closed, for an indefinite time to come, n^^"^*^ •^P'^V*" '''*•? ""J""^ ^^"^ ^"^S were left 

, , 1 J !• J ^ o I L J ^L *^ Steeper than the angle of repose for the particu- 

by huge landslides at Culebra, and the situ- u^ material through which the excavation was 

ation is so disconcerting, from both a mili- carried, 

tary and a commercial point of view, that Second, those due to the fact that material more 

the Government has sent an imposing com- <"• J"» Pf.T*^.**'!? "P^*^ TJ^^^'^'Z^^^ w'k" 
t ' ^*r ^ • t J u Strata, which aadined tmmid tiK cuttmg. When 

mission of scientific experts, nominated by ^^c ej^vation reacked a kv«l aear or below the 
the National Academy of Sciences, to make interacction of the hacder pkir wiUi ^kt alidet of 
investigations on the Isthmus and prepare a the prism the superkapMcil jnass <MMwd into the 

report for submission to the President **S?7**?* f"** ... i . r ^ i. i* 

%r< ^ ^ ^t. i*j t. 1. Third, those which resulted fffom «he breakmg 

Two recent reports on the slides have been ^f ^eak strata underlying the baaka, npture be- 

made by General Goethals to the Secretary ing produced by the concentration of the weights 

of War. One, bearing date October 26, is of the banks due to the renK>val of the material 

published in the Engineering News (New ^«'9;j? ^^* P"""' , . . . .. ..j „ 

vuN rxT uoc 4.U ^4.k - J 4.^ J The first two classes were deaigBAted "slides." 

York) of November 25 ; the other, dated ^.^i, ^j^^ .^.^j ^,^3, ^^^ causTwia the breaking 

November 15, appears in the New York Sun up struciurally of the natural niMerial, and they 
of December 5. The latter is the more com- were called **breaks" in contradistinction to the 

prehcnsive. In both the writer gives the »^'d««» although after the break occurred the 

!.• . X .1 _ ^ J !• ^I'j^ ^ J movement of the mass above the fractured strata 

history of the present and earlier slides, and .„^^ .^e excavated area produced the same gen- 
such a forecast of the future as is possible eral effect as a slide of the other classes, 
in the light of present knowledge. The third class, or breaks, were the most seri- 

The most serious earth movements have «"» «?i ^j®^** »^4*'' encountered, and our pres- 

k-.-.* «.k- /^..^^^^^k^ ^\:a^ ^t 101 -J ^k^ r» 1^ «nt dimculties are due to breaks, two in number, 
been the Cucaracha slide of 1913, the Cule- ^„ ^pp^^j^^ .j^^ ^^ ^h^ ^3„., ^„ ^^^ ^i^i^j^ ^ 

bra shdes of 1910, and the greater Culebra Culebra, north of Gold Hill. While breaks oc- 
slides of 1914 and 1915. The Cucaracha curred at various places along the line of the 
slide was thoroughly cleaned up by October, «anal, those in Gaillard Cut, or the excavation 
IOIJ. »^A ♦k-. *^..U ^,^A^^ « ,r-.«^»^ «.^#. ^t through the continental divide, were the most 
1914, and the result, under a years test of ^^^^^^^ because of the heterogeneous masses of 

permanent water conditions, appears to be material which composed it and the depth of 
stable. the cutting, which affected the territory adjacent 

The processes by which these slips occur S^ ^^^ C"« tP^ f considerable distance, and there- 
are thus classified by General Goethals in the ^°" *^'^"«^' ^°^" ^^'^' quantities of material, 
longer of his two reports: y^^ ^^^^^ ^f ^j^^ ^^^^j^ ^;^^ ^^^ 

n ^ ^j: ^u .1. fj f L slides and breaks shows how sdence and 

Depending upon the causes, the slides which . .^ „ ^« ^ 1 l l l 

were encountered while excavating for the locks ingenuity, as well as patient labor, have been 
and the canal prism were of three distinct classes, matched against the blind forces of Nature. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 




THE "BIG SUDEr. CULEBRA CUT. PANUU CANiU. ON NOVEMBER 24, LAST 

Skilled geologists spent months in examining »lides oiF the second class, and in the moveiDcnti 

one portion or another of the canal banks, «*•''."'"' P'"" subsequent to the "Ireaks." 

, '^ , I, -J J J- ■ J Pilmg was tried with the hope thai with the 

and made well-considered predictions regard- ^„j, „| ,b, pii„ ;„ f,^ g^J^j a^ loose or 

ing their stability; but alas! if the geologists moving portion might be retained in place; this 

were right, Nature generally proved to be also proved a failure, and along some portions 

wrong. The engineers exhausted their re- "^ !*■* '''"'';" ""^ """.'"" P"" Pr°i«""g "' 

■ r . ' I r 1 ' .L I- various anelcs and at dittcrent elevations, thouEa 

pertoire of tricks for making the slippery o,igi„,[iy ,h, pii„ „„, driven vertically and 

earth stay put, but at the end of the chap- they were properly aligned. Where the moving 

ter we find them complacently letting the mass was clayey material loosened up by the 

material pursue its way into the cut. and then movemen. and by the rain, a covering of hea^T- 

1 1 - ; ■ '^ '.u - L 1 riprap was resorted to with the hope that their 

laboriously removing it with steam shovels, ^^^f^ „„„,j ^^^^ ^^^ pj^„ „f ,{;„^ ,^^„„g^ 

or. after water was admitted to the canal, the ma'as to the solid ground below and thus 

by the much cheaper method of dredging. check if not stop the movement; much of this 

Some of the expedients employed to check ^ ""Vhe Thovel^"*'"""''*' "'"'"'"' '""" '"" '*""' 

the slides arc thus set forth in the Sun: ^j^ t-a's "blli^ved that blasting wai in some 

measure reaponaible for the slides, on the theory 

Drainage proved ineffective. The rains, which that the shaking up of the banks caused by the 

cover a period averaging nine months of the blast destroyed the cohesion of the particles in 

year, *a thoroughly saturate the ground that, the banks, reautling in their breaking down, to 

though the surface may be dried out by the wind that steps were taken to reduce the depth of the 

and sun during the remaining three months, the holes and the amount of explosive used, in order 

ground water remains. Because of the great lo lessen, if not remove, any source of trouble 

depth of the cutting, subsurface drainage could on this account. 

not reach (he ground water suHicicntty deep to It was learned that in experimenting with clayi 

be effective, even if the excessive cost involved for the manufacture of pottery the Bureau of 

warranted (uch a procedure. It has been sug- Standards had discovered a means of removing 

gested that artificial heat be applied through the slipperiness from the clays by inoculating the 

pipes, but the cost precluded such a method of soils with ■ simple and inexpensive solution; 

relieving the situation; furthermore, the relief with the hope that some such method of pre- 

would be temporary. venting the flides might prove effective with the 

Planting the slopes with grasses and vegetation soils on the Isthmus, samples were sent for ex- 
prevents to a certain extent the erosion that fol- perimental purpose! along these lines; but it ap- 
iows some of the heavy downpours, but even in pears that these clays are of an enlireiy different 
places where this has been done the results an- character and no method of treatment has yet 
licipaled were not secured. The trees that have been evolved to secure (he results desired, 
been standing on the banks for years slide down, The construction of retaining walls to withhold 
atanding erect in their normal positions, with the moving masses was not possible, for access 



no THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

to the sides of the prism where the walls be- the cut and remove it by the steam shovels. This 
longed could not be had; when access was possi- procedure has resulted in bringing all the slides 
ble the movement had ceased, — there was no to a state of rest, and with the exception of those 
evidence of any further movement and the de- now active none of them has given any trouble 
sirability of or necessity for walls no longer since, for there has been no movement of any 
existed. kind in any of them after all the material that 

Some of the sandstones and shales in the cut was in motion had been removed or come natu- 
when exposed to the air disintegrate, but harden rally to rest, 
when kept constantly wet. Where disintegration 

occurred the resulting soil would grow grasses The history of the Cucaracha slide testi- 
and vegetation, and steps were taken to protect fi^ ^^ ^^^ relative cheapness and celerity of 
the slopes and the underlymg material m this • • • ^i j. ■ . i* j 

way, assisting nature to some extent in a country dredging,— the expedient now being appUed 
where vegetable growth springs up and expands at Culebra,— combined, when the character 
rapidly. of the topography permits, with sluicing the 

Experiments were made with cement covering i ^ ^f g^ji j^^q adjacent valleys 

to the banks by the cement gun and by concrete x -.u i 

held in place by rods embedded in the rock; away trom the canal. 

neither proved successful and they were aban- The dredges at Culebra are now handling 
doned. When the use of concrete proved a fail- nearly 1,000,000 cubic yards per month, at 
ure the geologists thought that experinient might ^ cost of less than 30 cents per cubic yard, 
develop a solution which applied to the face of tt ^t. vj f l ^i. 'j 

the sandstones and shales would combine chemi- Here the slides are coming from both sides 
tally with the substances in these rocks, so as to of the cut, and on the cast side the material 
form a coating of glass. Experiments were made, is breaking up into waves, which move down 

*'"«r*l"u"^u'^''?' "^^""^^ t"" ^^'^f.'^u**- A to the prism in succession. General Goethals 

With the breaks, except those which occurred * '' . ^ _^, . |., iaaaaaaa 

in the vicinity of La Pita Point, lightening the estimates that something like 10,000,000 
banks, where this could be done, secured good cubic yards must be dredged away beforfc 
results, as did also the sluicing of the upper stable conditions are completely restored, 
portions of the hills around Cucaracha slide into This docs not mean, however, that the canal 
the valley on the opposite side of the hills from mi l i ■ ^ • ^< ^'i ^i. i. i 

the prism; but in all ^her cases the only effectual ^lU be closed to navigation until the whole 

method found was to allow the material to enter amount of material is removed. 



HOW THE NAVAL CONSULTING 

BOARD WORKS 

THE country was unanimous in commen- Head Proving Ground, some of us were inclined 

dation when Secretary Daniels created ;<> ^^l""^ that formalities and social affairs might 

^1 XT 1 i^ !-.• D J 'a-L *u u' -. interfere with the emaent distribution of our 

the Naval Consulting Board, with the object ^j^^, g^^ this idea also was soon dispelled, as 

of giving our Navy the benefit of the scien- during this entire trip the time was taken up with 

tific and technical talent of civilians. But the discussion of subjects directly related to our 

many persons wondered how such a board ^^^^ ^*»>*/ becoming acquainted with the other 

, _ 11 r .. f ,. J ^u • ^ • members of the Naval Consulting Board, as well 

would perform its functions; and their curi- „ ^5,^ .h. chiefi of the different dep.rtment. 

osity remained, in most part, unsatisfied even of the Navy. So little time was given to for- 

after the first meetings had been held. malities that even a regular lunch was dis- 

Onc of the members of the Board, Mr. L. J'*^2!fi jjl'*''' Jh?i°°*di'''* f '*'"'' ario" "^ ' *'" 

H. Baekeland (a prominent research chem- "ur vUit' to Tndian H^rgfve'uVan exwlfe'ni 

ist of Yonkers, N. Y.), last month addressed opportunity to get some dire« practical informa- 

a joint meeting of chemical societies which tion upon matters of ordnance and ammunition. 

recommended his appointment to the Secre- _^ • , , . ,.t 1 . , . f 

tary of the Navy. He recognized the "hazy They latided in Washington after dark, 

conception in the mind of the public regard- ""^^ »e*'" '.mnjed'ately after dinner, and it 

ing the Board's work and plans," and gave ^'^^ P**** m'dn'ght when the first days ses- 

much interesting information. His complete *'«"* ^^''^ °^"- ^"^V "•^''^ morning they 

address will be published in technical periodi- "*" again. 

cals. We quote his account of the first At first it seemed as if a Board of twenty-two 

SC^IC^ • men was to be much hampered by cumbersomeness 

and by long deliberations; but this fear vanished 
When the announcement was made that on the after our first meetings. If any member felt in- 
first day of our meetings we were to board the dined to use unnecessary oratory or rhetoric, he 
yacht of the President to proceed to the Indian soon changed his mind after he noticed how the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



other mtnibera ditplayed mutual respect for each 
odier's valuable time, hon diacuasioni of »rc- 
ondary imparlance were eliminated. . , . 

No time wai ipent upon side matlen; every- 
thing wai tranaacted in a practical direct nay. 
For ioHance, when (he rulei of procedure for 
further meeting* had to be ditcusied, a lub- 
Gommittee was immediately organized with in- 
iiructioni to leave the room and report "not later 
than thirty minutea" *o as not to impede other 
deliberatiooa which were going on. 

Regarding the method adopted for dealing 
with spedAc matters, Mr. Backeland tells us: 

The general opinion of ibc niemberi of the 
Board is that its scope of utefulnesB can best 
be fulfilled by acting at a "go-between" or a 
"short-cut" to infonnatioQ between the heads of 
departments of the Navy, and any individual 
member of the different societies they represent. 
This carries into practise the idea of "mobiliza- 
tion of inventors and engineering talent" of Mr. 
Daniels. Tbe Board mainly puis its services at 
the disposal of the chief oSceri of tbe Navy, as 
fast as the latter feel the necessity of coopera- 
tion of advice. For instance, a subject relating 
to improvements in the manufacture or the com- 
position of a certain explosive would be referred 
to the sub-committee an Chemistry and Physics, 
a* well as to tbe sub-committee on Ordnance 
and Explosives. The matter is discussed in these 
two committees and the members of these two 
committees decide whom to select among their 
fellow members of the chemical or engineering (Who will pasi 
■odeties who are best qualified to help them in 
this task, and who, at the same time, are will- _ . - i c c 

iog to cooperate without any other compensation ical, Covering a period of five years. Mr. 
than the feeling that they are working for the Baekeland argues convincingly that experi- 
good and the security of our republic. mentation work, of the kind proposed by the 

The Board recommended the expendittire scientific men and successful manufacturers 
of $5,000,000 for research and experimental who make up the Board, would soon result 
laboratory work, engineering as well as chem- in savings greater than the total expenditure. 



lI Cansultini Board) 



FABRE, THE VIRGIL OF INSECTS 



ONE of the most remarkable lives of our 
era was that of the humble, yet fa- 
mous, French entomologist, J. H. Fabre, 
who died at Scrignan on October II, last. 
The Virgil of the insects, as he has been 
aptly called, spent by far the greater part of 
his ninety-two years in the modest domicile 
at Scrignan whose door-yard was the scene 
of those marvelous epics of winged and 
creeping life which he has celebrated in 
those ponderous volumes entitled "Entomo- 
logic Souvenirs." 

We quote some paragraphs from a sym- 
pathetic account of the distinguished savant's 
career which appeared in a late number of 
Le Corretpondant (Paris). Born at St. 
Lcons on December 22, 1823, in a modest 
family, he attended the college of Rodez 
till his studies were interrupted by paternal 



reverses. After leaving the normal school at 
Avignon, where he was distinguished as a 
hard student, he became master of a primary 
school at Carpentras. 

Then, desirous of escaping from a rut, he stud- 
ied mathematics and physics by himself, acquired 
his baccalaureate in science, bis license, and a 
professorship at the Lycee of Ajaccio. From there 
he went to the Lyc^e of Avignon, and here, in 
order to meet the family eipensei which were 
accumulating, he undertook some researches in in- 
dustrial chemistry which led him to discover the 
alizarine, the coloring matter of madder. 

Unfortunately it was just at this time that a 
method was discovered by others of extracting 
artificial alizarine from coal-tar. However, he 
had meantime succeeded by supplementary work 
in becoming first a liceniiatc and then a doctor 
of natural science. Up to this time he had suc- 
ceeded in nothing, — apart from getting university 
titles, — that might give him sufficient financial 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



FABRE IN HIS STUDY 

MM to permit him lo devote himaelf to that itudy 
of nature for which he had felt such an irreiiitible 
passion lince hi> earliest youth. However, hi* 
talent* as a teacher and popularizer of icientific 
matter were to furnish him with a turn which, 
though iroall, lufltced (o satisfy his modes! laitei. 
He published a series of little classics, models of 
their kind, treating in turn of chemistry, physics, 
botany, and atttonomy, which enjoyed a well- 
merited vogue. His daily bread being (bus as- 
sured, he could devote himself to (be subjeas of 
bis choice. 

Being thus set free he acquired a mod- 
est property at Serignan and there installed 
his simple and indeed primitive laboratory. 
As we have said, the very wildness and un- 
kemptness of the surrounding land would 
tend to make it a happy hunting ground for 
the tiny creatures whose habits he delighted 
to observe and explore. It is thus charm- 
ingly described: 

The demesne is unkempt, and of mediocre com- 
fort, but as peaceful as one could wish, and above 
all, the wild flowers which surround it ate pro- 
pitious 10 the sports of those insects whoae inde- 
fatigable historian he was to become. Days and 
years passed. Without growing weary or dis- 
couraged, without allowing even age to dampen 
his ardor, he devoted himself lo the intoxicating 
mystery of nature, scrutinizing the lives of the 
tiniest creatures with an unequaled faithfulness, 
tenacity, and minuteness. At the cost of fatigues 
and pains without number, a butt for the jests of 
the simple, but sustained by the ceaselessly re- 
Dewed love of bis labor, he interrogated tbeie 



little guests of plants, of brambles and ttone* 
and sands. He tore from them (be secret of (beir 
acts, the mystery of their existeiux, of theit food, 
of their amours, and of their death. 

And all that he discovered is so new, so unex- 
pected, that in beginning to read his Souvtnirs 
one feels as if a magician of science has opened 
before one the gates of an unsuspected world. 
In the face of such a revelation, the reader, whose 
mind has been made conquest of from the flrst 
pages, can do no other than continue to' the end of 
the work, so well hat this fascinating painter 
uodcrslood how to render attractive to every one 
.(he study which he pursued to bit latest hour. 

De^ite this charming style, however, — or, 
rather, because of it, Fabre did not fail -to 
find critics among the captious. The wri- 
ter of the present artide, Dr., Bouquet, 
quotes the great scientist's own words in 
answer to their sneers in the followiii^ 
passage: 

Others have reproached me with my language, 
.which is lacking in academic solemnity, or better 
■aid, in academic dryness. Tbey fear that a page 
which can be read without fatigue will not always 
be the expression of truth. To believe them, one 
is profound only on condition of being obscure. 
Come hither all of you, such as you are, bearers of 
•tingt or of wing-shields, take up my defense and 
bear witness in my favor. Tell in what intimacy 
I live with you, with what patience I observe you, 
with what scrupulousness I record your actil 

Though Fabre's observations and records 
arc unassailable, his philosophic conclusions 
have been attacked. This was natural, since 
he was a declared adversary of the Dar- 
winian theory. He expressed this view suc- 
cinctly in these words: "Has the world 
been subjected to the fatalities of evolution 
from the time of the first albuminous atom 
which coagulated into a cell? Or has it 
rather been r\iled by an intelligence? The 
more I see, the more I observe, the more 
does this intelligence shine beyond the mys- 
tery of things." But Fabre was more than 
a patient and painstaking observer. He 
was a brilliant and ingenious experimenter, 
forcing the little subjects of his scrutiny to 
meet new conditions, that they might thus 
be forced to yield the secrets of their mar- 
velous and complex acts. 

It is gratifying to learn that the house 
and grounds of this gentle nature-lover are 
to become a permanent museum, thanks to 
certain generous admirers. Dr. Bouquet 
well says: "I know some who will be more 
moved in crossing this modest threshold than 
in penetrating the most sumptuous palaces. 
In presence of the simplicity of the dwelling 
und the mediocrity of means, the grandeur 
of the work will shine the brighter." 



THE NEW BOOKS 

FROM WORLD-STRIFE TO HARMONY 



AS the grcBt war i.i i-s second year brings 
increasing cala:ni:y to ibc nations and races, 
men of ih ought- power are everywhere trying lo 
understand better what is wrong with the world 
and bow remedies may b« found and applied. 
Some of them are staling their views crudely; 
some are waiting to express the.-nselves later on; 
and many are saying things in print that are 
valuable, as far as they go, even though the 
expressions are in few cases o:her than frag- 
mentary or from a single viewpoint Some of 
those who write about the remedies for war deal 
■with the more immediate subsHtutea, — the growth 
of international inslilulions and the settlement of 
differences by tribunals. Others deal rather with 
the underlying causes of strife, and seek to find 
what things are essentially evil in our modern 
life, that must be eliminated. 

Planning Wor)d Govemmtnt 

An excellent repreaeniative of the first type of 
book is by John A. Hobton, a well-known Eng- 
lish writer, his title being "Towards Interna- 
tional Government.'" Mr. Hobson is associated 
with Lord Bryce and other broad-minded Eng- 
lishmen in seeking the best fruits of civilization, 
not only for his own country but for all others. 
I!e believes in some kind of organization of peo- 
ples that will prevent war, reduce armaments, and 
promote harmony. He is opposed to secret diplo- 
macy and to all those ideas that are associated 
niih militarism and that have brought into use 
ibc term "power" as a synonym for "nation" or 
"people." Like Mr. Hirst, of the London Econo- 
mul, whose book we noticed last month, Mr. 
Hobson deals unsparingly with certain forms of 
big business (especially war munitions) that he 
regards as conspiracies against the welfare of 



"Big fiusincM" <md Ita PuhKe Aspeett 

A book of the other type is by an American 
writer, Mr. Charles Ferguson, entitled "The 
Great News,"' but also carrying on the cover as 
a mote specific indication of its character "The 
Relations of -Big Business' to the Governments 
of the World." Mr. Ferguson has not written a 
treatise, nor an easy primer for the man in the 
i:rcct. His style is brilliant, but a little difficult 
and obscure. Yet his book, like Mr. Hobson's, 
is worth a careful reading; and the one does 
not contradict the other. 

Mr. Ferguson tetis us that permanent peace 
will not be secured by setting up hi?h courts, 
if we do not also create the conditions which 
will give everybody predominantly the peace 
motive. In private circumstances, as he well 
■hows, peace la kept by "nursing a real and 
convincing community of interest," rather than 



by "the submission of disputes to an unquestion- 
able and irresistible tribunal." The great fact 
of our modern life is the development of business 
on an immense scale of produciion and distribu- 
tion, with the machinery of banking, and capital- 
control, that operates the business organism. Mr. 
Ferguson believes that the real function of busi- 
ness in relation to government is to make thingi 
cheap, and men dear. Mr. Ferguson plows deep, 
where writers like Mr. Norman Angell scratch 
the surface of the obvious. He is capable of 
writing another book, of concrete applications, 
working out in practical ways the ideas and 
suggestions with which this book abounds. 

Poulmey Bigtiow Inttrprta th* Pruamatu 

Nothing could be more unlike the legal style 

of Mr. Hobso ■ ■ - 

F;uson, (ban i 
Bigelow, published 
though they roam i 
Vet Mr. Bigetow's book^ apart from the extra- 
ordinary fascination which its frank statements 
of things personal and poli:icBl must hold for 
the well-iDformed reader, ii a sincere contribu- 
tion towards an attempt to diagnose the stale 
of the world. Mr. 



JOL 



ibstract dicta of Mr. Fer- 
Mr. Poultney 

'Prussian Memories'" 




MB. POULTNEY 



letters, and diplo- 
matist, gave his 
boys the oppor- 
tunity of knowing 
much of Euro- 
pean life. As a 
little lad, Poult- 
ney Bigelow waa 
a playmate of the 
present German 
Emperor and his 
brother. Through 
1 o n E years he 

inal friendship 
n d association 
iih the Emperor. 



held I 



He 



of German history. He knowt 
the inside the method and moti 
Germany as a mili:ary power, 



aval and colonial programs. 
This new volume by Mr. Bigelow is ; 
eal democracy; a warning i 



has 
ous volumes 

of the rise of 
an industrial 
I empire with 



gam 



'Tnwj 



«lfl p 



il.SO. 



Bj. John 



A. ( 



thiess force; a fearless ( 

ents and tendencies a ' 

r. Bigelow made this informal book evidently 

1-hout realizing that the pressure of amazing 

ents had impelled bjm to a fullne ss and 

'Pruifian Memoiies: Ifiet-iSl*. By Poultney Big*- 
-. Putnam. 1»7 pp. Jl.BS. ' * 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REt'lEH'S 



114 

frankncM of utterance (hat would not otherwige lh« assistance of Mr. Alexander Baltzley. The*e 

have been possible. It will live long after some men write as historians, rather than as moralists 

of the formal books of the day have been or biologists. They take the last four or five 

forgotten. centuries, and attempt to answer the question 

It is worth while to note the announcement that how much of the time Europe has been more or 

there is now in the press a formal study of the less at war. They seem to have convinced 

problem of world government and world peace, themselves that war it the rule, peace the ez- 

by Major John Bigelow, another of the aona of ceplion, and that future wars are to be expected 

the great citizen and publicist whose European because history repeats itself. The little book 

training of his boys in early life helped to give has its uses, although ii is wholly lacking ia 

them the international and comparative point of the qualities of discriminating analysis, 
view. Major Bigelow it exceptionally qualilied 

to bear an influential part in the discussion of Women WorhMrt for Ptaet at Tht Hagiu 






Thrt* InterprtUttioTta ! 

Kokigitt, MoratUt, 

Historian 

Three small volumes 
are at hand which may 
be read together with 
advantage. They are 
thought - provoking 



There was held Uit 
year a notable gather- 
ing o f women of many 
count riea, who came 
together at The Hague 
to tee what might be 
done from the feminine 
lake this 



irld 



which t 



and 



al- 



The congress w. 
agreed in advance c 
two points, — namely, 
belief in the future u: 
of peaceful meant ft 
settling diiputet b< 






I. Km I«tk 



though they are r 
lirely convincing. Dr. 
George W. CrJIe gives 
ut "A Mechaniitic View 
of War and Peace."' 
He ha* returned from 
important hospital work 
in France. He views 
phenomena at a surgeon 
and a biologist. The 
CTolutionary forces that 
have operated through 
many ages are, for Dr. 
Crile, as completely in 
charge of the iisues of 
war and peace among 
men as they dominate 
(he behavior of wild 
beasts in an African 
jungle. 

This tittle book is pro- 
foundly interesting, and 

it presents a phase of _.., 

truth that a certain school ot to-called "pacilisit" tary specialist in the Government employ at 
might well consider. For example, the Rev. W^thington,— were members of the congress, and 
Gaius Glenn Atkins and Dr. Crile should ex- they are joint contributors with Miss Addama 
change books and then come together in an in- to the lillle book entitled "Women at The Hague."' 
formal attempt to find a common ground, lirst, of To read this book is to believe that women have 
belief, and, second, of practical action. a great part to play in the shaping of the future 

Di. Atkins publishes the prize essay of (he relationships of governments and peoples. It be- 
Carnegie Church Peace Union. He calls it "The longs to women to attcrt themselves strongly 
Maze of the Nations, and the Way Out."' He against war, and to promote with energy the 
makes a good running review of war conditions, friendship and cooperation that should super- 
and sets over against the causes of war the tede the appeal to brute force, 
forces thai can be marshaled in behalf of per- « o _ n- . w, , >■ ■ 

manent peace. Dr. Atkins believes as strongly "°^ ^*^*t Dtplomacy Endangtrt Nations 
in ethical and spiritual forces as Dr. Crile A very important book that may fail to obtain 
believes in (he blind pressure of biological >'■ full meed of recognition is entitled "How 
instincts. Diplomats Make War."' It is published anony- 

A third book, entitled "Is War Diminishing?"* mously in the United States, although it was 
is written by Dr. Frederick Adams Woods, with originally written for an English public We are 
- told that its author is a prominent English itatct- 
makes an analysis of England's relation- 



S JANE ADDAM 



ond, a belief in the en- 
franchitement of 
women. Miss Jane Ad- 
dams, of Chicago, was 
made chairman of the 
congress, and after its 
adjournment the visited 
a number of capitals, 
including Berlin, Vi- 
enna, Rome, and Lon- 
don, where she and her 
colleagues were cot- 
dially received by 

foreign secretaries. Two 
other American women, 
— Emilv G. Balch, of 
Welleticy College, and 





A Mecbaaistic Vi 


«■ of W 


r an 


Pe 


^j 


By 


Gc 






Crile. 


MacmiLlan 






>■ 


•5." 










The M 






and 


■be 




y O 




Br 


<^ 


lu Glea 


"Allrini.' 


Revell. 














Is Wa 


Diminish 


nR? Bv 


FrU^ric 




™K 


\V 


oda 


;n 




ndcr Balti1e>-. Ho 




n Miffl 




mji 





t The Hag 



.. By I 

■nilton. iU 



mily C. 



THE NEW BOOKS 115 

ships in other countries during the past two normal opinions. For example, Mr. Robert Bacon 
decades, with particular reference to the genesis undoubtedly believes that there are practical 
of the secret understandings which led England ways to prevent war and promote peace. His 
into the present war. It is a terrific indictment name is attached to a volume entitled 'Tor 
of the diplomatic game as played by all the great Better Relations with Our Latin-American Neigh- 
European governments. It shows how dangerous bors."* Mr. Bacon was in the State Department 
is the survival of a diplomacy that is not only as First Assistant Secretary, then as Secretary^ 
removed from contact with public opinion, but is succeeding Mr. Root. Like his eminent prede- 
even beyond the knowledge and reach of the peo- cessor, he is by nature a conciliator. He ha* 
ple*8 representatives in Parliament. Since this made a trip to South America on behalf of the 
book shows so ably the nature of one of the work carried on by the Carnegie Endowment 
great evils and dangers of the world, it must be for International Peace. He was everywhere 
regarded as contributing in a high degree to the received with honor and good will, and the 
reforms so ably demanded in England by the so- best interests of all the American republics were 
called Union of Democratic Control, though it advanced in consequence of Mr. Bacon's mission. 
was not written by Mr. J. Ramsay Macdonald We are on the verge of helping to secure the 
or one of his associates. permanent peace of the world at large by work- 

A casual but suggestive volume dealing with »ng out a system for maintaining and developing 

the same theme, entitled "The Stakes of Diplo- good relations in the Western Hemisphere, 
macy,"* comes from the fluent pen of a New York 

journalist, Mr. Walter Lippmann. The reader The Adjusted Case of Cvha 
of the two books gets the impression that Mr. The story of "Cuba Old and New,"' as written 
Lippmann must have had the advantage of an by Mr. Albert G. Robinson, gives us in a simple, 
early reading of the work by the British states- unpretentious way the record of a particular 
man. In any case, the American book sets forth, region of the earth io the process of passing 
with many timely allusions, the manner in which from a condition of chronic strife, due to inter- 
the game of diplomacy is played. We are made national maladjustment, to a condition of com- 
to see the forces that impel the highly developed parative equipoise and prosperity as a result of 
commercial countries to compete with one an- changed political structure and foreign relation- 
other for supposed advantages of exploitation in ships. A book like this has a timeliness beyond 
less developed regions. There are several chap- the immediate intention of its author. It helps 
ters in Mr. Lippmann's book that are strong, one to realize that the settlement of things in 
pertinent, and lucid, and that might be read with detail may contribute much towards the settle- 
profit by every Congressman and newspaper edi- ment of things in general. The new status of 
tor in the land. Cuba, for instance, gives Spain opportunity for 

a very large future of amicable and profitable 

Making Friends with the 'Neighbors relationships with all Spanish-speaking countries. 

In many spheres of life vigorous action has Mr. Robinson's book will be helpful to all who 

an admirable influence upon the forming of intend to visit the chief island of the Antilles. 



National Defense^ Patriotism 

The Military Obligation of Citizenship. 1915. It is a history of all the fighting in which 

By Leonard Wood. Princeton University Press, ^j^c United States has been engaged, written from 

^ .. the viewpoint of readmess for war. Unlike the 

76 pp. III. 75 cents. histories that are studied in our schools, it makes 

This little book contains three addresses deliv- no attempt to minimize the disasters that have 
ered by General Wood during the past year at repeatedly befallen us because of deficient prep- 
Princeton University, the Lake Mohonk Confer- aration. These facts make the best argument for 
ence, and St. Paul's School, respectively. An in- a definite policy of military preparedness, 
troduction to the volume is contributed by Presi- 
dent Hibben, of Princeton, who asks that special Naval Handbook for National Defense, 
consideration be given to General Wood's opin- and for the European War. By T. D. Parker, 
ions on this subject, since he possesses expert g^^ Francisco: John J. Newbegin. 88 pp. 111. $1. 
knowledge, and has himself done more than ^, . ,. , , . . . . r 
merely talk and write about national defense, Thjs little manual is intended to answer a few 
having begun with great success the work of ^'"^stiojis like these: How far can a big gun 
general military education through the summer shoot?" "What is the battle cruiser?' "Can an 
camps. aeroplane sink a battleship?' The book does not 

pretend to be a scientific or technical treatise. It 

The Military Unpreparedness of the United is designed avowedly for "the man in the street." 

States. By Frederic L. Huidekoper. Macmillan. -,,. ^t-A • e.»«^T»T-j 
j'lc ti Introducing the American Spirit. By Ed- 

r> I \»r J u» ir * 1 ^ J * ward A. Steiner. Revell. 274 pp. $1. 

General Wood himself strongly commends to , , . , . . . . .t . . t^ 

the general reader this volume by Mr. Huide- I? this clever and piquant bit of writing Dr. 

koper. Here will be found a complete statement Steiner tells us how he helped to make his friends 

of our military record as a nation, from the first 2 por Better Relations with Our Latin-American 

campaigns of the Revolution to the middle of Neighbors. By Robert Bacon. Washington, D. C: 

' Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 186 pp. 

» The Stakes of Diplomacy. By Walter Lippmann. 3 Cuba Old and New. By A. G. Robinson. Longmans, 

Holt. 285 pp. fl.25. Green & Co. 264 pp., ill. $1.75. 



116 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REI'IEfVS 

from Germany, the Herr Director and his wife, acted wisely in keeping the book simple enough 
acquainted with American ways and things, and to serve the purpose for which it is intended, 
thus enable them to appreciate the American The subject matter is treated as a series of les- 
spirit. Although himself an enthusiastic partisan sons with questions and answers. Language, 
of his adopted country, Dr. Steiner is by no means work, schools, public facilities, industry and in- 
blinded to her faults, and the conversations with dustrial protection, pure food, housing and poll- 
the Herr Director that he relates in this volume tics are included in these useful lessons that em- 
afford an excellent medium for conveying several brace the higher ideals of citizenship, 
rather searching criticisms of American ways. 

Under the Red Cross Flag at Home and 

Civics for Americans. By Philip Davis and Abroad. By Mabel T. Boardman. Lippincott. 

Mabel Hill. Houghton, MifBin. 178 pp. 80 cents. 333 pp. 111. $1.50. 

Recent developments in this country have em- This is a history of The Red Cross in general, 

phasized the necessity of giving immigrants who and The American Red Cross in particular. It 

seek naturalization a thorough knowledge ^ of has chapters, of course, on the European War and 

what American citizenship means. Mr. Philip the latest activities of the Red Cross at home and 

Davis and Mabel Hill are joint authors of a abroad, but the main value of the book lies in its 

helpful volume, "Civics for Americans," writ- connected account of the system of relief that has 

ten in the hope of bringing new citizens to un- grown up in all civilized lands under thefamil- 

derstand democracy and to affiliate themselves iar Red Cross flag. President Wilson has writ- 

with the forces of good government. They have ten a foreword for the book. 



Books Relating to the War 

The Undying Story. By W. D. Newton, of Mrs. Wharton's narrative have already ap- 

E. P. Dutton k Co. 383 pp. $1.35. P"f«J* »" Scribner's Magazine, Tht 'i\\u%Xtznon% 

.... etc <«£ I. • or this book are from unusually striking photo- 

A vivid account of the famous fighting re- j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

treat" of the British Expeditionary Force on the ^ ^ 

Continent, from August 23 to November 15, 1914. Kings, Queens, and Pawns. By Mary Rob- 

The author is regarded in England as the great- ^^^^ Rinehart. Doran. 368 pp. $1.50. 

est descriptive artist discovered by the war. 

Mrs. Rinehart is one of the few women who 

Belgium Neutral and Loyal. By Emile have had an opportunity to see the fighting in 

Waxweiler. Putnam. 324 pp. $1.25. this war at close range. Readers of Mrs. Rine- 

'T'x.x^ ,„«..u »*Uf^.« k,r ,« «.»:.««r.f n«i»:on hart^s novels will readily understand that the 

This work, written by an eminent iselgian ..„^^.» „.^^^« ^r *u^ . - u i 

sociologist, was originafly published simulta- ^^^-^^"^ ./IP/ft J^,, ^^ 



,u^.u.u„«., _--• "''i^V ;///,nn'r 3 Sn rlrm.n "trougly to her and that no picturesque i 
neously in French at Lausanne, and in oerman _ i5 u i*i, i . ^ u u \* 
-• iJ\^\. TU. K^ir ,«o^. o L.^ ;,«nr-...;nn in ^ould be likely to escape her observation. 



feature 
Mrs. 




ing Swiss papers^ German as well as French. It The Protection of Neutral RighU at Sea. 

is an authoritative statement of Belgium s ce- n^..„^«». ^« *u v« ^\ \ir- r- o* ^' «. 

, . • .. ^u *• u „u.. u Documents on the Naval Warfare. Sturgis & 

fensive case against the accusations brought by ^ « s » «. 

Germany. Walton. 129 pp. 25c 

This is a collection of important state papers 

Between the Lmes. By Boyd Cable. E. P. taken from the publications of our own State 

Dutton. 258 pp. $1.35. Department and from newspaper print The 

An unadorned statement of what war on the "»ofe important acts and policies of Great Britain 

Western front has come to mean, written from ^^^ Germany are illustrated by these docu- 

the viewpoint of the Allies. ?^«"^»- „J" .?" introduction to the pamphlet. Pro- 
fessor William R. Shepherd, of Columbia Lni- 

Colors of War. By R. C. Long. Scribner^s. ^«""> » Po«."^» «"!_ ^"^^ "°l«r ^^ P*^« o^ "»>>»" 

ti «n '^''^ necessity both Great Britain and Germany 

306 pp. >1.50. \iz\t committed violations of international law 

Mr. Long, who for many years before the war and have injured neutral rights accordingly, 

had made a special study of Russian affairs, has while the United States has protested against 

followed the movements of the Russian armies these violations directly on its own behalf, and 

from the outset, and is probably more familiar indirectly on behalf of other neutrals, 
than any other Englishman with the story of what 

has been going on along the Eastern front The Neutrality of the United SUtes in Re- 
lation to the British and German Empires. 

Fighting France. By Edith Wharton. Scrib- By J. Shield Nicholson. Macmillan. 92 pp. 25c 

ner's. 238 pp. III. $1. The writer of this pamphlet, who holds the 

In this book Mrs. Wharton describes her own Chair of Political Economy in the University of 

impressions and experiences at the front in Edinburgh, presents a comparison of British 

France. She tells what she saw in Paris, in and German interests and asks the United States 

Argonne, and in Alsace and Lorraine. Portions to choose between the two. 



THE NEW BOOKS 117 

Social Progress: Practjcdl and Applied 

Economics 

Inventors and Money-makers. By F. W. By Charles Gide and Charles Rist. Translated 
Taussig. Macmillan. 138 pp. $1. by R. Richards. Heath. 672 pp. $3. 

A fresh treatment of some of the relations be- The work of Charles Gide, of the University of 
rween economics and psychology by the eminent paris, has been closely followed for many years 
Harvard professor of economics. The topics con- by American economists. The present volume is 
sidered are "The instinct of contrivance": "The the authorized English translation from the sec- 
psychology of moncy-makmg" : and "Altruism, ond revised edition of 1913. The author begins 
the instinct of devotion. * These matters are dis- ^Jth a discussion of the doctrines of the Physio- 
cussed from the point of view of the workman crats of the eighteenth century and takes up in 
as well as of the employer. turn the various French, English, and German 

_ schools of economic thought down to the present 

The Relation of Government to Property ^ay. 

and Industry. By Samuel P. Orth. Ginn. 664 

pp. $2.25. Darling on Trusts. By Joseph R. Darling. 

This volume represents the recent literature of Neale. 258 pp. $1.50. 
the 8ubie« as embodied in books and magazine ^^j, j, ^„ exposition of the trust problem from 
arMdes. It has been prepared primarily for col- ,he legal standpoint. It contains important docu- 
lege classes, but « ill be found useful as a b<K.k ^^„,g^ material, such as the Shenian law and 
of reference for business men. The law journa s ^^^j^^, .h^ V^jeral Trade Commission law, 
have been drawn upon for the distinctively const.- ^ , / ; ^^ ^ ^ ^ } 

tutional and legal aspects of the discussion. ^^^.^ ^^ ^^^ »J„j,^j ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^ ,j^, ^^ ^^^^ .„. 

Russian Sociology. By Julius F. Meeker, fj^'*** '"^ '^' Government under the Sherman 
Longmans, Green 5c Co. 309 pp. 

This university thesis is the first thoroughgoing Fourteenth Annual Report of the Commis- 

treatment of the subject in the English language. ^^^^^^ ^^ j^abor for Year Ending September 

Cost of Living. By Fabian Franklin. 30, 1914. Albany: State Department of Labor. 
Doubleday, Page fie Ca 162 pp. $1. 359 pp. 

Dr. Fabian Franklin, of the New York Evening The annual reports of the New York Commis- 
Post, is a journalist oiF much experience and un- sioner of Labor are regarded as among the most 
usual erudition. This little book by him on the important of State documents in this field. In the 
cost of living is the fruit of wide and discrim- current volume 300 pages are devoted to the New 
inating reading and clear economic thinking. The York State laws relating to labor, 
objea of the book is not to propose any panacea, 

but rather to point out the basic truths that must Labor in Politics. By Robert Hunter. Chi- 
underlie any helpful discussion of the subject and cago: The Socialist Party. 202 pp. 25 cents, 
to stimulate sound and useful economic reasoning. ° •' ^ 

A socialist's survey of the political methods em- 
Socialism. By E. C. Robbins. H. VV. Wilson ployed by organized labor in the United States in 

n^ oo-i ^^ Ci contrast with the methods of labor in Europe. 

Co. 223 pp. 5>l» XT ji .. • • £ ^i_» ^ u 

^, , . , , , ,. . 1. TT ju I Needless to say, m a comparison of this sort the 

This 18 a book of readings in the Handbook American labor movement appears at a decided 

Series. It serves to give the reader a general disadvantage. 

knowledge of socialism. 

Economic Principles. By Frank A. Fetter. Letters from Prison. By Bouck White. 
Century. 521 pp. $1.75. Badger. 163 pp. 50 cents. 

A new text-book of modernized economics for These letters of a socialist have to do with a 

the use of college students. variety of topics, many of which are of transi- 

#M ,T 9 « • Tfc • • t f *» J T tory interest. They are the outgivings of an in- 

The Underlymg Prmciples of Modem Leg- ^^^^^^y ^j^nest and sincere fanatic. 

islation. By W. Jethro Brown. Dutton. 319 pp. 

52.25. The A B C of Socialism. By I. G. Savoy 

This is the third edition of a work which refers ^^^ j^ ^ ^eck. Badger. 140 pp. 50 cents, 
especially to British politics; but the author has 

drawn illustrations from other coumries. After The socialistic gospel contained in this little 

a statement of the principles, as abstract theories, book is voiced in the sentiment that appears on 

he proceeds to give an exposition of the same prin- the title page: "The A B C of socialism means 

ciples in their application and concludes with a the X Y Z of capitalism." The book is designed 

chapter on "The Problems of To-day and To- to equip workers with a scientific knowledge of 

morrow." the principles of socialism. I. G. Savoy is the 

^ „. - __ .«..«. t_ pen-name of the editor of the New England So- 

A History of Economic Doctrines from the cialist, M. O. Peck is one of the organizers of the 

Time of the Physiocrats to the Present Day. Massachusetts Young People's Socialist League. 



118 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

The Marriage Revolt By William £. Car- A Message to the Middle Class. By Sey- 

ton. Hearst International Library Co. 481 pp. mour Deminp:. 'Small, Maynard. 110 pp. 50 

III. $2. cents. 

A frank statement of the objections that have ^ suggestive essay on present-day social con- 
been brought against conventional marriage ditions. 
with an attempt to discover to what extent new 
conceptions are finding acceptance, concluding 
with a forecast of probable future results. The Use of Money —How to Save and 

How to Spend. By Edwin A. Kirkpatrick. 
Marriage and Divorce. By Felix Ad ler. Ap- B^bbs-Merrill. 226 pp. $1. 
pleton. 91 pp. 75 cents. 

A stanch defense of the marriage institution ^t x* .t m j_ i \xr %. t^ tzr t. r\t^ 
by the well-known president of the Ethical Cul- National Floodmarks: Week by Week Ob- 
ture Society, of New York. servations of American Life from "Collier's." 

Edited by Mark Sullivan. Doran. 391 pp. $1.50. 

Elements of Record Keeping for Child- •* • ^ x *u -^- ^ u i u j- 
.... ^ .. «^.^«,. tA reprmt of the succmct, homely, human cdi- 
Helpmg OrgamzaUons, By Georgia G. Ralph, ^orial paragraphs that have made Collier's fa- 
New York: Survey Associates, Inc. 195 pp. mous from ocean to ocean. 

One of the publications of the Russell Sage 

pr'StuSrre^rS:.''' "'"'"''" ""' "" The Taxation of Land Values. By Louis F. 

Post. Bobbs-Merrill. 179 pp. 111. $1. 

The Helper and American Trade Unions. The fifth edition of the excellent summary of 
By John H. Ashworth. Baltimore: The Johns the single tax doctrine which was prepared some 
Hopkins Press. 134 pp. $1. years ago by Louis F. Post, who is now Assistant 

Secretary of Labor at Washington. 

Population: A Study in Malthusianism. By 

Warren S. Thompson. New York: Columbia Uni- The Criminal ImbecUe: An Analysis of 

versity. 216 pp. $1.75. Three Remarkable Murder Cases. By Henry 

Railway Problems in China. By Mongton "^'^'"^ Goddard. Macmillan. 157 pp. 111. $1.50. 

Chih Hsu. New York: Columbia University. 184 TJie Director of Research at the Vineland 

li 50 Trammg School analyzes in this book three re- 

^^' ' ' markable murder cases believed to be typical of 

The RecogniUon PoUcy of the United * **^«* number. In these three cases the Binct 
o. X „ " ,. ^ /^, vf /, ^ \^ ; L. ^««^» w<^re used, accepted m court, and the ac- 
States. By Julius Goebel. New York: Columbia cused adjudged imbeciles. Three types of de- 
University. 228 pp. $2. fectives are illustrated in these cases. 



Industrial and Business Life 

The Executive and His Control of Men* Scientific Management: A History and 

By E. B. Gowin. Macmillan. 349 pp. $1.50. Criticism. By Horace Bookwalter Drur>'. New 

This is a novel and successful attempt to pre- York: Columbia University. 222 pp. $1.75. 
sent the methods followed by hundreds of Ameri- 
can executives as those methods are conceived by 

the executives themselves. The author is less Scientific Management and Labor. By 

concerned in this book with the results sought Robert F. Hoxie. Appleton. 302 pp. $1.50. 

through ' the application of these methods than n ^ u • j • i • .* .• 

with The meth^s themselves. While he admits /'?*"?2! "*"" "'"''f •" .?•"?' .'"vestigatiion 

that the latter ia «»me cases seem crude and 2* "^""^^."'^'"sP.'"* r '" '■' "''""'"'. 'a 'f^^i 

1....1. u. .._:„j. ... .!,«. :„ .:— i .»•.. .k..r „,— ™' *"* l/nited States Commission on Industrial 

harsh, he reminds us that in times past they were n •_.• t-, • . ^ »i. _ ^^ «« 

• «..,j. .„j u-— I. f„ .1.- «... ,..,. Relations. The leaders of the movement, Mr. 

even more crude and harsh. In the nrst part u, „;„_»-„ ir„.,.„„ \a, u t <^.„.« .Jj .k. 

of the book. Professor Gowin tells how personal |!f"p ^J*" i f^^^ ^J' ^^ ^ 'T\u u 

efficiency 5 developed. He then considers how \l\ ^"^"1^ ^■. T")'"-'. «JeMgnated the shops 

the ex^tive "motivates" his men, discussing in *? •»« »"«*:*«•• »"«* ^~*"*?'' ,?°i" /°f"7".** 

this connection personality. emuUtion. awards, »"".P'y '" <»'«:°ver and set forth the facts of s«- 

etc Finally, he analyzes the limits upon the ex- f""^ ™.^"«8"""" " he found hem. He see. 

.^...: .. _ ■'' . ' "^ in scientinc management "a constant menace to 

ecutive 8 power. industrial peace." 

Short Talks on Retail Selling. ByS. R._ „ ,.. .».. 

Hall. Funk & Wagnalls. 170 pp. III. 75 cents. . ^**™ *** ^*^ .^^ ^ ^-W ««»«• Carl H. 

Practical suggestions to salespeople from a '^*»'«- ^obbs. Merrill. 421 pp. $1.50. 

man who has had much experience in vocational This book sums up the reasons for vocational 

educational work. education and shows how such a system of train* 



THE NEW BOOKS 119 

ing is entirely feasible in our modern life. The fourteen years has* been at the head of a leading 
authors have considered the subject from many^ Chicago bank, began very early in his career to 
angles, and in the plan that they offer practical write and speak on financial topics. He has given 
difficulties are given due weight Secretary Red- many addresses at bankers' gatherings, and of 
field, of the Department of Commerce, contributes la^e years his utterances on questions of bank- 
an introduction. ing and currency have been awaited with great 

interest and respect by business men throughout 

Voting Trusts. By Harry A. Cushing. Mac- the country, and particularly in the Middle West 

.„ ^^^ ^, c{\ The present volume brings together many of thes: 

niillan. 226 pp. 5>I.50. addresses, with articles contributed to the peri- 

A scientific study of one of the important odjcal press, reports of hearings before Congres- 
developments in American corporations. gional committees, and other statements of his 

views on economic problems of the day. The vol- 

A History of Currency in the United States, ume also fulfils in a measure the office of a family 
By A. Barton Hepburn. 552 pp. memorial since it contains a tribute to the author's 

This new edition of a standard work contains so"* Ru^us Fearing Dawes, who was drowned in 
the author's comment on the Federal Reserve Act Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, in the summer of 1912, 
There is also incorporated in the book an ex- and an address on the Army of the Potomac by 
planation of the emergency currency measures, the author's father, General RufusR. Dawes, of 
adopted by European nations to meet the cxi- the famous Iron Brigade. Tlius, in a way, the 
gencies of the great war. hock serves to recall the striking services of a 

family noteworthy in the history of the Middle 



The Tin-Plate Industry: A Comparative 



West 



Study of Its Growth m the United States and ^^^j^ g^ ^^^^^^ 1910-lWO. By James A. 

in Wales. By Donald Earl Dunbar. Houghton, p^,^^^ McKeesport: Hutchison k Broadbent 

Mifflin. 133 pp. $1. . . ^ ^ ^ 283 pp. 111. $2. 

An interesting comparative study of the growth 

of the tin-plate industry in the United States and How to Deal with Human Nature in Bus:- 

in Wales. This involves questions of tariff policy, ^^^^ d ou i n a i? i. t \xr n 

uu«8. and labor. The author has done field work "««»• ^y Sherw.n Cody. Funk k Wagnalls. 

in both countries and has obtained much informa- ^^^ PP* ***• ^2. 

tion from manufacturers and trade editors. This work differs from many others in the 

_ .^ , , . «« , -r^. .. . « same field in that the author seeks first a scien- 

Some Problems m Market DistnbuUon, By tific basis for business methods and proceeds to 

Arch Wilkinson Shaw. Cambridge: Harvard Uni- build on that systems of correspondence, mer- 

versity Press. 119 pp. $1. chandising, advertising, and personal salesman- 

A 11 'r jx . s. ^uj ^^1 ship. Such a work could have only a limited 

A well-informed statement based on actual per- ^{ ^ .,«i^. •» _ •«. u — u u j 

11 1 J X I * -. -!•»• *u -.u ..* value unless it were written by a man who had 

sonal knowledge of market conditions throughout „^...| i,„^.„i^j„^ ^x u:« -..u'-i,* a •* !•-«•* 

•u- rT»:»^^ c»«f— Tk- «..»k^. «- i^*...... of H,- actual knowledge of his subject and its limita- 

tne tnited btates. Ine author, as lecturer at Mar- ^. „. «,r • rT. .. „» %*^ n^A,, u— ««: i w 

vard and editor of S,r,en,. has.been engaged for E J p y "hoC by ^"^^^^ ' 

years m dealing with the various problems m- *^ -^ ^j j 

volved in American selling methods. Thoughts on Business. By Waldo Poniray 

Essays and Speeches. By Charles G. Dawes. Warren. Chicago: Forbes fie Company. 260 

Houghton, Mifflin. 427 pp. 111. $3. pp. $1. 

Mr. Dawes, who was Comptroller of the Cur- Suggestions to business men, tersely and epi- 

rency under President McKinley, and for the past grammatically stated. 



Traveh Adventure^ and Description 

Chained Lightning. By Ralph Graham Ta- political topics in the republic — the negro prob- 

ber. Macmillan. 27J pp. III. $1.25. '«">. divorce, the tendencies of the Cuban con- 

A vivacious account of experiences in Mex- «'"»• '^' manifestations of public opinion. The 

ieo just before the recent disturbances in that '"thor .s a member of the Academy of History of 

country. The descriptions, for the most part, ap- ^"*"'. »"^ »". honorary member of the Royal 

ply to conditions to-day. K • f Spanish-American Academy of Sciences and Arts. 

Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt By I**«» "^ Spice and Palm. A. H. Verrill. 

Lewis Spence. Stokes. 370 pp. III. $2.50. Appleton. 304 pp. III. $1.25. 

The latest conclusions regarding Egyptian re- , This book deals with the Lesser Antilles, which 

ligious ideas, formed in the light of the modern •°u^"'V'?"lv " H^"" '"* ''"2n".j'"'".17 

^i...;,.. «« ...l»h»i».r» other of the West Indian group. All these little 

science of mythology. .^,^^j^ ^^^^ ^^ Thomas To Trinidad, are fully 

Aspectos Nacionales. By Carlos de Velasco. f^^'±'l "I"^ Z'^VTv '"t ^'Tu" ""^'"^ ""'H 

„ , „ .. ,; -., the work a real Baedeker for the purposes of 

Havana: Libreria "Studium." 220 pp. $1. the intending traveler. There are numerous pho- 

Discussions by a Cuban of current social and tographic illustrations. 



THE AMERICAX REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



Romance of Old Belsium. By Eli^ibeth 
W. Champncy. Putnam. 43Z pp., ill. J2,S0. 

An enicrtiiining narrative of the hiuoty and 
tradition associaied with many of the character- 
iatic art treaium of deiolated Belgium. 



Travels in Alaska. By John Muir. Hough- 
ton Mifflin. 325 pp., ill. $2.S0. 

No writer on Alatki hai ever succeeded a* 
ncll Bi John Muir in combining accuracy of dc- 
■CTipiion with colorful word -pa in ting. Hit writ- 
ings are likely to remain for a tone time the ctaa- 
sica of the subject. At the time of his death he 
had almost completed the account of his three 
journeys to Alaska from journals written on the 
spot. His travels began in IS79 and the events 
recorded in this volume end in the middle of the 
journey of 1890. f[is notes on the retnainder of 
the journey have not been found. His manu- 
script ends with a remarkable description of the 
Northern Lights, which he had elsewhere de- 
scribed as "the most glorious of all the terrestrial 
inanifeMations of God." 



"Tbe Famous Cities of Ire! 



Quaint and Historic Forts of North 

India and Its Faiths. By James Bisielt Anierica. By John Martin Hammond. Lippin- 

Pratt Houghton, Mifflin. 483 pp. III. $4. W- '*" PP- 1"- *'■ 

The fact that Professor Pratt is neither a In the survivals and ruins of former American 

Sanskritist, nor a missionary, nor a convert to fortifications it is possible to trace the military 

some Oriental cult is set forth as one of his quali- history of the nation. Mr. Hammond has located 

fications for writing on India. His point of view most of the important posts in the Colonial, Rev- 

at least is different from that of most writers otutionary, and Civil wan, and haa delved into 

who have contributed to the world's knowledge their records sufficiently to present vivid picture* 

on this subject. He has tried to present Indian of the life and achievements of other days. Many 

religious life as it is to-day, without partisan- illustrations from photographs are given- 
ship or bias. His preparation for this task has 

been, as he himself states, not in Sanskrit or mis- _, . _ 

sionary literature, but in the study of the general "Id Concord. By Allen French. Boston: 

problems of religious psychology. Little, Brown. ISO pp. III. JJ. 

7^e name Concord suggests to Americans two 

Highways and Bjnways of New England, distinct groups of associations — one historical, the 

Bv Clifton Johnson. Maonillan. 299 pp. IH. <"•>." '"""T- In this volume Mr. French has 

t' ,. written of both. He has depended for his- 

. . , torical accuracy on the standard authorities, while 

Chapters on characteristic regions in States of as for literary tradition there is no lack in die 

Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, „r|,ing, of Emerson, Hawthorne. Thoreau, and 

Rhode Island, and Connecticut, with notea giving ,he Alcotts. Lester G. Hornby contributes to the 

helpful information about motoring routes and volume a aeries of admirable drawings, 
suggestions of interest to travelers. 

The Famous Cities of Ireland. By Stephen The Story of Wellesley. By Florence 
Gnynn. Macmillan. III. 353 pp. $2. Converse. Boston: Little, Brown. ZS4 pp. III. $2. 
With Irish cities Americans are possibly lest The Story of Wellesley College is not a very 
familiar than with Irish villages and rural dis- long one, measured in decades, but one learns 
tricts. This book describes Waierford, Dundalk, from this volume that it has been a very crowded 
Galway. Maynooth, Kilkenny, Derry, Limerick, record in point of achievement for the higher 
Dublin, Weiford, Cork, and Belfast. The illus- education of women. There are chapters on 
trations by Hugh Thomson are characteristic. "The Founder and His Ideals," "The Presidents 
and their Achievements," "The Faculty and their 
English Ancestral Homes of Noted Ameri- Methods," "The Students at Work and Play," 
cans. Bv Anne Hollingsworth Wharton. Lip- "The Fire: An Interlude," and "The Loyal 
'■,= , 111 f, Alumni." The gifts that have come to Wellesley 
pincott. 386 pp. 111. »,. j;„(^ ,,,j burning of its oldest and largest build- 
Interesting facts about the home land of the ing, in March, 1914, have shown that the cotlege 
Washingtons, Penns, Franklins, the Pilgrim Fa- has a nation-wide constituency. 



THE NEW BOOKS 

History and Biography 



Hen of the Old Stone Age. By Henry F. 
Otborn. Scribner. 545 pp. III. tS. 
. This book pictures a race of men who lived in 
Weilern Europe at least 25,000 years ago. From 
a careful study of all (he known data, Professor 
Osborn has concluded that these men of the Old 
Stone Age had developed the rudiments of all the 
modern economic powers of man: the guidance 
of the hand by the mind; the inventive facult;^; 
the adaptation of means to ends in utensils, in 
weapons, and in clothing; the sense of form, pro- 
portion, and symmetry. There it evidence of a 
religious sense among those men of the Old Stone 
Age, and we cannot doubt that the mind of that 
race was capable of a high degree of education. 
WesK'n Europe, even in that ancient day, was 
the scene of the rise and fail of industries and 
cultures. There was a Battle of the Marne even 
in those limes, but the weapons were of stone in- 
ttead of steel. 

Ireland: Vital Hour. By Arthur Lynch. 
Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co. 188 pp. 
$2.50. 

Mr. Lynch has made a praiseworthy effort to 
write a book on Ireland that "shall nol besilaie 
to ptobe and lest, yet shall be fraught with good 
purpose." His view is directed to the future and 
he has taken from the past offly what seems to 
him necessary to explain the present and to point 
the way of progress. The recent development of 
Ireland in the ticlds of industry, education, and 
finance renders obsolete most of the Irish his- 
tories of the past generation, A book like this 
ii needed and will be appreciated in America, 
where interest In the subject it perennial. 

Battleground Adventures. By Clifton John- 
son. Houghton Mifflin Co. 422 pp. III. $2. 

This book is a colleciion nf personal interviews 
with noncombaiant observers of twelve of the 
great battles of the Civil War. The people 
who tell these stories were actual dwellers on the 
battlefields. Mr. Johnson sought them out and 
talked with them about two years ago, when 
almost half a century had elapsed since the close 
of the war. Several of these observers were 
children at the lime of ihe events that they de- 
scribed, and naturally had no broad knowledge 
of the militarj- movements a part of which they 
■aw. Their individual experiences are of slight 
value in themselves, but add a note of actuality 
to the narrative of the war. 

The Construction of the Panama Canal. 
By W. L. Sibert and J. F. Stevens. Appleions. 
339 pp. III. $2. 

It is in every way fitting ihat the slory of the 
building of the Panama Canal should be lold au- 
thoritatively by engineers for ihe benefit of the 
general public. Mr. Stevens was Chief Engineer 
of the work during (he preparatory period. Later 
Brigadier-General Siberl was in charge of the 
construction of (he Gatun Locks and Dam, and 
all of the work on the Atlantic Division. Both 
these men have written their accounts of the 
work in non-technical language, and for the 




benefit of the general reader many photographs 
nnd maps have been inserted. 

The Mikado: Institution and Person. By 
William E. GriflHs. Princeton University Press. 
346 pp. $1.50. 

Apropos of the coronation of the Japanese Em- 
peror, Dr. Griffis, who has repeatedly placed 
American readers under obligation to him for his 
books and articles about Japan, has written an in- 
forming account of Japanese imperialism, includ- 
ing not only a discussion of the institution and 
person of the Mikado, but a study of the internal 
political forces of Japan in general. The late 
Emperor, Mutsuhito, gave repealed audiences to 
Dr. Griffis, who also had the advantage of many 
conversations with those Japanese soldiers and 
statesmen who were leaders in the so-called 
Restoration of tStiS. Dr. Grillis himself lived 
many years in Japan and acquired perhaps as 
intimate a knowledge of Japanese institutions as 
was possible for a non-Oriental. 

Spies and Secret Service. By Hamil Grant. 
Stokes. 320 pp. 111. $2.50. 

The scheme of this book was no doubt sug- 
gested to the author by the keen inleresi in espi- 
onage that has been developed since the outbreak 
of the great war. The author narrates historic 
episodes of spy- service, some of which have been 
already widely published, while others have long 
reposed in secret archives of European govern- 
ments. American readers will be especially inter- 
ested in the chapters on Nathan Hale, Mack and 
the Molly Maguires, Major Andre, and the 
America D Secret Service. 



122 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

•Medieval Italy. By H. B. Cotterill. Stokes, first came in contact with Blackie at Auburn 

566 pp. III. $2.50. prison. In these letters is summed up the whole 

This is an historical narrative of the thousand ™°'*7 ""^ such organizations as the Mutual Wei- 

years from 305 to 1313 A.D. Special chapters ^^''^ P^^"* «.^ ^^mg Smg Prison, from the pris- 

of the volume are devoted to great episodes and °"^''* ^lewpomt. 

personalities and to subjects related to religion, rp. ^ t •/ r /^i t> ^ « « ,» 

irt, and literature. « ' The Life of Clara Barton. By Percy H. 

Epler. Macmillan. 438 pp. $2.50. 

Reminiscences. By Lyman Abbott. Hough- This volume is based largely upon the letters 

ton Mifflin. 509 pp. 111. $3.50. ^"d journals of Miss Barton, who is remembered 

For more than sixty years Dr. Abbott has had 5,^^^^^ *» ^¥ founder of The American Red 

an important part in shaping public opinion in ^'•?ff. organization, but whose career included 

this country in the fields of religion, politics, edu- ^hnlling experiences in the Civil War, as well 

cation, and humanitarianism. His intimate as- fs active and fruitful endeavors m the field of re- 

sociat/on with other American leaders, from lijf and other fornjs of philanthropy for a period 

Henry Ward Beecher to Theodore Roosevelt, has °? "^""^V ? ^^^ century This is the first 

put him in possession of a great mass of in- biography of Miss Barton, who died in 1912. 

teresting and valuable historical material. All ns^^^^^^ a i7j:„^- d r* • t» i* 
this is drawn upon to good purpose in this book Thomas A. Edison. By Francis .Rolt- 
of "reminiscences," which pretends to be neither Wheeler. Macmillan. 201 pp. 111. 50 cents, 
biography nor history, but really includes the This Js a lively, stimulating sketch of Ameri- 
vital elements of each. ca's great inventor as a great American. The 

keynote of the book is expressed in the conclu- 
The Story of Canada Blackie. By Anne ^^"K chapter, which represents Edison as sound- 

PT I7UM n..».^» icr .«.« ^1 ing a call to arms, a summons to American in- 

. L. field, button. 15/ pp. ^1. j**^ ^^j^ i»x L-..^ 1 i»z •!. 

_, . . . . 1 , . , . dustry not to destroy life, but to make life richer 

This IS a remarkable, perhaps the only, in- for coming generations, 

stance of the "life and letters' of a convicted 

Si" SanSfe.^L'^' ^^tr!^ W«»> Street and the WUd.. By A. W. Dim- 
ed as one of the most dangerous of New York ^^ Outing Publishing Company. 476 pp., ill. $3. 
State's large convict population, died a few The author of this work, who is fond of out- 
months ago at Sing Sing after having received a door life, has been a successful photographer of 
pardon from Governor Whitman because of his wild animals and birds, — far more successful, it 
efforts to promote good conduct and responsibil- appears from his story, with these creatures of the 
ity among prisoners. His efforts were made in wild than in his relations with the bulls and bears 
response to the appeal of Warden Osborne, who of Wall Street. 



POETRY AT HOME AND ABROAD 

THERE have been single poems written riage Cycle," ^ now given to the public by her 
throughout the past from time to time, to husband. Professor George Herbert Palmer, 
which one may ascribe a profound influence in During the happy years of her married life» 
molding the spiritual temper of an age. But Alice Palmer projected a volume of poems, a 
if one looks throughout the new volumes of "marriage cycle," which should be a tribute to 
poetry of the year 1915 for a poem of sufficient her husband. Before they were completed she 
power, passion, and moral beauty to alter per- died,^ leaving much of the manuscript in an 
ceptibly the thought of the age, he will be dis- unfinished and fragmentary state. It is now 
appointed. There are no towering single poems, thirteen years since her death, and in order that 
but American poetry as a • whole moves with we may again hear her voice Professor Palmer 
unslackened inspiration toward the shaping of has prepared the poems that were completed 
a new civilization. for^ publication. They are delicate, spontaneous 

There are still poets who write swaying, lyrics, filled with the joy of a perfected human 
fragile lyrics that exist solely for the beaut>' life. It is good to know such love and faith 
of subtle, swift flights of word, but most of our have been in the world, 
poets have left their *'magic casements" to walk 

with the world of Ever\day, and to explore Students of American history and all who are 
"Earth's greatest venture, man." The work of interested in the growth of our nationalism will 
Robert Frost, Lincoln Colcord, Edgar Lee Mas- enjoy "Hugh Glass,"' a fine epic poem by John 
ters, Percy Mackaye, Vachel Lindsay, Margaret G. Neihardt. The poet begins his narrative 
Widdemcr, and many others reveals how essen- after the military fiasco known as the "Leaven- 
tial, how vital to human progress in America is worth Campaign against the Aricaras," which 
the vision of our American poets. took place at the mouth of the Grand River in 

the region now known as South Dakota. The 

Those fortunate persons who knew and loved episode upon which the epic is founded is re- 
the late Alice Freeman Palmer, and those to lated in Chittenden's "History of the American 
whom her gracious fame penetrated, will grant Fur Trade." Mr. Neihardt has succeeded in 
reverent welcome to the sheaf of lyrics "A Mar- making a stirring tale. Old Hugh Glass, the 

lA Marriage Cycle. By Alice Freeman Palmer. «The Song of Hugh Glass. By John G. Neihardt. 
Houghton, Mifflin. 71 pp. $1.25. Macmillan. 126 pp. $1.25. 



THE NEIf BOOKS 123 

rough man with the "molher heart," » a dis- enchanted dream." It is illuttrated with fac- 

tiBCt ctCBiion, a type of Ihe men who, follovriog limilcs of portrait) of a number of celebrated 

the far-flung frontiers oblivious «i danger and poels. 
hardship, laid the foundations of our common- 

w«>'tl>- Edith M. Thomas, who has been considered for 
several years the foremost woman-poel of Amcri- 

"Songt of the Workaday World,'" by Berton ca, offers a remarkable book, "The While Mes- 

Braley, is a collection of swinging, vigorous lenger and Other War Poems."' The title poem 

verse written by an American for Americans. It pictures a village in ihe great country far to the 

is a part of the great Iliad of labor and em- East — presumably Russia — and the time is "some 

bodies the sturdy ideals that some persons have years hence." The White Messenger is a noble 

feared were vanishing from our literature and woman who has laid aside her rank and posi- 

from our national life. Mr. Braley writes good tion to journey up and down the earth as the 

poetry on commonplace subjects, such as the tele- God-appoinied evangel of peace. The lesson 

phone and the phonograph, and gives us rousing of her poem is ihai only the realization of in- 

songs about miners, sailors, Blokers, (ramps, dividual responsibility will ever make an end 

"Wops," and "sand hogs," the men who burrow of war. 
the way for our tunnels and subways. He knows 

the heart of labor, the brains of labor, and the Dana Burnet's first volume of verse contains 
temper of the men who do the dangerous every- gome of the beat war poems that have been in- 
day work of the world- He has ranged from gpired by the present European conflict.' "The 
Panama to Alaska as a worker apd newpapcr- R«urn." "Albert of Belgium," "In a Village," 
man, and Montana and Wyoming know him "Ammunition," "Christmas in the Trenches," 
better than New York. His poems are excellent 'Xhe Forge of God," and "The Dead" are poemt 
for reading aloud. that will live. Behind their exterior form, which 
is shaped to picture a present crisis, abides the 

Margaret Widdemcr has the distinction of fire that kindles true poesy, fie writes in "The 

being a poet's poet and also a poet of the people. Dead": 
In her collection of verse, "The Factories, with 

Other Lyrics,"' she turns her extraordinary talent . 

for lyricism to sing the wrongs of the age, and to Their hands are empty cups, 

voice the awakening of women to the knowledge ^o dream is 'n their hearts, 

that they must stand shoulder to shoulder with Their ejM.are like deserted rooms 

men and bear their share of responsibility for •""»" "•"=•> '*" 8""' departs, 
the life that exists on the planet. She has great 

range; her poetry- is now the spurt of a bitter Ah, living men are fair, 

fountain and again the cry of spontaneous, joy- Clean-limbed and straight and strong, 

ous life. Many of these poems have been pub- But dead men lie like broken lutes 

lished and widely quoted. The title poem pro- Whose dying slays a song." 
tests against the toil of youn^ girls in underpaid 

industries thatroh them "* "me for play and of ^he collection also im:ludes "Poems of Pana- 

heallb for mating and motherhood. „, .. .-Gayhearl." "Mi«:ellaneou. Poems." 

"Poems About Town" and "Dialect Poems." "In 

ihouse prepared for a Death House" (spring) voice* the best thought 

Pi of Modern Verse," that men are giving to the matter of prison re- 

-- :alled "Younger farm. This stanza holds the pith of the argu- 



pt ttenhouse has made 

a ' from the work of 

th entury, "The Little "A death-doomed man may sometimes dream 

Bi Together they form Beyond life's little door; 

a netry from the time And, dreaming, come at last to see 

of fsent. The poetry- His matter to the core, 

lo sure to range over And know himself more fit to live 

tb It and present can- Than e'er he was before." 

T1 ss Rittenhouse's un- .j.,^ "Imperial Japanese Poems of the MeijI 

r V"^,*"' ■!«?.*«"■ Era"' have been translated by Frank Alanson 

Z Aa ™L« ffc! Lombard, Professor of English Literature and 

•° ""** «""^"" "•* Education, Doshisha University; Lecturer in Eng- 
lish Literature, Imperial University, Kyoto, Japan. 

_„ . The tanta are selected from many of those writ- 

"The Quiet Hour,"* selected and arranged by t^n by the sovereigns of the Meiji Era, and keep 

FitiToy Carnngton, gathers in a tasteful volume to the original syllabic structure of thirty-one 

a garland of romantic and pastoral song that .vllables divided into lines of five, seven, five, 

seems, as its editor writes, "(he far, faint echo of ^ven, seven. The poems are crystallizations of 

> Soii|> of Ifae Workaday World. By Berton BraUy. *•>' '"'" 'hought of the period (1868 to 1912), 

Ceorn H. Dona. ISO p^ (1. gathered as it were in little flawless vasts of jade. 

•The F.ctorin, with Other Lyrics. By Margaret 

Widdemcr. John C. Winston. IM pp. fl. 'The While Meuenger and Other War Poems. By 

'The Little Book of AireiiFan Poeta. Edited by lessie Ediih M. Thomaa. Richard Badger. 81 pp. 6« cents. 

B. RittenhouK. Houghton, Mifflin. >M pp. tt.iS. •Poems By Dana Bumct. Harper. »8 pp. tl.«0. 

•The Quirt Hour. Edited by PiWroy Carringtoo. 'Imperial Japancji Poems of Ihe Meiji Era. Edited 

Houihton, MiSin. 113 pp. TS cents. by F. .\. Lombard. Kyoto, Japan. 



124 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

The poem to the skylark is one of the most lovely The Emperor Mutsuhito was born in 1852. Now» 

in the collection — when the coronation of his son, Emperor Yoshi- 

**High in the heavens, hito, has become so recently 'a matter of history. 

Above all earth-born shadows, it is of interest to find in these tanka a revelation 

Soareth the skylark, of "His Revered Father/* The book is exqui- 

With music sweet alluring sitely bound, and illustrated with Japanese draw- 

The hearts of longing mortals." ings. 



A ''Yhion of War' 



M 



R. LINCOLN COLCORD has written a "Democracy of the World, I seel Republic 

. remarkable book, "Vision of War."* His of Humanity! The Brotherhood of Man!" 

•rgumem minimizes the physical suffering of ^y^., ,^ ,j ^ , contradiction 

war and exalts its spiritual glory. He has writ- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . ^ ,^ 

Mn with fresh impulse, o"6>n»l"y; »"«lP°3- decay of the soul, and of nations, and the pro- 
Technically, the book follows the unrhymed ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ „„i^„„, brotherhood, never- 
rhythmic forms of Walt Wh tinan s poesy. Mr. f^ ,/ .,yj ; ^ ^ „ j„ , '^j ^. 
Colcord arraigns all the facilities of civilization, . ^. , .,, .„i.„j:j .„j »„...,„«„,,. .n,>..i f« 

the nations of the world, and the particular civic bf„M„l?„H'i!?^„„. ?^.t^ fhf,?^ „7?!lfi.i 

, , . r u* » u X *u I individuals and nations to stem the tide or seinsn- 

development of his own country before the bar j fight,_if fight they must.-"for renun- 

of conscience. He warns each nation in turn of ;^,. ,„|u,i forbearance, fortitude, self- 

the gnawing worm of mater jahsm. The best he ,•„ ^ i„p'erishable possessions of the 

can hope for America is a succession or desperate human aoul 

wars for the sake of her spirit. He perceives ' 

that America is "bound for war," and yet he Lincoln Colcord was born at sea off Cape Horn 

writes toward the end of the book: in 1883. He has had an interesting and a varied 

life. Nearly his entire boyhood was spent at sea 

"I believe in giving up, rather than holding, with his father on voyages to China and trading 

possessions; in Eastern Watera. His books, "The Drifting 

"I believe that men can be brought both to Diamond," and "The Game of Life and Death," 

vote, and to run for office, in unselfishness. a volume of sea tales, have been favorably com- 

"I believe that a democracy can be governed pared with those of Joseph Conrad. He is living 

by love." at present in Searsport, Maine. 



PLAYS, AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

MUCH interest has been taken of late in Mackaye gives us a poignant picture of the prob- 

patriotic and humanitarian movements that lems that confront the friendless immigrant who 

are intended to facilitate the nationalization of comes to our shores eagerly in hope of better 

foreign-born and native-born citizens, and to things. The introduction is by Mr. Frederic C 

promote a general understanding of the English Howe, Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis 

language and the duties of citizenship. Island. 

A National Americanization Committee has «,. c . i * ^l j t • i. -.i. -a « 

been formed in New York; President Butler of . l^\ "" f'.^y. ?* i'^.T .""xi* x !"♦ 

Columbia University announces a course in train- '«> be translated into English is "The Treasui|e,- 

ing for adult immigrants in citizenship, and ^^ P''""^ ^'P^'^'v » contemporary Jewish writer. 

President Hadley of Yale, and President Wheeler '«" ."^ *» * TT K^?H «J 

of the University of California are interested in "^^f". '^"^ .«"^«"' »* '^^ *""™? »•«•"'•' "»•*; 

furthering any plans that will tend to promote .V*'""^ Lew.sohn, who has skilfully rendered 

loyalty to the United States. The article by Mr. the translation writes in the preface: "The prose 

t'i£'r"es.t' :Z'^CJo?L^ZZJ'^"'" - vL"at^ '/;. ^^sl'^'^aodTeS Zt^^SX/. 

''Lr;Cy YdvTn"? : t'se^"!: 1^, and -■«-' --p-^f "-Jj. •^« F'7"'' -«• 'he Irish 

dignified efforts for the promulgation of national- nep-roraantic.s . This is not over-praise, and, 

ism, Mr. Percy Mackaye prepared a masque or »"«»« /^tn ['twary values, Mr. Lew.sohn call, 

ritual for use in schooli, wherever it is desirable f"*"""" "' '^ P^?' »* h„ drama in transcend- 

♦« ,^^^^^^* ♦....* :j-«i- r^ ^»».:^*:.»«3 ?♦ :- •*<... *ng ^"« merely ethnic and the merely national ta 
to present true ideals or patriotism, it is par- "^ , -^ , ^ , r -^ ,1.1 

^•11 • ••.-.• J ^ portray mans acre-lone strueftle for earthly pos- 

ticularly gracious in its conception and presenta- l^.-J^. uThe Treasuri?" alvM ila a crreat moral 

tion, and educators will be grateful to Mr. xMack- ?"sions. ihe 1 reasure gives Us a great moral 

aye for this aid to citizenship. ^"^°" °" ^*>^ "^^, *"^ !\ abuse of money. It 

T »^. » . „i 1 . . m. shows money as the ancient root of all evil; and 

In "The Immigrants," a new lyric drama, Mr. j^ reveals money also as the servant of the wise, 

1 \ • • r M' i> T • 1^1 A xs 11 ^^« 8'v^'' ^^ power, liberty, self-respect, and 

I49\p!°"$i 25 '* Macm.llan. happiness. Tillie, the daughter of the grave- 

>Tbe New Citizenship. By Percy Mackaye. Macniil- digger, who lavishes her small treasure in fine 

Ian. 50 cents. ^.^...^—^^.^^—ii^— ^^._....__i....^^..^_^.»_ 

» The Immigrants. By Percy Mackaye. B. W. * The Treasure. By David Pinski. B. W. Huebsch, 

Hucbsch. 138 pp. $1. 194 pp. $1. 



THE NEfT BOOKS ' 125 

raiment in order to dream for a day that she has stood for the middle classes, for ideals of "order, 
a loFer, will convict every heart that clothes regularity, justice, the family and fireside." 

itself in indifference to the dreams of the poor. ,...^,.. , , .. 

John Masefield s latest play is a tragedy m 

r^, , ,. . • J X *• ui \f D *». three acts entitled "The Faithful."* It is founded 

The pubhc owes he mdefat.gable Mr- B»rre t ,j j ^ , ^ ^ j ^^ 

Clark a debt of gratitude for having made avail- ,„.,•„ „.„;„. ,!,-.» a,.\ZA ..«-«■, .k. i:>.><..^ 

able, in excellent English translation, the work ^%""^„ S^T.XlH^ n„,m^ lm?,l^! f .11^7 

* * r ' t • ua u* ^ * * 1- world in Masenela s poems, comes to its lull ma- 

of many foreign playwrights. His recent transia- .„,;^, r j^,^«^;^ -^.T^-. «;«« :« ♦!,;«. ».^,r;»,» .%i«>». 

tions include: "The Village," by Octave Feuillet; ^""^ ^^ dramatic expression m this moving play. 




are published by Samuel French and listed at acts, by Jackson Boyd. The action of the drama 

twenty-five cents each. takes place in a dream. The statues of the Godf 

Ormazd and Ahriman come to life in order to 

Another interesting volume of translations by teach the world the nature of truth, and to solve 

Mr. Clark offers "Four Plays" ^ translated from the various problems of life. The book is re- 

the French of Emile Augier. He writes that this markable for the presentation along with the 

French dramatist was to the theater of his time solution of each problem of humanity, the contra- 

what Brieux is to the stage of to-day ; that Augier diction or duality of thought, the opposite, which 

is of particular interest because he has always must, philosophically speaking, accompany it. 



FOUR VOLUMES OF ESSAYS 

DR. HUGH BLACK, author of the popular mon, is a very valuable book for anyone who 
book "Friendship," presents his analysis of wishes to understand the "woman question" in all 
the unrest in religious, scientific, and social con- ages and in all countries. It is logical and non- 
ditions, in a book of essays entitled "The New partisan. After reviewing woman's position in 
World." ^ Broadly speaking, his conclusions point antiquity and touching upon her position in the 
to the best methods of re-shaping the message of eighteenth century, when Mme. Doyen refuted the 
Christianity to fit the needs of the age. Notable French production that attempted to prove that 
among these essays is "The Movement of Democ- woman did not belong to the human species, he 
rac>%" in which Dr. Black writes with force and proceeds through a summary of the present-day 
conviction of the theory that underlies democratic phases of woman to his conclusion that "woman 
government. The power that sweeps through as a personality has a right to test her powers, 
this book is expressed in a paragraph from the She is not the ward of man. Let her choose her 
closing essay, "The Victory of Faith": "We live sphere and evoke its limitations." He does not 
not by logic, but by primal faiths and intuitions." approve of man's "Machiavellian policy of keep- 
And through intuition and faith he sees the world ing wives and daughters ignorant," and he as- 
moving to "realize the visions of human brother- sumes that the woman question is a larger ques- 
hood." tion than that of motherhood. Society should, 

In "The Social Principle,"' Mr. Horace Holley tZTrl' A^X^f^lZT^.r^^^'LT't^^A^^f^^^ 

endeavor, to tear down the walls of personal ex- P^'fi""/,' ml.S " rendering her 

perience that entomb individuals in separate cells ^' 

of consciousness and bring men into the light of _. . _. . » j i » .• i ^ 

a universal social consciousness which shall blaze „T''« war has done a great deal to stimulate 

forth with unified effort and aspiration. He feels tuf^^'^l '" *' '"'*'"? *»' '^"J»"»" °?^''* i"*! 

that in each closed cell there beats a great rhvthm, P'.'f'- ^he average reader needs a volume that 

the rhythm of forces which we do not understand r^'" ^"? " "? ""r°dV«''"' "» *'"f '^""""> 

but which compel us to bring forth that which is ?"'" R^^'an modes of thmkin^ fe*"« •»« P'""«V 

to be new nations, new eras, new religions; a 'Ctff*' Z '^ nTi„ m""'!?''?' A"?'»'""'«,*' 

„r.,.., lJ..i:h, K.f;.,. »l.!^l. Vh, „M P,»i;h, mn.f Andrieff, and_ Kuprin. Mr, Stephen Graham's 



vounc that it «-«i««;, — virii«,u is tiui aiiu^ciuci a toiiuiiaic 

has not yet been named. A fine and courageous ?u''T",'''" A^X/^'n "u Christianity found in 
y^^^v the East, — and Mr. Graham includes Russia in 

this generalization of locality, — is the spirit of 
**The Woman Movement,"* by A. L McCrim- "Mary," while the dominant impulse of Christi- 
anity in the West is that of "Martha," — careful 




pp. $i.?5 *• ^ •"*^"'"" ""^"* ""^"""^»- ^^"^ Egypt, after the outbreak of the war. Mr. Gra- 

*Thc New World. By Hugh Black. Rcvcll. 240 ham has been for many years a close student of 

*Thc Social Principle, By Horace Holley. Lawrence ' 

Gcmme. 97 pp. 75 cents. -^— — ^— — — ^^-^^— — ^— ^— — ^ 

• The Woman Movement. By A. L. McCrimmon. The ^ The Way of Martha and the Way of Mary. By 

Griffith & Rowland Press. 254 pp. $1. Stephen Graham. Macroillan. 296 pp. $2, 



FINANCIAL NEWS 

I.-SECURITIES OF INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES 

THE war in Europe had not been in was the time when Bethlehem Steel common 
progress four months when wholesale sold at $30, which has since sold at $600, 
paring of dividends among American indus- and General Motors at about $50, which the 
trial companies began to occur. By the first other day reached the equivalent of $600 a 
of January, 1915, no less than 150 corpora- share. The chief reason why people would 
tions had either reduced, passed, or "de- not buy this class then was that they were 
ferred" payments on stocks, common and known to have too large liabilities for their 
preferred, involving losses of millions of dol- capital, were frequent borrowers at high in- 
lars to investors. The largest numbers of terest rates, and had been prodigal with divi- 
cuts were among iron and steel, copper, oil, dends in flush times. 

and automobile concerns. They all depend With the lapse of a year such a complete 
upon industrial activity to make them pros- change in corporation finances as probably 
perous enough to divide profits with share- never occurred in this country in a similar 
holders, but the conflict in Europe, with its period has taken place. Since June alone 
blockades and moratoriums, I.ad, figuratively, 135 different concerns have either placed 
laid them flat on their backs. their dividends back on the 1914 basis or have 

A composite explanation from the man- paid more than they did then or had ever 
agers of these companies as to why they re- paid. Not a few of this number made their 
duced or passed dividends would be that first disbursements to stockholders within this 
the safeguarding of working capital com- period. In the list are twenty-five munition- 
pelled it. Money at that time was costing making concerns, a dozen iron and steel man- 
thc average company 6 per cent, and a com- ufacturers and a similar number of motor 
mission that made the total from 7 to 8 ccmpanies, thirteen sugar producers and re- 
per cent. People were not paying their bills finers, nearly thirty copper, lead, and zinc 
promptly and there was a tendency to hoard producers and an additional group of 
money. Even though one were willing to smelters and refiners, ten oil companies, and 
pay the market price for accommodations the nearly a score of public utilities whose finan- 
amount was in such small sums as to be cial position had been reversed by the in- 
worthless. So, when the semi-annual diyi- dustrial activity throughout the United 
dend period came around in October or No- States. 

vember of the corporation with $15,000,000 Radical as this change has been there 
7 per cent, preferred stock outstanding, it are other developments that have even 
was decided to hold the $525,000 in the greater significance and on there the new 
treasury as "working capital" instead of pay- investment position of many manufacturing 
ing it out in dividends. Others stopped pay- and allied concerns is to be made, 
ing because they could not afford to draw This position rests on a reduction of lia- 
on their surplus, not having earned the bilities, in some cases taking the form of a 
amount required. One of these was the floating debt, in others of short-term notes, 
United States Steel, which had been making and in still others of early maturing bonds, 
quarterly disbursements of $6,250,000. No such opportunity has ever been given to 
These it stopped entirely. Nearly a dozen put the corporation house in order as is pro- 
of the Standard Oil Subsidiaries, supposedly vided in the rapid accumulation of profits on 
ver>' wealthy and with an enviable dividend war contracts or the furnishing of other sup- 
record, all of a sudden found themselves plies to Europe. If advantage is taken of this 
faced with a famine in funds and they, too, condition the industrials will fortify them- 
reduced, passed, or "deferred** payments. selves against many lean years, and their 

Naturally there was a tremendous shrink- credit will average nearer to that of the rail- 
age in the securities of all industrial compa- roads and public utilities than it had ever 
nies. Many of them were unsalable in the been believed it could do. 
open markets during the period when the Let us take three concrete illustrations 
New York Stock Exchange was closed. This from the list of companies that have been 

126 



FINANCIAL NEWS 127 

conspicuous this year for the appreciation in last April, having defaulted six months be- 
the value of their common stocks. The first fore on its bond interest, a receiver was ap- 
is Bethlehem Steel. This concern has out- pointed. A plan of reorganization was 
standing an issue of $19,777,000 first and drawn up which involved an assessment on 
refunding 5 per cent, bonds. They are re- the stockholders. Hardly had this been pro- 
deemable at 105 on proper notice prior to the mulgated when it was learned that the earn- 
semi-annual interest day. It is quite possi- ings of the corporation were in excess of 
ble that these bonds, which do not mature any other period in its history and that in- 
until the year 1942, may be paid off with stead of being in the bankruptcy courts it 
the profits of the corporation, which would ought to be paying dividends. Shareholders 
leave a very small fixed charge ahead of the united against the plan and soon secured radi- 
preferred and common stocks. The second cal modifications. The point is that at the 
instance is that of the General Motors Com- rate profits are accruing each month it would 
pany, which has already paid from profits an be possible to pay off in cash and some new 
issue of about $8,000,000 notes so that there securities, at par, an issue of over $52,000,000 
are no obligations ahead of stocks. A third of collateral trust 4j4 per cent, bonds and 
situation is that of the Baldwin Locomotive another issue of $17,000,000 odd'first mort- 
Company, which has $10,000,000 first mort- gage 5 per cent, bonds of the International 
gage 5 per cent, bonds out and due in 1940. Navigation Company. It has not inf re- 
There is a very strong sentiment among the quently happened that the net earnings of 
directors of this corporation that it should some months have been equivalent to the total 
make hay while the sun shines and rid it- net of previous years. This is not only due 
self of this mortgage which costs $500,000 to the tremendous amount of tonnage offered, 
per annum in interest. Other cases are those but to the highest scale of rates ever put into 
of the Du Pont Powder Company, which effect on transatlantic service, 
proposes to substitute stocks for its 4j^ per From these facts it is obvious that indus- 
cent. bonds, the Aetna Explosives Company, trial securities must have been given a new 
which has been anticipating payment on its place in the minds of discriminating investors, 
notes as it could do with its rising returns. Therefore, the main suggestion of this ar- 
and a number of mining and metal concerns, tide is that the person with ready funds 
The writer also has in mind the private study the subjoined list of twenty-five pre- 
policies of several large sugar producing ferred stocks of industrial companies, any 
companies which have been struggling for one of which may be recommended for 
years against poor crops, low prices, tariff investment: 
handicaps, and what not, but are now earn- 
ing from 40 to 60 per cent, on their com- preferred stocks and their return 
mon stocks. There is great pressure on them Yield 
to make heavy cash disbursements, but the ^^mate* dend invest- 
managers of these companies believe that P'^ice Rate metu 

they should first establish a cash fund of large American Beet Sugar 94 6 6.40 

enough size to make future financing easy American Car & Foundry.. .. 118 7 5.93 

1 .^ ^1 1 ui* ^* ^u -. 4, •-,! American Locomotive 102 7 6.85 

and if they have obligations that are maturing American Smelting k Refining ill 7 6.30 

withm a few years pay them off now. Simi- American Sugar 118 7 5.93 

lar views are held by one important electric American Tobacco 109 6 5.50 

company engaged in war-munition manufac- Baldwin Locomotive 112 7 6.25 

^ rj^t .1 .\ e ,. • Central Leather 110 72 7 6.33 

turc. Then there are countless factories General Chemical 115 6 5.20 

throughout the East and Middle West that General Motors 125V2 7 5.58 

have been struggling along for years on International Harvester, N. J. 110Vl» 7 6.35 

small profits but have made enough this year Liggett & Myers Ii9y2 7 5.86 

to cancel their debts and establish a surplus l^Z"^, ^^^ :::::::: ^ Ifov. 7 \\'z 

and who are provident enough not to dis- pierre Lorillard 1 15*72 7 6.00 

sipate this profit in reckless financing. The Railway Steel Springs 101 7 6.90 

stock equities in all these companies has obvi- 5*^^"^?. ^l^^^ ^^l '\ 1?? I ^!? 

I ^ ^ J Republic Iron & Steel 110 7 6.40 

ouslygone up at a tremendous pace. Sears Roebuck 126 7 5.50 

What IS undoubtedly the most remarkable Studebaker l UV2 7 6.10 

instance of a turn of fortune from poverty United States Rubber 108 8 7.40 

to princeliness is that furnished by the In- .V""?**. ^n^''^?^^^l;u • • ',• JJ^^ J 6.00 
-. -.• 1 n/T -.'I HT • ^ 1? Virginia-Carolina Chemical.. U3V2 8 7.00 

temational Mercantile Marine. For a year willys-Overland 115 7 6.05 

this company had been losing money, and Woolworth 124 7 5.65 



128 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

In the two years prior to 1915 the Amer- United States Steel, and Virginia-Carolina 
lean Car and Foundry Company earned its Chemical to earn the amounts necessary for 
preferred stock dividend by a margin of about their preferred dividends and the margin 
$1,500,000. The surplus over the American over Pressed Steel was only $17,000, but of 
Smelting and Refining preferred for the same these only Republic Iron and Steel deferred 
period was $3,350,000. That available for payment. It has since resumed and is mak- 
General Motors preferred was seven times ing up the accumulations each quarter. The 
the amount required, and this year nearly other had sufficiently large surplus accounts, 
fourteen times the requirements. National created in better times, to draw on so their 
Biscuit preferred for the last five years has dividend record remains unbroken. It is 
been earning from two and a half to three interesting to note that some of the best re- 
times its dividend needs. In 1914 and 1913 suits predicted for the year 1915 are those 
Sears Roebuck earned a surplus of $18,000,- of concerns that had the hardest sledding 
000 for preferred dividends required of during 1914. 

$1,100,000. Studebaker Corporation earned Some of the above stocks are redeemable 

Its preferred in 1914 five times over. United at a high premium over par, the dividends 

States Rubber has earned an annual average on a majority are cumulative, and a portion 

balance of $3,200,000 since 1912. Of are strengthened by the working of a sinking 

Willys-Overland preferred there is less than fund by which a small percentage of the total 

$5,000,000 outstanding, and this is to be re- stock outstanding is each year retired. The 

tired in favor of a new issue convertible into present value of all, however, is the large 

common stock. The industrial collapse last earnings applicable to them and the policy 

year made it impossible for the American of reducing from current revenues the 

Locomotive, Baldwin Locomotive, Railway obligations that stand as a prior claim 

Steel Springs, Republic Iron and Steel, ahead. 



II.— INVESTORS' QUERIES AND ANSWERS 

No. 689. FIRST-MORTGAGB RBAL-BSTATB BONDS No, 690. CITIES SBRVIGB STOCKS 

From a small salary I have saved a little fund which ^^ ^t". ^^^y anxious to learn the present condition of 

I have deposited in a local bank at 4 per cent. This <S* f '*'** Service Company and am writing to you in 

rate of interest is not sufficient, so I am writing to in- the hope that you may be able to give me some trust- 

quire if you will assist me with some information as to ^/^''W information. Shortly after I bought the stock 

how I can invest the money in a safe manner to bring <>' this company. I wrote to you and you gave only a 

me 5 or 6 per cent. I do not want anything speculative. <iua''n«d approval of the ourchase. I hold only a few 

but something that I could turn quickly into cash should sh"7«' but I am disturbed, about the suspension of diyi- 

occasion demand- it. Do you consider that firstmort- <>«"°5 »n^ the way in which the market price has de- 

gage real-estate bonds would meet my requirements? I c""^"' "^ '^^^ "*"^ it would be advisable for me to 

think I should like a bond maturing in from five to ten 8«" out and take my loss? 

>**^*- You fail to indicate whether your Citiet Service 
The class of bonds which you have under con- shares are the common or preferred, but in either 
sideration has a very good record for safety, but fvent, we do not believe you are justified in feel- 
it is one in connection with which it is necessary '"8 ^^^ "™"ch concern about the situation. There 
for investors to pay particular attention to the ^^* recently been a marked tendency to strength 
character of the banking sponsorship. As a class, *" ***® market position of both the preferred and 
such bonds do not have a very satisfactory de- common shares of this company. We find the 
gree of convertibility. That is to say, they do preferred nonriinally quoted at the time of writ- 
not enjoy a broad, general market, and in locali- ""8 at 76^ bid, offered at 78'^, and the common 
ties where they are not sufficiently well known, ^} f^ ^'^» offered at 90. That a rather substan- 
their loan or collateral value is not ordinarily ^*^' reason exists for this betterment in the mar- 
high. Many of the reliable banking houses spe- ^^^ position of the stock is evident from the fact 
cializing in this class of investments, however, ^^^^ ^^^ company reported for the period between 
have made it a practise for a good many years 0<^to*>er 1, 1914, and September 30, 1915, a sur- 
to meet this deficiency in convertibility by taking P'u» amounting to $1,890,055, as against $1,125,854 
care of all of the legitimate needs of their clients (P*" ^"^ corresponding period of the previous year, 
for ready cash, either by repurchasing their offer- ^^^ Septeniber alone,— the last month for which 
ings at a nominal discount to cover handling complete figures are available,— surplus was 
charges, or by themselves loaning money on the ^'63,488, as against only $91,170 for September, 
bonds as collateral. ^^^^' ^"^ * ^^ill further evidence of the gen- 
In going into this type of investment, it would 5''^"^ T^Vu^. P*'"^**'." ^f the company is found 
ordinarily be a simple matter for you to meet Z^!,J^^J^^T L'^'Ti''" ^""l ^/•'^'"!j'^ ^c' '^' 

your requirements as to maturity on account of TaTf ff oT n.r cZt ^nn'jt ^«^»t"'*'/^''"" 

♦k- *«^ ♦!»«* ».«^:^..ii II I . * ^ "*" ^^ ®"* per cent, on the preferred shares 

the fact that practically all real-estate mortgage beginning the first of the new year. 

bonds are nowadays issued in serial form, with a Evervthing considered, we think unquestion- 
fixed proportion of the outstanding amount pay- ably the thing for you to do is to retain your hold- 
able in annual or semi-annual instalments. ings of the stock, at least for the time being. 



WHAT IS 
AN INTERNAL BATH? 

By R. W. BEAL 




UCH has been said and volumes 

have been written describing at 

length the many kinds of baths 

civilized man has indulged in 

from. time to time. Every pos- 
sible resource of the human mind has been 
brought into play to fashion new methods of 
bathing; but, strange as it may seem, the most 
important, as well as the most beneficial of all 
baths, the "Internal Bath," has been givert lit- 
tle thought. The reason for this is probably 
due to the fact that few people seem to realize 
the tremendous part that internal bathing plays 
in the acquiring and maintaining of health. 
If you were to ask a dozen people to de- 
fine an internal bath, you would have as 
many different definitions, and the proba- 
bility is that not one of them would be cor- 
rect. To avoid any misconception as to what 
constitutes an internal bath, let it be said that 
a hot-water enema is no more an internal bath 
than a bill of fare is a dinner. 

If it were possible and agreeable to take 
the great mass of thinking people to witness 
an average post-mortem, the sights they would 
ace and the things they would learn would 
prove of such lasting benefit and impress them 
so profoundly that further argument in favor 
of internal bathing would be unnecessary to 
convince them. Unfortunately, however, it is 
not possible to do this, profitable as such an 
experience would doubtless prove to be. There 
is, then, only one other way to get this infor- 
mation into their hands, and that is by ac- 
quainting them with such knowledge as will 
enable them to appreciate the value of this 
long-sought-for, health-producing necessity. 

Few people realize what a very little thing 
is necessary sometimes to improve their phys- 
ical condition. Also, they have almost no 
conception of how a little carelessness, indif- 
ference or neglect can be the fundamental 
cause of the most virulent disease. For in- 
stance, that universal disorder from which al- 
most all humanity is suffering, known as 
"constipation," "auto-intoxication," "auto- 
infection," and a multitude of other terms, is result. 

Plem«e mention tbe Re-vletr of RevletrM trben trrltlnv to ad-vertlsers 

40 



not only curable but preventable through the 
consistent practice of internal bathing. 

How many people realize that normal func- 
tioning of the bowels and a clean intestinal 
tract make it impossible to become sick? 
"Man of to-day is only fifty per cent efficient.*' 
Reduced to simple English, this means that 
most men are trying to do a man's portion of 
work on half a man's power. This applies 
equally to women. 

That it is impossible to continue to do this 
indefinitely must be apparent to all. Nature 
never intended the delicate human organism 
to be operated on a hundred per cent overload. 
A machine could not stand this and not break 
down, and the body certainly cannot do more 
than a machine. There is entirely too. much 
unnecessary and a\'oidable sickness in the 
world. 

How many people cah you name, including 
yourself, who are physically vigorous, healthy, 
and strong? The number is appallingly 
small. 

It is not a complex matter to keep in condi- 
tion, but it takes a little time, and in these 
strenuous days people have time to do every- 
thing else necessary for the attainment of 
happiness but the most essential thing of ail- 
that of giving their bodies their proper care. 

Would you believe that five to ten minutes 
of time devoted to systematic internal bathing 
can make you healthy and maintain your phys- 
ical efficiency indefinitely? Granting that such 
a simple procedure as this will do what is 
claimed for it, is it not worth while to learn 
more about that which will accomplish this 
end? Internal Bathing will do this, and it 
will do it for people of all ages and in all 
conditions of health and disease. 

People don't seem to realize, strange to say, 
how important it is to keep the body free 
from accumulated body-waste (poisons). 
Their doing so would prevent the absorption 
into the blood of the poisonous excretions of 
the body, and health would be the inevitable 



WHAT IS AN INTERNAL BATH ? 



If you would keep your blood pure, your 
heart normal, your eyes dear, your complex- 
ion clean, your mind keen, your blood pres- 
sure normal, your nerves relaxed, and be able 
to enjoy the vigor of youth in your declining 
years, practice internal bathing and begin to- 
day. 

Now that your attention has been called 
to the importance of internal bathing it may 
be that a number of questions will suggest 
themselves to your mind. You will probably 
want to know WHAT an Internal Bath is, 
WHY people should take them, and the WAY 
to take them. These and countless other ques- 
tions are all answered in a booklet entitled 
"THE WHAT, THE WHY and THE 
WAY OF INTERNAL BATHING," writ- 
ten by Doctor Chas. A. Tyrrell, the inventor 
of the "J. B. L. Cascade," whose lifelong 
study and research along this line make him 
the pre-eminent authority on this subject. Not 
otily has internal bathing saved and prolonged 
Dr. Tyrrell's own life, but the lives of a multi- 
tude of hopeless individuals have been equally 
spared and prolonged. No book has ever been 
written containing such a vast amount of 
practical informatioa to the business man, the 



worker, and the housewife; all that is neces- 
sary to secure this book is to write to Dr. Chas. 
A. Tyrrell at Number 134 West 65th Street, 
New York City, and mention having read this 
article in the Review of Reviews, and same 
will be immediately mailed to you free of all 
cost or obligation. 

Perhaps you realize now, more than ever, 
the truth of these statements, and if the read- ' 
ing of this article will result in a proper appre- 
ciation on your part of the value of internal 
bathing, it will have served its purpose. What 
you will want to do now is to avail yourself 
of the opportunity for learning more about 
the subject, and your writing for this book will • 
give you that information. Do not put off 
doing this, but send for the book now while the 
matter is fresh in your mind. 

"Procrastination is the thief of time." A 
thief is one who steals something. Don't al- 
low procrastination to cheat you out of your 
opportunity to get this valuable information • 
which is free for the asking. If you would 
be natural, be healthy. It is unnatural to be 
sick. Why be unnatural, when it is such a' 
simple thing to be well? 




o«r 



mnd bar tbe prodaet« adTertlsed 

50 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 137 

ei»ii,^^ f** ""y *='*'^™ with a capacity 
Muata* for analysis sift out for himself 

Frtmrtdi jjj^ essentials of all that wc have 
been passing through. We have issued sev- 
eral notices to Mexico that £ur<^ean pow- 
ers would have regarded as the kind of ulti- 
matum that means war. W% have called 
at least four great European powers to 
account for what wc pronounce to be grave 
violation of our rights. Other unarmed and 
helpless countries have been suffering far 
worse indignities and wrongs than those of 
which we have been complaining with our 
sharp and threatening challenges; but these 
other countries, recognizing their own fee- 
bleness, have said nothing at all or else 
q>oken very softly. China has no developed 
public opinion; and many wrongs might 
be perpetrated against Chinese sovereignty 
or territorial integrity without its becom- 
ing known to the majority of Chinamen. 
But everybody knows the news in this coun- 
try; and sentiment flares up from Maine to 
California with all the swiftness of elec- 
tridty and modern printing presses. Con- iimnNc the ughtnino 

siderations of prudence, on the ground of (A typical Hwspaper challenge, idciting to mr) 

our not being prepared, will never induce From the ChroHult (Smi Fraocuco) 

the American people to condone injustice or 

submit to indignities. We are therefore armament to gtrt her into trouble. She would 
in a great deal of practical danger of getting have been relatively safe with much less 
into a war unless the rest of the world forth- navy or with considerably more, 
with abandons violent practices and sedu- 
lously cultivates our good will. Hoiiamrt Holland holds Java and her 
^Brf other outlying possessions, and 
American human nature is as ' maintains an important overseas 
022^ it is; and the turbulent condi- trade, with a navy of very moderate dimen- 
tions of Europe, Asia, and parts sions that ranks perhaps twelfth among the 
of Africa and America, are obvious to every nations. She has some submarines, and will 
intelligent observer. Advocates of prepared- increase the number of her destroyers and 
ness, like Mr. Hudson Maxim, have shown smaller protective craft. She has also an 
that we shall be merely exposing our na- efficient army, based upon the principle of 
tional pride to humiliation, and subjecting conscription or compulsory service. The or- 
- our sons to cruel massacre, if we are so stupid dinary field force of the Netherlands army 
as to remain in the irritating position of being amounts to about 150,000 men, while in 
just a little prepared instead of being well the various reserves there arc perhaps 300,- 
preparcd. As things stand, we have navy 000 more. Holland has six million people, 
and army enough to get us into a bad scrape, as ^;ainst our one hundred million, and is 
but not enough to bring us creditably out not a warlike or militarized nation. But 
of trouble. If Spain had been virtually she could put 400,000 men into active serv- 
H^ithout a navy, she would have avoided the ice more readily than we could mobilize ' 
nrar with us in 1898, would have negotiated one-fourth as many, utilizing our National 
for evacuation of Cuba, and would have Guard and other possible sources of supply. 
kept the Philippines. If, on the other hand. If we were as well prepared relatively as 
Admiral Cervera had crossed the Atlantic Switzerland or Holland t defend our homes, 
^■th a somewhat larger fleet, that had been — while continuing to stand with them, as we 
efficiently maintained, the Spaniards could now do, for the principles of justice, honor, 
not only have kept Cuba but could have and civilization in the world, — we should 
exacted tribute from New York and Boston, have at least six million men trained and 
Spain had just the amount and kind of equipped for military duty. 



EVIEfT OF REVIEWS 

when cross-examined, tn favor of some kind 
of preparation for defending the country. 

g^^ But America, when at her best, 
miuiMra is a country of bold conceptions 
and large devices. We want a 
navy that wilt malce our pacifism respected 
and respectable. We do not intend to with- 
draw our young men from civil life or from 
industrial pursuits. A few weel:s or months 
of hard training for manly responsibilities 
will enormously enhance their economic effi- 
ciency. American military training can and 
must be of a different kind from that of Ger- 
many. But even the German system proba- 
bly pays for itself twice over in the improved 
health and capacity that the training gives 
to the average young man. The navy, with 
us, would require a longer and more special- 
ized training than the army; but we have 
in practise found it quite possible to give 
valuable experience to a large number of 
young men on a plan of short naval enlist- 
ments. As Mr. Maxim and the experts are 
constantly telling us, the wars of the future 
MR. EDISON ENTEWNG A suBMAKiNE LAST MONTH are to be increasingly dependent upon scien- 
tific and mechanical devices. There are 
firtt "^^ '"''^* immediate need, then, probably more than three million young men 
strtKBtiitit for the United States, is to put in the coimtry who can operate automobiles, 
'"" in good trim the navy that we and several million sufficiently accustomed to 

have, enlist enough additional seamen to man machinery to run stationary steam or ga&- 

the ships, and lean strongly and confidently engines. Many thousands of these, with 

upon the good faith and judgment of our brief training, could operate aeroplanes. 

best naval authorities in deciding just what 

our building program ought to be, in order 

to keep our naval power decidedly ahead of 

that of Germany and second only to that of 

Great Britain. It is time, in the early part 

of this year 1916, to malce several firm deci- 
sions, and one of these should be in favor of 

the President's program for naval expansion, 

modified and improved in its details, and 

decidedly emboldened in its scope by a study 

of the unabridged recommendations of the 

General Board of the Navy headed by Admi- 
ral Dewey. This periodical stands committed 

to that policy with firm conviction of its 

wisdom. An influential opponent and critic 

of the doctrine of preparedness as laid down 

in the President's message, when asked the 

other day what he would advocate if he were 

in Congress and debating this year's naval 

appropriation bill, said that he would favor 

the immediate building of forty submarines. 

It happens that he does not believe in dread- 
noughts. We cite this to show some of our 

doubting but sincere friends in the West 

that even the most extreme of the so-called ^ 

Eastern "pacifists" arc in most instances. From 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



^Vhen is now a definite movement !n favor 
of inaugurating a series of aeroplane postal 
routes, with a view to training and equip- 
ping men who could be available at once for 
military scout service in case of need. The 
dcvclt^mcnt of the aeroplane has been so 
rapid that such proposals as fhis of a postal 
service no longer seem farciful. So general 
is the American aptitude for mechanical 
things that countless thousands of youths 
could be taught the operation of such instru- 
ments as machine guns with little trouble. 
But harm would befall the country if this 
instruction were to be wholly deferred until 
after the outbreak of war. 

We have all of us, perhaps, spent 
Patiit time and breath enough in ex- 
*"" plaining to one another that we 
do not naturally like guns and other deadly 
instruments of war, and that all our predi- 
lections are for peace and a quiet life. Ex- 
planations and apologies are no longer 
needed. If this country is to endure, its citi- 
zens must make sacrifices for the public good. 
They must get their mental energies aroused, 
and learn to think about large matters in a 
decisive way. We have a hundred or a thou- 
sand petty communities trying through log- 
rolling methods to drive the American treas- 
urj' into squandering public money to give 
them each a post-office building, costing at 
least $100,000, when a small corner of the 
village drug store would amply provide for 
their post-office needs. Useless and expen- 
sive army posts have been maintained 
through a like insistence upon some supposed 
local benefit regardless of the larger public 
interest. • The proper concentration of naval 
stations has been prevented by senators and 
representatives whose tricky and selfish local- 
ism is in the moral sense treason against 
the nation. We have been building docks 
and spending money to please Local interests 
at ports which have little or no naval value, 
and lack depth of water for large vessels, 
Tlte country should demand open discussion 
and full information. 

It is charged that the interests 
Stff'mhin engaged in the private business 

of making. munitions and build- 
ing ships have selfishly created the agitation 
for preparedness, and that they, with the 
army and navy officers, use improper lobby 
influences at Washington. Even if this were 
true, such a lobby would find it very hard to 
ofiset the intense lobby pressure and log- 



UNCLE SAM : — "rob u 

THIMK OF 
From thi North / 



NOBODY WOULD 



1 (Phila 



rolling influences that 6ght against a sound 
navy, improved coast defenses, and a better 
supply of artillery and munitions, for the 
sole reason that they are intent upon getting 
money out of the Treasury for their own 
selfish projects that have little if any public 
merit. It is quite proper, as Senator Cum- 
mins and others propose, that Congress 
should provide for a much larger amount of 
direct CJovemment building of ships, and 
making of guns and ammunition. We must 
always guard against such improprieties as 
have been unearthed in Germany, France, Ja- 
pan, and other countries, in the relationship 
of governments to the private money-making 
business of munition-supply, known as the 
"armament trust," But we cannot now de- 
part from the plan of buying portions of our 
supplies from private manufacturers, or from 
building warships on contract with private 
shipyards. Honest contracts are not impossi- 
ble. 

national Peivor^^^'^^^ much we may deplore 
thifirtt the embarrassments that arise 
' from the vast trade in munitions, 

due to the European demand, we must ad- 
mit that the increased capacity of our fac- 
tories may prove to be a national asset in an 
hour of emergency. All supplies made by 



140 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



such establishments, that arc not actually de- failures, if the Democrats on their side will 
livered and out of reach, arc available for the but face frankly and honestly the facts as 
use of our own Government at any moment they arc to-day. They are to be commendeiJ 
when it might need them, regardless of for- for agreeing that the sugar tarifl is to be 
eign contracts. As for the army, it must be maintained. They ought to make it plain 
under full national control, and rest upon the that the sugar duty is to be undisturbed for 
principle of universal liability and training, a term of years. Justice to all interests af- 
Its present need of enlargement must be met fected would require such a decision or 
by a plan of short enlistments, with intensive understanding. There should be increased 
training for a few weeks or months, and with taxes on whiskey, beer, and tobacco. Some 
the remaining time on furlough, without re- «* the Democrats will hate to levy these 
enlistment. It seems to us that Secretary increases, but the opportunity and duty are 
Garrison's plan is part of a right scheme, but c'^ar. Beer and tobacco could be made to 
that it needs a bolder and more complete de- Pav a mu^n larger income to the Govem- 
velopment. Congress will do little or it will '"^xt. There are no better objects of taxa- 
do much, in accordance with the definiteness t'on than coflee and tea; and universal ex- 
and energy shown by the forces of public penence has shown that such taxes are 
opinion in States and Congressional districts, "^''y collated and have many pomts of ad- 
A wholly new kind of army is demanded. vantage. They would not fall heavily upon 
^ \^^^\^ niorc hot water v 



„ , A comprehensive program of de- tj>e tea and coffee would be salutary rather 
mtl, fense will be an investment for t^an harmful to users, and would completely 
r"«Mr„ which payment must be made P^V the tax. The suggestions in the Presi- 
not only in the form of a more unselfish <lent s message for a tax on gasoline and on 
devotion to public duty on th« part of all """" ="<' ^teel were not well considered, nor 
citizens, but also in the terms of money, were they of a kind regarded as practicable 
We must in this year 1916 face the problems W the world s authorities on the subject 
of national income and outgo. The politi- °^ taxation, 
cians at Washington have a very bad habit »t i ^ • 

of trying to treat such questions from the r««/« National defense is a niatter of 
party standpoint. Public opinion must do '^"Jf^^ universal concern. It should be 
what it can to correct that mischievous tend- ^^ P^"^ *or by widely diffused taxes, 

ency. Nobody can say exactly how the The present exemption line in the income- 
Underwood tariff would have operated in tax law ^ fixed at $4000 for a marned man 
normal times. The Republicans should be f"** *^?00 for an unmarried person. Before 
willing to give this Democratic tariff the increasing the rate levied upon incomes al- 
benefit of the war as an excuse for its revenue '^^dy taxed, the exemption line should be 
greatly lowered. If there is to be any in- 
come tax at all, every self-supporting citizen 
should pay something directly to his govern- 
ment, no matter how small the sum. To 
pay his one dollar per year of direct tax 
to the government that gives him his status 
at home and abroad as an American citizen 
would enhance the self-respect of every de"- 
cent wage-earner. A widely levied lax of 
this kind would make it all the easier to 
levy and collect surtaxes at high progressive 
rates on the incomes of millionaires. A pro- 
' gressive inheritance tax (what the English 
call "death duties") affords the best way 
to levy upon the great fortunes for the wel- 
fare of the country. Such a tax is much 
more equitable than our present form of 
income tax. The country is amply able to 
pay for whatever a proper system of national 
training and defense may cost. It will prob- 
THE nt.'M COAT OF ARMS ^^^ ^^ scvcrai months before Congress, in 

From the Wettd (Ntw York) the present session, will have reached final 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

,111 NEW YORK, FEBRUARY, 1916 



wanttd-Aii During the ycaTS 1914 and 1915, scheme does not contemplate individual fee- 

AnHritBB the American mind was more in- bleness of members of the league as a starting 

"*" ' tent upon the observation of af- point for protection against tiie aggression of 

fairs beyond our borders than upon condi- fhc strong. A peace league, for example, that 

tions and problems of our own. It was not should begin with a union of the United 

that we were free from troubles, or indiffer- States, China, Liberia, Cuba, Peru, and Siam, 

cnt to the affairs and concerns of the United could not do much to enforce peace in such 

States; but rather that the momentous hap- a world as the one in which we now live in 

penings elsewhere were seemingly of more the year 1916. If the United States is to be 

consequence to us than anything that we valuable as a member of a league for matn- 

could do or leave undone here at home. But taining peace, it must be able to use its latent 

the year 1916 calls for a new American atti- power in an efficient way. If this country 

tude. The time has come when the people cares profoundly for peace, it will make a 

of this country must arouse themselves, find great effort to find out what price it ought 

out where they stand, take on a resolute to pay and will then contribute its share 

mood, revive their convictions, and show promptly and cheerfully. 
their old-time courage and enthusiasm. 

America has been dazed, anxious, and deeply i„p„im ^ individual Americans, we are 
bewildered. We have taken counsel of tim- ^"'"'A "°^ warlike. Nor have we col- 
idity, and in consequence have been unable to '"' lectively any ambitions to be pro- 
do either the one thing or the other. It is moted by a resort to war. We are quite 
high time for open councils, frank expres- _____^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ 
sions, clean-cut performances. Let us fer- 
vently hope that we are to be spared the 
agony of warfare, as many other countries 
have experienced it, in the past year and a 
half. But let us cease to suppose that we can 
escape war by pursuing selfish or timid or 
ambiguous courses. 

ThiPriMaf ^^^^^ v/\th honor is worth a 

"/•toot aittn great price. It is worth as 
much to us Americans as indi- 
viduals as it is worth to the Swiss as individ- 
uals. Furthermore, American peace with 
honor is a blessing to be extended far beyond 
,Our own immediate shores. For if we arc 
resolute enough to protect our interests here 
at home, we shall by that same token save 
our neighbors in the development of order 
and prosperity, and help the world at large 
to establish a sane equilibrium. There has 
been much talk in this country of a league 

of the nations, which shall be prepared to use .^^ ^„^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^„^ sp,^„ ^p .jg,. 

force for the maintenance of peace. This From th* Tribuiu (Ntw York) 

CopyrithI, leifl, by The Review or Keviewi Cohfahv 131 



132 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVIEWS 

ready, as individuals and as a country, to feel stronger and safer, in a turbulent world, 
join any feasible plan of international union if the United States had a bigger and 
that would do away with wars, just as our stronger navy behind its policies for arbitra- 
federal union wholly removes the danger of tion and intematiOntil friendship, 
war between New York and Pennsylvania, 

or between California and Oregon. But j^„^ »„ Furthermore, all the peace-lov- 
therc is not at present any sanctuary of in- "oJJ*" '"S ^^^ peace-keeping coun- 
ternational union that we can enter, and " *" tries would feel that the world 
thereby find ourselves exempted from the was a safer one if each individual young 
further need of self -protection. If in point American were as well trained and 
of fact our union of States had not been equipped for defense as each individual young 
formed, in the latter part of the eighteenth Swiss or Australian. This is one of the - 
century, and if there had been intense and subjects about which, in the year 1916, 
bitter territorial disputes and rivalries hav- Americans must arouse themselves, and must 
ing to do with boundary lines and with face public duty. Our country is suffering 
claims for valuable Western lands, a New from ease and sloth, from pleasure-seeking 
York wholly unarmed might not have been and greed. It has taken some time for many 
safe against a Vermont or a Connecticut good and wise people to discover the path of 
thoroughly militarized and desperately in peace, safety and honor. A year ago the 
earnest. With the union established, a hap- President of the United States was advising 
pier and wiser way was found and employed the country not to change its defensive meth- 
to settle all differences. At present our de- ods and policies. This year he is demanding 
sire to maintain our own peace and to aid in of the people, with all possible urgency, that 
securing and establishing the peace of the they radically enlarge their standing army. 
Western Hemisphere and of the world at create a large new army of a different char- 
large, can have weight and influence only acter to be called the Continentals, enlarge 
through our methods and policies as an or- the navy, and, in short, enter upon a program 
ganized, sovereign nation. of preparedness that will call for an expendi- 

ture of not less than a billion dollars within 
Frundt Ota ^^' t^c''*^f°r«' w^c respca our- a very brief term of years. 
stroKt selves, and if we appreciate the 
Amtrica advantages that we have long 
enjoyed, we will do unto others as we would 
wish to have them do to us in like circum- 
stances. Let us, for instance, ask this very 
simple question: What countries, to-day, 
would be glad to see the people of the United 
States able to protect themselves against any 
possible attack, and able to enforce peaceful 
measures in the regions where the United 
States ought to exercise the leading influ- 
ence? The people of the following states 
would undoubtedly like to have the United 
Slates very strong and well prepared for the 
defense of her own territories and for the 
encouragement of right and justice in the 
world: Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, 
Denmark. Norway, Sweden, China, Canada, 
the Australian Commonwealth, the South 
African Union, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, 
Cuba, and most of the other Latin American 
republics, and probably Spain. The coun- 
tries that we have named do not want any- 
thing that they do not already possess, and 
have no aggressive designs or purposes. Since 
the people of those countries are well aware ' 
that the people of the United States have ilw. 
also no aggressive purposes, they would all 







THE INTESNATIONAL 1 


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t CChicacol 





THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 




"HE COMMrnCE ON MILITARY AFFAIRS. OF THE HOLSE OF REPRESEHTATIVES. NOV ENCAGED IN CONSIDER- 
ING T>1E PROBLEMS OF ARMY EXTENSION 

(Seated, from left to rigbt: Juliu) Kahn. of California; A. C. Shallenberger. of Nebraslia; William Gordon, 
of Ohio; K. D. McKeller, of Tenne«3«: G. H. Dent. Jr., of Alabama: Iflrtws Hay, of Virginia, Chairman; 
William J. Fielda. of Kentucky: Percy E. Quin, of Misa.ssippi; Adam E. Littlepage, of Weit Virpnia: Samuel 
J. Nichola, of South Carolina; Richard Olniy, of Maraachuielts; Hatry E. Hulf of Iowa. Slanding. from left 
to right: J. C. McKcmic, of Illinois; John C. Tilson, of Connecticut; John M. Morin, of Pennsylvania ; Ed- 
ward W. Carpenter, clerk; D. R. Anihony, Jr.. of Kansas; Frank U Greene, of Vermonl) 

7*« Fruidtirt ^"^ President Wilson therefore Upon cross-examination, it ap- 

_onrf**»^_ become a belligerent person, and a Pmptr ' pears that many of the Presi- 
/^ifitf" j^ ^^ ^^^ recreant to the cause "" dent's opponents are willing to 

that the pacifists have at heart? There continue maintaining our present army and 
are, indeed, those assuming to represent the navy strength. Further inquiry brinp to 
"friends of peace," that speak of the Presi- light the fact that they regard our existing 
dent as a renegade who has gone over to the naval strength as very great, and perhaps 
evil cause of the militarists and the lovers of second only to that of Great Britain. It fol- 
war. Altogether too much respect has been lows, then, that they are prepared to hold 
accorded to the people who have been making that the United States should have a navy, 
such attacks upon the President. Most of and that this navy should be a powerful one. 
them are not sound thinkers, and a good It becomes merely a question of expert opin- 
many of them are either tacking in sincerity ion as to what constitutes a proper navy at 
or else arc slow to understand what the coun- this time. President Wilson now believes 
try is talking about. There are, indeed, some that the navy should be very considerably de- 
who have the courage of their convictions, veloped, and in this view he is sustained by 
and who would disband our existing army, his entire cabinet, by every one connected 
turn West Point into a sanitarium, sell our with the army and navy, and by almost every 
present navy for junk, and put the nation, as civilian whose study of the subject would 
respects army and navy, in exactly the same seem to justify an expression of opinion, 
position that one of our individual States Ever since he has been in ofEce, President 
holds. But these consistent believers in the Wilson has regarded the maintenance of hon- 
doctrine of non-resistance are in point of orable peace as the highest duty with which 
fact very few. The great majority of the he was charged. Surely there is no one who 
writers and speakers who denounce the Ad- would for a moment deliberately question so 
ministration plan and all other plans for giv- obviously just a statement. The same thing 
ing the country a better preparation to de- could be said with equal truth of President 
fend itself, resort to denunciation and dis- Taft, President Roosevelt, President McKin- 
paragement, without defining their own posi- ley, President Cleveland, and their predeces- 
tions or trying to do any justice to the argu- sors. A year ago, when he did not think it 
ments of those whom they call "militarists." wise to press for immediate army and navy; 



134 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OP REVIEWS 

extension, President Wilson had the welfare be more valuable to five million young Anacr- 
and peace of this country in mind, precisely icans than to give them such a training for a 
. as he has them in mind to-day when he ac- period of from four weeks to twelve weeks, 
cepts the view that we ought to provide more AH the cost of the process would be promptly 
adequately for national defense. repaid in the increased personal efKciency of 

the men thus trained. 
' DittiBiio* Conditions in the world have 

«w an changed, and the arguments for ^^^ We have — as this Review has 

increasing the navy and eiilarg- unnmiid previously shown — more than 
ing the army have become more clear and "»r*i"<itii f^^^ important institutions lo- 
definite. How to' work it all out is the real cated in all of the forty-eight States, that are 
question ; and to this point Congress should each year receiving large sums of money from 
devote itself in a spirit above partisanship, the United States Government on condition 
The present police force of New York City that they give military instruction in addi- 
numbers nearly 11,000 men. Secretary Gar- tion to the obligatory courses in agriculture 
rison has shown us that the entire army of and mechanic arts. No other country has 
the United States available for movement to such a training system ready at hand. There 
a point of danger is less than three times the are probably more than thirty thousand 
number of New York's policemen. Many young men attending these institutions in any 
citizens might well wish that the metropolis g'vcn year. In some of them the military 
could get along without paying the salaries training is intelligent and valuable. In others 
of so many policemen. But when a police '* '* perfunctory and of relatively slight im- 
force is rightly trained and managed, it is a portance. The strictest possible inquiry 
source of great benefit and advantage to the should be made, and Congress should cut off 
community. It is possible to have a compar- ^^^ appropriations for any one of these col- 
atively large army, so disciplined, trained, ^^&^ '*'*': ^°^ ""' ^™^ '^ military train- 
and managed as to be in many ways a benefit '"£ up to a point of efficiency that is fully 
to the country. We would like to have every ahreast of the work of thfr insfitUti^p in 
reader turn to page 225 of this number of °^'^" departments. The great value of West 
the Review, and note attentively our sum- ^"'"^ ^'^ Annapolis does not lie so much 
mary of the exoeri- !" *"= ^^"f?. caching of the art of war as 
, in the discipline and training of young men 
for the service of the country. The chief 
J lack in most of our colleges and higher in- 
^ stitutions at the present time is in their fail- 
. ure to bring out the highest possibilities of 
' each individual young man. There are many 
J students who would surely show great de- 
velopment of character and' of power if a 
more definite appeal were made to the mo- 
tive of efficient service as citizens. 

i>«.»«. i»*rt?" Switzerland, military tratn- 
waAinadii ing IS not for the purpose of crc- 
"** ating a fighting machine to be 
used in furtherance of some mysterious and 
dangerous policy of a^ressive empire. Its 
object, rather, is to make brave and coura- 
geous citizens, equal to all the duties of a 
democratic society, and capable of defending 
their liberties and their homes with robust 
vigor and a fine sense of preparedness and 
efficiency. There is no other country in the 
world, as we have said, that has easily avail- 
able such an opportunity as the tJnitcd 
States possesses to create a system of military 
^p training that will make better and more re- 
sponsible citizens, that will purify our poll- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



PROMINENT MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN DEFENSE SOCIETY. IN CWIFERENCE AT NEW YORK CITY 

^Seated, from left tg righl, are: Leslie J. Tomkios. Ur. David JBvne Hill, [former Ambaiiador to Germany], 

and C. S, Thompflon. Standing, from left lo right, are: Dr. Ltt De Foreit, ClevtUnd Moffetl, Julian Slreet, 

R. J. Emmeit, Cuihing Sletson. John Flavel Hubbard, Capl. Liwrence Angel, I). S. A. retired, Joseph H. Goit, 

Paul ThompMn, and Henry Reulerdahl) .IV. 

tics, that will democratize our communities, ceiving Government aid, we have a great 
and that will strengthen our agriculture and number of secondary schools, mostly under 
industry. We do not have to begin by in- private control, organized on the military 
venting something wholly new and untried, plan, and already recognized by the War Dc- 
We can go very "far by improving and devel- partment. Some way could be found to give 
oping what we already have. This system such institutions a modest amount of practi- 
of higher institutions in which we already cal Government aid. There would still rc- 
give compulsory military training under di- main several hundred institutions of higher 
rection of tht United States Government, grade which could properly find ways to 
affords an incomparable means of providing make their students efficient in forms of pub- 
inferior officers for a vast body of militia or lie service among which would be included 
citizen soldiery. military defense. Perhaps a second institution 

similar to West Point should be developed 
Qa/itgt, Each one of these institutions at some point in the interior. Meanwhile, 
for Puwa could be rapidly transformed for with an increase of instructors and facili- 
'""" purposes of military prepared- ties, it would be possible to train from three 
ness, and made a sort of university extension to four times as many young men at West 
center in its own State for the training camps Point as are now numbered in the corps 
that should be almost universally patronized of cadets. A similar remark would apply 
by young men. A great part of this work to Annapolis. All of our higher education 
could be accomplished through the money should include some kind of training for 
already appropriated from year to year by .public service. President Lowell, of Har- 
thc United States Government for these in- vard, in his latest yearly report, shows iii 
stitutions. Besides the colleges already re- definite ways just how this can be done. 



136 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVIEWS 

Our Pr— ^* people of the United States, 
*a*M in the national sense, are high 

*"«""» spirited and quickly aroused. 
They live upon ncw^apcrs; and the Ameri- 
can press is the most alannist and sensational 
of which the mind of man could possibly 
conceive. Without any cause whatever for 
going to war, various American newspapers 
have — almost every week for a year past — 
found some pretext for lashing the American 
public up to the point of imagining that we 
had some kind of duty impelling us to make 
war upon Germany, or England, or Austria, 
or Mexico, or Japan, or Turkey. The serv- 
ants of the press at Washington, taking their 
cue from officialdom, have on perhaps a hun- 
dred different occasions flashed the news 
across the country that those sitting in the 
seats of power regarded "the situation" as 
being "very grave," or else "extremely criti- 
cal," And we have been assured that war or 

P-on."" W*Z YN^^Vort) P^"". *«'' ''"' P"P'^ "^ ^^'^ ^"'"='^ States was 

" "' "' hanging upon the turn of a phrase in diplo- 

—, matic polemics. If the foreign ministers 

ft./-. These suggestions may not seem ^„^|y „y ^^ey "regret," we have got to 
*."«/« *° ^PP'y specifically to the pend- have a war ; but if they will only say they 

mg discussion at Washmgton. "disavow," then we may have peace, and 
They are not so intended. Our desire is ^^ ^i,out our daily business as usual. If 
to help form a public opinion m the country ^ ^^^ military chieftain will exchange 
that wdl, in Its turn, give proper encour- ^^^^ ;„ ^ particular way, then we keep 
agement to the lawmakers at Washmgton (he peace, though still watching and wait- 
m their endeavor to meet the country s de- ;„£. but if he has the notion that the ex- 
mands and needs. We had all ardently ^y^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^e form of alternate guns, 
hoped that the twentieth century was to (hen we arc on the verge of a vast and 
bring us an era of peace and disarmament. ijioQJy war. 
Thousands of the wisest and best men in 

the country fully believed, in the decade ^<^ 1 

preceding 1860, that the American Civil i^^^"^- . _i ov«,V»»! | 

War could be averted and that the dis- 
putes touching slavery. States' rights, and 
Western settlement could be compromised 
and lived down. But history seems obstinately 
to move in directions contrary to the course 
of our righteous desires. We do not, in- 
deed, live in a world that is hopelessly vi- 
cious and savage, but rather in a world 
that is disorganized, and that is undergoing 
violent convulsions that are likely to last 
for some time to come. It is with extreme 
reluctance that many of us have had to give 
up the idea that the quiet and contented 
peoples of the world need not arm them- 
selves for protection against the abnormal, 
insatiate activities of the empires whose final 
appeal is to the law of force. But there must 
be rallying points for the support of civiliza- 
tion ; and until the nations organize and 
swear allegiance to a federation of mankind, 
we must be on guard. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 137 

(Uo/rxipva ^-^ ^"^y citizen with a capacity 
Watts* for analysis sift out for himself 

''™""" the essentials of all that we have 
been passing through. We have issued sev- 
eral notices to Mexico that European pow- 
ers would have regarded as the kind of ulti- 
matum that means war. V^ have called 
at least four great European powers to 
account for what we pronounce to be grave 
violation of our rights. Other unarmed and 
helpless countries have been suffering far 
worse indignities and wrongs than those of 
which we have been complaining with our 
sharp and threatening challenges; but these 
other countries, recognizing their own fee- 
bleness, have said nothing at all or else 
spoken very softly. China has no developed 
public opinion; and many wrongs might 
be perpetrated against Chinese sovereignty 
or territorial integrity without its becom- 
ing known to the majority of Chinamen. 
But everybody knows the news in this coun- 
try; and sentiment flares up from Maine to 
California with all the swifmess of elec- 
tricity and modem printing presses. Con- nrnnna the lightning 

siderations of prudence, on the ground of <A typical newspaper challenge. inciUag to war) 

our not being prepared, will never induce F""° ">« Chronku (San Francuco) 
the American people to condone injustice or 

submit to indignities. We are therefore armament to get her into trouble. She would 
in a great deal of practical danger of getting have been relatively safe with much less 
into a war unless the rest of the world forth- navy or with considerably more, 
with abandons violent practices and sedu- 
lously adtivates our good will. Henanj-t Holland holds Java and her 
Swimf other outlying possessions, and 

American human nature is as maintains an important overseas 

Cmfit it iS" snd the turbulent Condi- trade, with a navy of very moderate dimen- 

tions of Europe, Asia, and parts sions that ranks perhaps twelfth among the 

of Africa and America, are obvious to every nations. She has some submarines, and will 

intelligent observer. Advocates of prepared- increase the number of her destroyers and 

ncss, like Mr. Hudson Maxim, have shown smaller protective craft She has also an 

that we shall be merely exposing our na- efRcient army, based upon the principle of 

tional pride to humiliation, and subjecting conscription or compulsory service. The or- 

■ our sons to cruel massacre, if we are so stupid dinary field force of the Netherlands army 

as to remain in the irritating position of being amounts to about 130,000 men, while in 

just a little prepared instead of being well the various reserves there are perhaps 300,- 

prepared. As things stand, we have navy 000 more. Holland has six million people, 

and army enough to get us into a bad scrape, as against our one hundred million, and is 

but not enough to bring us creditably out not a warlike or militarized nation. But 

of trouble. If Spain had been virtually she could put 400,000 men into active serv- 

without a navy, she would have avoided the ice more readily than we could mobilize ' 

war with us in 1898, would have negotiated one-fourth as many, utilizing our National 

for evacuation of Cuba, and would have Guard and other possible sources of supply. 

kept the Philippines. If, on the other hand, If we were as well prepared relatively as 

Admiral Cervera had crossed the Atlantic Switzerland or Holland t defend our homes, 

with a somewhat larger fleet, that had been — ^whilc continuing to stand with them, as we 

efficiently maintained, the Spaniards could now do, for the principles of justice, honor, 

not only have kept Cuba but could have and civilization in the world, — ^wc should 

exacted tribute from New York and Boston, have at least six million men trained and 

Spain had just the amount and kind of equipped for military duty. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 




Firit, "^^ most immediate need, then, 
nnnptftwi for the United States, is to put 

have, enlist enough additional seamen to man 
the ships, and lean strongly and confidently 
upon the good faith and judgment of our 
best naval authorities in deciding just what 
our building program ought to be, in order 
to keep our naval power decidedly ahead of 
that of Germany and second only to that of 
Great Britain. It is time, in the early part 
of this year 1916, to make several firm deci- 
sions, and one of these should be in favor of 
the President's program for naval expansion, 
modified and improved in its details, and 
decidedly emboldened in its scope by a study 
of the unabridged recommendations of the. 
General Board of the Navy headed by Admi- 
ral Dewey. This periodical stands committed 
to that policy with firm conviction of its 
wisdom. An influential opponent and critic 
of the doctrine of preparedness as laid down 
in the President's message, when asked the 
other day what he would advocate if he were 
in Congress and debating this year's naval 
appropriation bill, said that he would favor 
the immediate building of forty submarines. 
It happens that he does not believe in dread* 
noughts. We cite this to show some of our 
doubting but sincere friends in the West 
that even the most extreme of the so-called 
Eastern "pacifists" are in most instances. 



when cross-examined, in favor of some kind 
of preparation for defending the country. 

g^ But America, when at her best, 
fioMAr* is a country of bold conceptions 
and large devices. We want a 
navy that wiR make our pacifism respected 
and respectable. We do not intend to with- 
draw our young men from civil life or from 
industrial pursuits. A few weeks or months 
of hard training for manly re^onsibilitics 
will enormously enhance their economic effi- 
ciency. American military training can and 
must be of a different kind from that of Ger- 
many. But even the German system proba- 
bly pays for itself twice over in the improved 
health and capacity that the training gives 
to the average young man. The navy, with 
us, would require a longer and more special- 
ized training than the army; but we have 
in practise found it quite possible to give 
valuable experience to a large number of 
young men on a plan of short naval enlist- 
ments. As Mr. Maxim and the experts arc 
constantly telling us, the wars of the future 
are to be increasingly dependent upon scien- 
tific and mechanical devices. There are 
probably more than three million young men 
in the country who can operate automobiles, 
and several million sufficiently accustomed to 
machinery to run stationary steam or gas- 
engines. Many thousands of these, with 
brief training, could operate aeroplanes. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



Tliere is now a definite movement in favor 
of inaugurating a series of aeroplane postal 
routes, with a view to training and equip- 
ping men who could be available at once for 
military scout service in case of need. The 
development of the aeroplane has been so 
rapid that such proposals as fhis of a postal 
service no longer seem fanciful. So general 
is the American aptitude for mechanical 
things that countless thousands of youths 
could be taught the operation of such instru- 
ments as machine guns with little trouble. 
But harm would befall the country if this 
instruction were to be wholly deferred until 
after the outbreak of war. 

We have all of us, perhaps, spent 
Paiih time and breath enough in ex- 
*""" plaining to one another that we 
do not naturally like guns and other deadly 
instruments of war, and that all our predi- 
lections are for peace and a quiet life. Ex- 
planations and apologies are no longer 
needed. If this country is to endure, its citi- 
zens must make sacrifices for the public good. 
They must get their mental energies aroused, 
and learn to think about large matters in a 
decisive way. We have a hundred or a thou- 
sand petty communities trying through log- 
rolling methods to drive the American treas- 
ury into squandering public money to give 
them each a post-office building, costing at 
least $100,000, when a small corner of the 
village drug store would amply provide for 
their post-office needs. Useless and expen- 
sive army posts have been maintained 
through a like insistence upon some supposed 
local benefit regardless of the larger public 
interest. The proper concentration of naval 
stations has been prevented by senators and 
representatives whose tricky and selfish local- 
ism is in the moral sense treason against 
the nation. We have been building docks 
_and spending money to please local interests 
at ports which have little or no naval value, 
and lack depth of water for large vessels. 
The country should demand open discussion 
and full information. 

It is charged that the interests 
M/HH^ar* engaged in the private business 

of making munitions and build- 
ing ships have selfishly created the agitation 
for preparedness, and that they, with the 
army and navy officers, use improper lobby 
influences at Washington. Even if this were 
true, such a lobby would find it very hard to 
ofiset the intense lobby pressure and log- 



UNCLE SAM : — ROB ME? WHY NOBODY WOULD 

THINK OF SUCH A THING?" 

From tbe Norlh Amirican (Philadelphia) 

rolling influences that fight against a sound 
navy, improved coast defenses, and a better 
supply of artillery and munitions, for the 
sole reason that they are intent upon getting 
money out of the Treasury for their own 
selfish projects that have little if any public 
merit. It is quite proper, as Senator Cum- 
mins and others propose, that Congress 
should provide for a much larger amount of 
direct Government building of ships, and 
making of guns and ammunition. We must 
always guard against such improprieties as 
have been unearthed in Germany, France, Ja- 
pan, and other countries, in the relationship 
of governments to the private money-making 
business of munition -supply, known as the 
"armament trust." But we cannot now de- 
part from the plan of buying portions of our 
supplies from private manufacturers, or from 
building warships on contract with private 
shipyards. Honest contracts are not impossi- 
ble. 

u-, , ». However much we may deplore 
thtfirit the embarrassments that arise 
*"' from the vast trade in munitions, 
due to the European demand, we must ad- 
mit that the increased capacity of our fac- 
tories may prove to be a national asset in an 
hour of emergency. All supplies made by 



140 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVIEWS 

such establishments, that are not actually de- failures, if the Democrats on their side will 
livercd and out of reach, are available for the but face frankly and honestly the facts as 
use of our own Government at any moment they are to-day. They are to be commended 
when it might need them, regardless of for- for agreeing that the sugar tariff is to be 
eign contracts. As for the army, it must be maintained. They ought to make it plain 
under full national control, and rest upon the that the sugar duty is to be undisturbed for 
principle of universal liability and training, a term of years. Justice to all interests af- 
Its present need of enlargement must be met fected would require such a decision or 
by a plan of short enlistments, with intensive understanding. There should be increased 
training for a few weeks or months, and with taxes on whiskey, beer, and tobacco. Some 
the remaining time on furlough, without re- of the Democrats will hate to levy these 
enlistment. It seems to us that Secretary increases, but the opportunity and duty are 
Garrison's plan is part of a right scheme, but -^lear. Beer and tobacco could be made to 
that it needs a bolder and more complete de- Pay a much larger income to the Govcrn- 
velopment. Congress will do little or it will '"''"t. There are no better objects of taxa- 
do much, in accordance with the definiteness tion than coffee and tea; and universal ex- 
and energj- shown by the forces of public Penence has shown that such taxes arc 
opinion in States and Congressional districts, "sily collected and have many points of ad- 
A wholly new kind of army is demanded. vantage. They would not fall heavily upon 
any consumers. A little more hot water in 
„ , A comprehensive program of de- the tea and coffee would be salutary rather 
m"*" fense will be an investment for than harmful to users, and would completely 
"*"*"• which payment must be made pay the tax. The suggestions in the Presi- 
not only in the form of a more unselfish ?e"ts message for a tax on gasoline and on 
devotion to public duty on the part of all "■<>" aiid steel were not wc I considered, nor 
citizens, but also in the terms of money, were they of a kind regarded as practicable 
We must in this year 1916 face the problems ^y the worlds authoriaes on the subject 
of national income and outgo. The politi- ^^ taxation, 
cians at Washington have a very bad habit vi ■ i . / 

of trying to treat such questions from the t,^mm J^Stiona defense is a matter of 
party standpoint. Public opinion must do ^JS;" f universal concern. It should be 
what it can to correct that mischievous tend- ^, P^'*" *<"' I'V widely diffused taxes, 

ency. Nobody can say exactly how the The present exemption line in the income- 
Underwood tariff would have operated in ''^ '^^L^ ^'^'^ " $4000 for a marncd man 
normal times. The Republicans should be ?"d S^OOO for an unmarried person. Before 
willing to give this Democratic tariff the ^creasing the rate levied upon incomes al- 
benefit of the war as an excuse for its revenue ready taxed, the exemption line should be 
greatly lowered. If there is to be any in- 
come tax at all, every self-supporting citizen 
should pay something directly to his govern- 
ment, no matter how small the sum. To 
pay his one dollar per year of direct tax 
to the government that gives him his status 
at home and abroad as an American citizen 
would enhance the self-respect of every de- 
cent wage-earner. A widely levied tax of 
this kind would make it all the easier to 
levy and collect surtaxes at high progressive 
rates on the incomes of millionaires. A pro- 
gressive inheritance tax (what the English 
call "death duties") affords the best way 
to levy upon the great fortunes for the wel- 
fare of the country. Such a tax is much 
more equitable than our present form of 
income tax. The country is amply able to 
pay for whatever a proper system of national 
training and defense may cost. It will prob- 
THE NEW COAT OF ARMS "bly be scvctal months before Congress, in 

From the iCar/tJ (New York) the present session, will have reached final 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 

dedsicHU upon a naval program, an army 
plan, and measures for increasing 'the na- 
tional revenue. In our opinion it would 
be best to provide for a loan of a billion 
dollars to meet the immediate cost of a com- 
prehensive system of national defense. Such 
an expenditure now might save us from an 
outlay of many times that sum in the future 
We arc not only short of trained men, but 
also of rifles and all the materials that de- 
fense would require. 

Pemm In Unfortunately, the decision of 
aPntutntiai all these pressing questions at 
*" Washington this year is sadly 
mixed up with the wretched game of party 
- politics in a Presidential year. We have 
many ver>- good and intelligent men in public 
life, who are driven to commit follies, if not 
crimes, for the sake of a supposed advantage 
to the Democratic or the Republican party. 
There b no single device that will deliver 
us as if by magic from the evils of our politi- 
cal systtm. But we can make some progress 
if we analyze situations, and tell the truth 
without fear. The unfortunate political sit- 
uation in 1912 was created by the use of augurated, expressing his views upon this 
the vast power and patronage of the Presi- question. Evidently Mr. Wilson had never 
dential o^cc, in order to bring about a fur- intended to pay any regard to the plank in 
ther term of power for those who were the platform, in so far as any renunciation 
carrying on the government. The barest on his part might have been expected. He 
recital of facts would fill several volumes, proposed to leave everything to "public opin- 
The Republicans thoroughly deserved defeat, ion." The plank had placed the Democratic 
and the Democrats were entitled to the plu- party before the country as committed to 
rality that gave them power. Every clear- two things: First, not to renominate a Demo- 
seeing and honest Democrat, looking on at cratic President for a second consecutive 
the wreck^e of the Republican party, re- term. Second, to submit to the States a 
alized as never before the appalling harm constitutional amendment, 
that results from the use of official power 

by incumbents in their determined effort to ^^ ^^^^^ The proposed amendment was 
keep control of the Government. Thus the '(. a actually passed through the Sen- 

Democrats went to Baltimore and made their """'"o" ^tg j^^j three years ago; but the 
platform before they had nominated a ticket. Democrats have never allowed it to come 
in order that they might pledge themselves up in the House of Representatives, and the 
to a angle term on principle, and without press now asserts that the Administration 
seeming to have any particular man in mind, itself has been solely responsible for prevent- 
ing consideration of the subject. It is now 
jf^ They declared themselves in fa- known definitely that Mr. Wilson is to be 
«MMd-(»rat vor of a single term, advocated a candidate for renonunation, because con- 
'"^ legal action to that effect, and sent has been given to the necessary filing 
committed their candidate to the principle, of nomination papers in Indiana for the 
Mr. Bryan, who dominated the convention, presidential primary election that occurs on 
had undoubtedly been influential in shaping Tuesday, March 7. No other Democratic 
the platform. He had always, when himself candidate has appeared, and it is to be as- 
the Democratic nmninee, declared that if sumed that Mr. Wilson will be nominated 
elected he would serve for only one term, without opposition. It will be for the coun- 
There was published last month an elaborate try to decide, next November, whether it 
letter that had been written by Mr. Wilson will continue Mr. Wilson in power for an- 
after he was elected, but before he was in- other four years, or choose another man. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEK'S 



man in liii place ciuied > great ilorni of ] 
moDtti) 

But it is always regrettable when the pubh'c 
duties of the Presidency arc exercised for 
personal or partisan reasons; and the almost 
inevitable tendency, during the year before 
a Presidential election, is to use public power 
for political ends, if the incumbent seeks 
reelection. 

At the moment when Mr. Wil- 
JovoMiMrt son's letter on the second term 
appeared, the New York post- 
mastership was under discussion. Tl^ere is 
no civilized country on earth besides our 
own in which the removal of Postmaster 
Morgan, of New York City, would have 
been possible under the circumstances. We 
do not happen to know whether Mr. Mor- 
gan is a Democrat or a Republican. What 
we do know is that he had come up by pro- 
motion from lower places in the postal serv- 
ice at New York, and was holding his im- 
portant office upon pure merit as an official. 
His efficiency and good conduct were un-^ 
questioned. His retention was desired by 
all the business interests, not in order to keep 
somebody else out of the place, but to avoid 
the calamity of throwing what is perhaps 
the most important Federal office in the 
country, outside of Washington, into the 
trough of spoils politics. It was a question 
between the people of New York, — including 



Mr. Wilson's real friends, like Mayor 
Mitchel, on the one hand, — and die political 
demands of Tammany Hall on the other. 
It was, however, declared from Washington 
that Morgan must go, and that a new man 
agreeable to Tammany must have the job. 
Protests were intense, but unavailing. The 
struggle lasted for weeks. It was finally 
announced, on January IS, that the appoint- 
ment would go to Mr. Joseph Johnson, Jr. 
On that date Mr. Oswald Garrison Villard, 
head of the New York Evening Pott and 
Mr. Wilson's foremost newspaper supporter 
in New York, telegraphed from Washington 
to his paper in New York as follows: 

It is not impoiiible that the President'* setec- 

tion of Joseph John ion » Poitm aster of New 

York will prove to be a turning point in hi« 

career. Beyond doubt it is the worst blow thit 

baa been struck at his Administration, and all the 

sadder since it is self-inflicted. Well may hi» 

enemies exuli to-day and his friends hang their 

heads i for it is bound to be accepted (hroughout 

the country as an abject surrender to Tammany, 

. as a deliberate sinning against the whole spirit 

■ of civil service reform of which he was once an 

; advocate, besides a calculated flaunting of the 

'. imperial ciiy of America. 

We are not discussing this ques- 
Laretr tion from the standpoint of Mr. 
CxMtrw) Johnson, or even from that of 
the New York post-office. We have no fault 
to find with Mr. Johnson, and sincerely htq>c 
he may prove to be just as good a postmaster 
as his predecessor. It is from the standpoint 
of second-term' Presidential politics that this 
matter will chiefly concern the country. 
There is nobody who believes that Mr, Mor- 
gan is to go for the welfare of the postal 
service, or that Mr. Johnson was selected 
because he was believed to be the most highly 
qualified man who could be secured to ad- 
minister an office that concerns not only the 
great metropolis hut the entire country as 
well. It may not be true that this change was 
made for political reasons in view of the 
need of conciliating Tammany in a Presi- 
dential year. But everybody seems to have 
thought so; and it is well to avoid the ap- 
pearance of evil. The general opinion in 
Washington and New York was that the 
political motive, rather than the motive of 
good administration, was dominant. Suc- 
cess for Mr. Wilson can come only by taking 
the opposite course. No one has seen more 
clearly than Mr. Wilson the harm, from all 
standpoints, that resulted when his predeces- 
sors in office yielded to bad advice and used 
the appointing power for party ends rather 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 143 

than for the strengthening of the civil service ^^ ^^ ^^^ The Republicans have been at 

on strict lines of merit. Hoptfui the public trough so much more 

Republicans j ^.^^jy ^j^^^ ^^^ Efemocrats since 

^^ The worst thing about it all is 1860 that the only wonder is how well Mr. 

OBTworifd that the man whom we elect to Wilson has succeeded in restraining the 

^"'^^ handle our delicate diplomatic greed of* his clamoring party supporters, 
problems, virtually deciding the issues of war Both parties would do well this year to take 
and peace; whom v/e also elect to be official high grounds on all such questions in their 
head of our army and navy; and who formu- platforms. The country wants Mr. Wilson 
lates our policies of finance and legislation, — to do as well in office as he used to imagine 
^ould, in the very thick of momentous issues himself doing when he was free to indulge his 
far too great for the strength and intelligence views and ideals. He can hold the Demo- 
of any one man, be bothered for weeks over cratic party behind him best by forgetting 
appointment of a postmaster for a town that the party and completely serving the country, 
already has a satisfactory postmaster who As for the Republicans in their new-found 
ought to be kept on the job. The thing is hope and pride, they have not the ghost of a 
exasperating enough to be dealt with very chance to succeed against Mr. Wilson in the 
plainly. Mr. Wilson's distinguished prede- election this year on the terms or the basis of 
cesser, with two successive Secretaries to the the men who managed their campaign in 
President, aided by the Vice-President, the 1912. The country estimates Republican or- 
Postmaster-General, a Senator or two, and ganization politics at exactly its true value, 
other men of official prominence, gave more which is low. There is even now more un- 
time to the question who should or should selfish patriotism and genuine desire for the 
not be postmaster in the village of Dobbs country's welfare on the part of the ruling 
Ferry, N. Y., than to some of the great Democratic host than has been conceived of 
problems of state such as deserve the sole at- by certain gentlemen who are planning to 
tention of the President. We are criticizing dominate the Republican convention when it 
the system, not the men concerned. Until meets on June 7 at Chicago. But there are 
the merit system is more completely estab- many men of enlightenment in the Republi- 
lished in this country, there will be strong can party. The "rank and file" are far 
arguments in favor oif single terms for the above the bosses and spokesmen. Some- 
man who holds the power of patronage in thing may even yet happen that will bring 
his hands. Mr. Wilson is not a spoilsman, the best brains and character of that party 
and can state well the reasons that control to the front, and enable it to go before the 
his public actions. country clothed in new garments of honor 

and sincerity. 

g^^^ But he IS a party man; believes 

for Partg in government by and through _, ., Let us mere voters and private 

Union • i i i i i^ Finding a * , i « i /^ i^ 

party; aims to hold the Demo- strong persons hope that both of these 

cratic party together for the sake of having Oppoamon hj^^Qj-jc political societies may 

an efficient instrument through which to be at their best, and may present to us in 

carry out his policies and serve the country ; their platforms and candidates what we may 

and indulges the party leaders in their appe- gladly declare to represent good alternatives 

tite for spoils just enough to keep them un- rather than bad. It is significant that the 

dcr control and willing to support his meas- Republicans and Progressives are to hold 

urcs in Congress. The Presidency, under their conventions at the same time and place, 

our Constitution, however, does not lend it- — ^namely, Chicago, June 7. Unquestionably 

self very well to the kind of party leadership they have it in mind to find a basis of com- 

that goes with the headship of administration mon action. They can doubtless agree upon 

under the English system. Furthermore, let measures of national defense, and upon the 

it be remembered that there is no grabbing tariff and financial questions. The man 

for spoils in England, and that postmaster- most talked about as head of the ticket is 

ships are not affected by the ups and downs Justice Charles E. Hughes, of the Supreme 

of national parties. It is enough for the Couft, formerly Governor of New York. 

President of the United States to have cabi- As we have stated heretofore. Justice Hughes 

net officers and judges to appoint. Post- could not be put in the position of an aspi- 

masters ought to be made and unmade in a rant, nor publicly cross-examined in advance. 

difiFerent fashion. The patronage and power The conventions at Chicago would have to 

of the Presidential office are dangerous. offer him the nomination and then give him 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



an opportunity to accept or decline. Senator 
Cummins in the West and Mr. Root in the 
East are still much spoken of. But those 
' who mention Mr. Root have chiefly in mind 
the conduct of our foreign affairs, and it is 
conceded on all hands that any Republican 
President, whether from the East or from 
the West, or whether known as conservative 
or progressive, would urgently request Mr. 
Root to take the portfolio of State. 

Behind the scenes, the Repub- 
itttirn licans talk of a possible cabinet 
matMOfto ^^ distinguished men, some of 
whom are now mentioned in the list of pos- 
sible candidates for the Preridcncy. The 
political influence of Mr. Roosevelt bids fair 
to be almost if not quite as great as at any 
time in his entire career, though his name 
arouses bitter antagonism in various quarters. 
It is announced that Mr. Knox of Pennsyl- 
vania, formerly Senator and Secretary of 
State, will be the Republican candidate this 
year for the United States Senate, with good 
pro^KCts of being elected. It is a great loss 
to the United States that our political system 
does not provide a way by which eminent 
and seasoned statesmen can be brought into 
a national council. The Democrats have 
been needing at Washington such men as 
Mr. Richard OIney, Mr. Judson Harmon, 
Mr. Frederick W, Lehmann, and others; 
and the Republicans could contribute several 
men to such a national council, which of 
course should also include our ex-Presidents, 



Our foreign policy suffers seriously from lack 
of the steadying judgment and wisdom of 
an experien(xd group of Elder Statesmen. 
The fact that we are able to get al(»ig as 
well as we do with the defects in our polit- 
ical and governmental system, reflects credit 
upon the character of the nation. Some day, 
however, we shall be obliged to revise our 
mechanism of government 

-^ The Pan-American Scientific 
AmtritMM Congress brought to this coun- 
*"^ try, in December, a large num- 
ber of interesting and influential people from 
the La tin- American republics. The principal 
advantage is in the actual acquaintance be- 
tween North Americans and South Ameri- 
cans that results from every sudi gathering. 
Nothing definite or tangible of any kind has 
taken shape from the pleasant words that 
were spoken by Secretary Lansing and the 
courteous delegates from South America, hav- 
ing to do with common action for common 
ends. If we had held such ideas seriously 
we would have called South American states- 
men to an official conference of neutrals 
more than a year ago, and would have formu- 
lated with their aid and support certain defi- 
nite rules of conduct that belligerents would 
probably at that time have accepted. The 
particular matters that required common ac- 
tion were neglected. By reason of that neg- 
lect, the disregard of international law by 
the belligerents has now drifted far beyond 
any reasonable hope of correction during the 
present war. 




Wiuoh: "Now Irt >in kick it, if ihey « 
From tbe Sun (B&lIimDre) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



145 



We have every reason 
to maintain very cordial 
relations with the more 
important countries of South Amer- 
ica. The South Americans them- 
selves believe that wc want to make 
money out of them ; whereas, on the 
contrary, American business men as 
a rule hate foreign trade and want 
to do business chiefly in the forty- 
eight States of our own Union, The 
average American of the United 
States is sentimental and idealistic 
He believes the South American re- 
publics should have a good chance 
to develop without being bullied or 
preyed upon by Europe. Gradually, 
in the course of commercial develop- 
ment, there will be closer relations 
between us and the Latin Ameri- 
cans. Meanwhile, wc have our own 
questions to deal with ; and the more 
efficiently we prepare ourselves to 
handle them, and the more promptly 
we face them, the greater will be 
the respect in which Latin America 
will hold us. The West Indies and 
the regions that lie between the 
Panama Canal and the Rio Grande 
concern us especially, for many rea- 
, sons. We are glad to note that 
President Menocal is getting along 
tolerably well in Cuba, and is likely 
to be elected for another term. Sev- 
eral generations must pass before popular more quickly we can establish a thorough^ 
self-government works as well in Cuba as going oversight of affairs in the island shared 
in Switzerland or even as in Massachusetts, by the republics of Santo Domingo and 
But Cuba is incomparably better off for Haiti, the better for all concerned. We 
those relationships with the United States have now pending a treaty with Nicaragua 
that give her such stability in public and that should be ratified without delay, with 
private affairs as she now enjoys. The any amendments that may be thought neces- 
sary to provide insurance against revolutions 
■ and financial mismanagement. The treaty 
gives us a naval base on the Atlantic and 
; another on the Pacific, both of which wc 
I need. And it gives us control of the route 
of a future Nicaragua Canal, Mr. Root, 
Mr. Knox, and other Republican leaders 
had developed a wise Central American pol- 
icy; and now is the time to further its con- 
summation. We are publishing in this num- 
ber an interesting article upon Nicaragua, 
by Mr, Ham, the American Collector of 
Customs, Naturally enough, the opponents 
of the present regime in Nicaragua are bitter 
in their aspersions. But at least the Uttlc 
republic is better off than at any time for 
many years previous. Our marines, with 
base-ball, have had a salutaiy influence. 



THE AMERICAN REVlEff OF REVIEWS 




Our foremost concern as regards couragement of Carranza on the part of our 
'rtrmoi' *he regions southward is with Government, some weeks ago, was with the 
Mexico. We publish elsewhere hope that this would lead to an end of civil 
(see page 1%) a condensed resume of hap- strife. The very unfortunate massacre of 
penings in that country during the past Hvc a group of influential American mining men, 
years of civil war and destructive anarchy, at Santa Ysabel in Chihuahua,-on January 10, 
Vast foreign interests that were wholly legiti- created a frenzy of excitement in Texas and 
mate have been sacrificed, while the Mexi- at Washington. President Wilson was the 
can& have impoverished themselves without subject of fierce attacks, although no sober- 
establishing any principles or paving the way minded program of action was offered by 
for any better order. We would be most anybody as against the President's determined 
abundantly justified in a policy of interven- avoidance of trouble. It might be our clear 
tion if we could put such a policy into effect duty to take possession of Mexico and estab- 
withouC sacrifices greater than the value of lish order, if it were not also our clear duty 
the ends to be gained. Recognition and en- to keep out of scrapes for which we arc un- 
prepared. Possibly Carranza may, in the 
near future, destroy Villa's companies of 
bandits and restore order in Northern Mex- 
ico. Annexation of an extensive portion of 
that country would be the best solution. 
But there is no chance of its coming volun- 
tarily, and the United States would not 
enter upon a war of conquest in' any direction. 

g^^ Many readers have been intcr- 
Mtiieoi csted in allusions they have seen 
""*** in the newspapers from time to 
time to some specific efforts for improved 
health conditions in Latin America, carried 
on by Governments through the valuable 
methods supplied by the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, It was proposed to enter Mexico at once, 
provided General Carranza cooperated in 
the requisite manner, for the sake of an or- 
ganized crusade against the terrible epidemic 
of typhus that is more dreaded than the bul- 
lets of revolutionary armies. Our greatest 
wort at Panama v^as not the building of 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



the Canal, but the conquest over infectious of unblemished standing to convince Colom- 
disease. Likewise, our chief contributions bia of the good will of the United States. 
to Cuba and Porto Rico have been in the Meanwhile, Congress should ascertain in 
field of medicine and public sanitation. With what hidden interest, if any, this particular 
its medical work in Latin America, non* well treaty was drawn, 
begun, and its vast program for establishing 

modem medical and health institutions in n. cobok/oo- ^^ illustrating the right kind 
China, the Rockefeller Foundation has con- Amtritan of foreseeing statesmanship in 
ceived of projects that will save more lives ™ our Western world, we are pub- 

than the European war will destroy. lishing in this number of the Review an 

article upon the working of a tribunal cre- 
JhaCurioa ^' ^^^ publishing in this num- ated five years ago to settle all questions be- 
cotomUwi ber of the Review an article by twcen the United States and Canada before 
"""' Professor Maxey, of Nebraska, they can reach the point of becoming disputes, 
a well-known authority on international law. The treaty that provided the international 
condemning the treaty that the present ad- joint commission was signed hy the British 
ministration has unwisely made with the re- Ambassador, Mr, Brycc, and the American 
public of Colombia. In our opinion it is Secretary of State, Mr. Root. Its admirable 
without palliation or excuse. The history provisions and methods are described by Mr. 
made a few years ago was of the highest value Burpee, who is the Canadian secretary of 
to Colombia, Panama, the United States, and the commission. Six men of solid parts and 
the world. Colombia will through centuries characters, three from Canada and three 
to come benefit immeasurably from the con- from the United States, make up the com- 
nection that the nearby Canal affords be- mission, in addition to whom there is a sec- 
tween her Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The retary for each of the two countries. Can- 
obligations are all on her part towards us. ada's high spirit has been demonstrated since 
All results have eminently justified the ac- the outbreak of the war. She expects to 
tion of Panama in becoming independent. It raise and equip 500,000 soldiers. Her na- 
is our opinion that the existing treaty has tional and industrial development has been 
never been understood by the Administration stupendous in the period included in the 
at Washington, and that the real representa- active life of the late Lord Strathcona, whose 
tives of Colombian opinion are in no way biography by Mr. Heckles Willson is noticed 
responsible for its amazing and indefensible this month in our book department. Most 
provisions, A thorough ventilation of the of the bonds representing Canada's borrowed 
real origins of this treaty would doubtless capital have been transferred from Great 
give us a remarkable chapter in diplomatic Britain to the United States during the past 
history. There will be ample opportunity year. Cana'da's progress and prosperity are 
of a dignified kind on the part of public men in every way beneficial to us. 



148 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

^ Those who try to follow affairs Perhaps the most important news 

eastern in the Far East will welcome fuS^iMd ^f January was the success of 

Oonttitiona professor Hornbeck's article in Premier Asquith in securing the 

this number of the Review on the constitu- acceptance of his bill which finally puts Eng- 
tional changes in China and the evolution land on the basis of compulsory military 
of an autocratic president into a limited mon- service. The precise measure is much quali- 
arch. China needs a stable government, and fied in details, but the principle of universal 
Yuan Shih-k*ai is the typical firm ruler. The service has been substituted for that of volun- 
Chinese people, meanwhile, will have to grow teering. England can finance as large an 
up to the splendid future that is to be theirs army as she needs, and she has now at her 
with modern education and industry. Mr. disposal all the men she desires. The adop- 
Adachi Kinnosuke writes of the great natural tion of the new measure is a triumph of 
resources of China that ought to be developed, duty and patriotism over prejudice and in- 
in his opinion, through the initiative of Jap- dividual selfishness. If war is to be counte- 
anese administrators and engineers, with the nanced by the civilized world at all, it is 
cooperation of American capitalists. We are everybody's business, 
not able to discover a good reason for be- 
lieving that the people of China would nof our Own aw- '^^^ relation of the United 
be benefited by Japanese and American aid tude Towartts States to the European war is 
in the opening up of the great resources that "^^^ a difficult thing to understand, 

our Japanese contributor describes. because it has depended entirely upon the 

mood and temper of our own diplomacy. 

Conditions in the Near East are We have now secured from Austria a trio of 

tnthe ably set forth in the latter part replies to our notes dealing with the Ancona 

NearEatt ^f j^^^ Simonds* monthly review case, and these are regarded as satisfactory, 
of the war, and in an article by Mr. Stoddard It was also asserted last month that Germany 
that throws many sidelights upon regions that will conform to the rules of international law 
heretofore most Americans have known noth- in her future submarine warfare and will 
ing about. Mr. Stoddard attaches more im- satisfy President Wilson as regards all things 
portance than does Mr. Simonds to the Teu- past. We have remaining our outstanding 
ton-Turk threats against Egypt and to the differences with England over interference 
current agitations in the Moslem world. Of with our neutral rights at sea. It is perfectly 
the withdrawal of the Allies from the Dar- plain that England and France have decided 
danelles, and their creation of a great encamp- not to allow Holland, Denmark, Norway, 
ment at Salonica, Mr. Simonds discourses in and Sweden to import American goods for 
his lucid and instructive way. The conquest re-shipment to Germany, What is now 
of Montenegro by the Austrians is a more called a "real blockade" is to be substituted, 
striking episode in the news than it is a vital we are told, for the long-standing "Orders 
occurrence in the war. Montenegro is a vefy in Council." This will perhaps be contrary 
small country, and it seemed better to its to the rights of neutrals. Sweden has been 
sturdy ruler, Nicholas, to admit defeat than protesting sternly. But the powers that rule 
to suffer the fate of Belgium and Serbia, the sea have studied the situation deliberately 
One of the daughters of King Nicholas is and have made up their minds. The neutrals 
the Queen of Italy and another is the wife had an admirable opportunity to make effect- 
of a Russian Grand Duke. Italy had most ive protest in the early part of the war. Vast 
at stake, because the chief object of her war volumes of history have been made, how- 
was to gain control of the eastern shores of ever, during which we have permitted Eng- 
the Adriatic, as against Austria ; and Aus- land to regulate our trade with Europe. And 
tria's possession of the fortresses and forts of it is late now to recall our acquiescence. It 
Montenegro is a serious blow to Italy's cause, would seem ill-timed and unavailing to do 
The situation in Greece was increasingly crit- anything further, beyond making note of 
ical as these pages were closed for the press, facts with a view to the future arbitration 
The coercion of England and the Allies took of pecuniary claims that individual American 
new steps every day, with entire abandonment owners of ships or cargoes may present. It 
of every pretense of regard for the rights of would also seem advisable for the Scandi- 
Greece as a neutral. Greek opinion, how- navian countries and Holland to make the 
ever, is not unified, and the Venizelos faction best terms they can, and not be drawn into 
has not seemed to resent the encroach- controversies that they cannot afford to carry 
ments, against which the King protests. to the menacing extreme of war. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 149 

There are no longer denials that heads. The public statement which more 

'*5J»}jygi' America is enjoying a boom in particularly gained the ear of the country 

general trade, although it is was that of Judge Gary, chairman of the 
noticed that owing to the feverish and uneven Steel Corporation. While making no quali- 
stimulation of the war, the gains in industry fication of the present prosperous conditions, 
are very unequally distributed. In the first Judge Gary pointed out that in the progress 
week of January corporation disbursements of the horrible European war and in its 
were $263,447,928, more than $20,000,000 aftermath there are uncertainties that are 
in excess of the dividends and interest paid too much for any present-day prophet. He 
for the corresponding period of 1915. It is laid stress on the inability of the wisest to 
notable that of the $13,800,000 of this gain determine how long the present activity can 
which is represented by dividends, $13,700,- continue, and expressed the opinion that there 
000 was paid to the stockholders of indus- is already great inflation. Judge Gary be- 
trial corporations, showing that the increase lieves that the war will not last for years 
in the steam railways, street railways and longer; he believes that in the depressed con- 
banking institutions was not appreciable, dition of Europe after the war America will 
The output of petroleum reached a new high need special tariff readjustments to keep 
record in 1915, — ^291,400,000 barrels. The cheaply made goods from being "dumped" 
great mining States of the Rocky Mountain on our market. He sees danger in over 
region showed a production of copper, lead, production, over extension of credit and lia- 
zinc, silver and gold that has never before bilities, and over confidence. 
been equalled, the gain in value over the 

preceding year being $115,000,000. The a Gaa Y9ar '^^ railroads were the last im- 
opening months of the new year find prac- for portant industry in the country 
tically every mill in the country running at to show the effect of the revival 
full speed and an unexampled amount of of trade, and they have shown it least, while 
new construction under way. Builders of the prices for railroad securities on the ex- 
motor cars turned out last year 710,000 changes have lagged far behind those for 
automobiles as against 515,000 in 1914, and industrials. The simple reasons for this are 
the present rate of production indicates over found in the many repressive laws of the 
a million to be completed in the current year, last few years and, even more importantly, 
The savings banks are crowded as they have in the rate situation. Ocean freight rates 
not been for many years in consequence of have, under pressure of the law of supply 
more general and remunerative employment, and demand, advanced from 500 to 700 per 
Retail dealers are pressing manufacturers cent. Prices of several metals and manu- 
for fresh stocks of goods and are selling factured chemicals have advanced as much, 
them as fast as they can be secured. Bank Steel and iron products are sold at constantly 
clearings have increased notably and build- higher quotations. So standard a commodity 
ing records are mounting month by month, as copper is now selling for 24j^ cents per 
The last report of the United States Steel pound, as against 11 cents before the boom 
Corporation shows unfilled orders of over set in. But whatever the cost of their prod- 
seven million tons, the largest figure reported uct or whatever the demand for it, the rail- 
since 1913. It seems certain that this year roads cannot ask any more return for it. 
will establish a new high record in the pro- It is in consequence of this situation that 
duction'of iron and steel. There are con- the railroad mileage constructed in 1915 is 
stant additions to our shipbuilding plants, actually the smallest since 1864, and that in 
and all of them are hives of activity; for, October, 1915, a greater mileage of railroads 
with ocean freight rates at their present level, was in the hands of receivers in the United 
a ship can sometimes earn its entire cost in States than at any time in our history. With 
a single round trip. the outgo of the roads increased constantly 

by advances in wages and taxes and special 

With the stock exchanges ac- prescriptions of the State and national gov- 

Warntng tively responding to these pros- emments, and with their earnings absolutely 

perous indications, and with restricted by both State and national author- 
rapidly advancing prices for nearly all securi- ity, their income available for interest and 
ties except the best of the standard railways, dividends has tended to decrease during re- 
there came a speculative pause in January in cent years. Few people doubt that govern- 
response to certain warnings of the wiser ment regulation of the railways has come to 



150 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

stay, and tfiat much gpod ha§ been, done essary in the natural expansion of a pros- 
through it,. It b a fact, hoW<ever, thit mve&- perous road; that there was no conspiracy; 
tors will put money into anything that looks and that many of the acts complained of by 
hopeful rather than railways. the government dated back years before a 

majority of the defendants became directon 

Trfd!oftfi0 ^" January. 9^Jtbe Federal jury of the corporation. 

N9W Haven which had been hearing in New 

Direotor9 york for nearly three months the ^^^ ^^^^^ It is said that the suddenly 
evidence against eleven directors of the New Prieeof created jitney competition with 
Haven railroad returned a "split verdict." /"* many street railway lines has 

Six of the defendants were acquitted, while now been largely eliminated by the high 
the jury reported a disagreement in the cases price of gasolene. In suburbs of New York 
of the remaining five. Judge William H. where, not a great many months ago, the 
Hunt, before whom the case was heard, dis- householder filled his two hundred-gallon 
charged the jurors, and the Government let gasolene tank at a cost of 11 cents per gallon, 
it be known that it would proceed to a new he is now paying 25 cents. There is talk of 
trial of the five- directors concerning whom still further advances, some authorities pre- 
there was a disagreement. The prevailing dieting a price of 40 cents before the move- 
impression is, however, that the prosecution ment is ended. On January 8 the Federal 
will not be resumed. The charge of the Trade Commission announced that it would 
Government was that these directors had make an investigation of gasolene prices as 
entered into a conspiracy to monopolize the a result of the complaints received. The 
transportation facilities of New England. oil men explain the shooting up of prices by 

describing a shortage resulting from a dimin- 

Originally, twenty-one former ished supply and heavily increased denaand. 

tAfOMf directors of the. New Haven The diminished supply, as explained by them, 

were indicted, thre^e were granted is due to heavy slumps in the production of 

immunity, and seven arranged^tohave their oil wells in Texas and Oklahoma, which they 

cases tried separately. After' the trial, on claim have fallen in output from 35 to 50 

January 18, the Government asked for dis- per cent, at a time when but little could be 

missal of the indictments of the last group, done toward filling up the shortage w^ith 

the evidence against them being weakest, thte Mexican product. The increased de- 

The many intricate points of law involved mand is obvious to anyone who considers the 

and the great prominence of the accused marvelous rate of manufacture of automo- 

made the case notable in the history of biles, and the striking extension of the use 

our criminal jurisprudence. The indict- of gas engines in motor boats and by farmers 

ment was first found in November, 1914, in tractors. 

and it cited acts as far back as 1890, when 

William Rockefeller became a director of y^^^,^,,,;^^ In 1899 the quantity of gasolene 
the New Haven. The prosecution set forth mraty used in the United States for all 
a remarkably complete history of New Eng- ^"*«'^*"w purposes was 5,600,000 barrels 
land's transportation facilities, and showed per annum; in 1904, 5,800,000 barrels. But 
just how the New Haven system had in- by 1909 the consumption had increased to 
creased from 529 miles to 7500 miles of 10,800,000 barrels and in 19 14, to 18,000,000 
tracks, with large holdings of steamship and barrels. Now, experts in the industry esti- 
trolley lines. The government contended mate that 30,000,000 barrels of gasolene will 
that the manner in which the accused men be consumed in the year 1916. The motor 
went about their acquisitions of various prop- car is the chief consumer. In 1912, 312,000 
crties showed clearly their criminal intent, cars were built in this country ; in the follow- 
It was admitted that no actual monopoly was ing year, 420,000; in 1914, 515,000; and in 
achieved; but Special Assistant Attorney the year ending June 30, 1915, the manu- 
General R. L. Batts, in charge of the govern- facturers turned out 710,CKX) motor cars. It 
ment's case, went into each of no less than is understood that approximately 3,000,000 
one hundred and sixty-five consoUdations to automobiles will be using gasolene in the 
show that the intent to achieve monopoly Um'ted States in 1916. These motor cars 
was there. The general line of defense was alone require about 20,000,0000 barrels of 
that the properties acquired by the New gasolene, or two-thirds of the entire axnount 
Haven were considered by its directors nee- to be consumed this year. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD 



The prison- re form methods in- 
Kinkant.'aiia troduced by Warden Thomas 
Fri^g^m j^^„ Osborne at Sing Sing 
were described at some length in the Octo- 
ber number of this Review. Our readers 
do not need to be assured that these reforms 
have our enthusiastic support. In Decem- 
ber last the grand jury of Westchester 
County, N. Y., indicted Warden Osborne 
on charges of perjury, mismanagement, and 
immorality. His trial has been set for Feb- 
ruary 7. Meanwhile, a great mass-meeting 
in New York City, attended by judges, emi- 
nent lawyers, and the best citizens, has de- 
clared its confidence that he will be fully 
vindicated; and offers of support have come 
to him from every part of the country. 
While tfie trial is pending Mr. Osborne 
has been relieved of his duties, and Pro- 
fessor George W. Kirchwey, of Columbia 
University, has been made warden. Mr. 
Kirchwey has been a foremost supporter of 
the Osborne plans, and no reactionary change 
in the conduct of the prison will be allowed 
during his incumbency as warden. The 
Superintendent of Prisons, John B. Riley, 
incurred the di^leasure of Governor Whit- 
man because of his action in transferring 
certain prisoners from Sing Sing to another 
State prison. His resignation was demanded, 
and, after he had declined to resign, the 
Governor declared his intention of removing 
him unless a satisfactory explanation could 
be made of bis conduct. The whole prison 
situation in New York State is complicated 
with petty politics and local "rings" of 
many years' standing. It is to be hoped that 
as a result of the thorough overhauling that 
the State prison system now seems likely to 
undergo, there will be not only a strengthen- 
ing of the reforms that Wardens Osborne 
and Kirchwey represent, but at the same 
time a complete divorce of State prison gov- 
t from every form of corruption. 



TutktWa ^ successor to the late Booker 
, *»■ T. Washington in the principal- 
""^ ship of Tuskegee Institute, Ma- 
jor Robert R. Moton, of Hampton Institute, 
Virginia, has been chosen by the trustees. 
Major Moton, like Dr. Washington, is a 
graduate of Hampton, and for many years 
has been the only colored member of its 
faculty. He has served for nearly twenty- 
five years as Commandant of Cadets. He 
is a man of full negro blood, with unusual 
ability as a speaker. Principal Frissell, of 
Hampton, who taught both Dr. Washington 
and Major Moton while they were pupils 



MAJOR SUBEKT R. HOTON 

(Booker WoBbinslan's lucccssor a* Principal of 

Tuikcgce iDililule) 

in that institution, says in the Southern 
Workman, the monthly magazine published 
by the institute: 

By his kindlincM and sanity, Booker Wash* 
ingtoD won (he good will of the South; and 
Major Molon, who is possessed of bolh ihese 
qualities to a marked degree, will enter into his 
predecessor's labors. Together these two men 
traveled thousands of miles, speakiilg and sin^ 
ing to irnnendoiia audiences of whites and blacks. 
They were devoted friends, and were in cordial 
sympathy as to their thoughts and purposes. 

Hampton Institute is a meeting place for whites 
and blacks from North and South, and there 
Major Moton has developed a tact and skill in 
dealing with delicate questions of race and ■» 
which will stand him in good stead in the diffi- 
cult position to which he is now called. 

Under its new principal, Tuskegee seems 
to have before it a career of increasing use- 
fulness as one of the strongest educational 
institutions of the South. There are many 
evidences of steadily improving relationships 
of helpfulness and appreciation between the 
two races in our Southern States. Hampton 
and Tuskegee are daily strengthening these 
relationships. 



RECORD OF EVENTS IN THE WAR 

(From December 18, 1915, to January 19, 1916) 

The Last Part of December there are 1,250,000 British troops engaged in the 

various theatres of war. 

December IS.—Austria's preliminary reply to Announcement is made of the death, from 

the American note relating to the sinking of the natural causes, of Lieut-Gen. Otto von Emmich, 

Ancona is made public at Washington; it makes ^ho commanded the German army which in- 

inquiry regarding the testimony upon which the vaded Belgium and captured Li6ge. 

American Government bases its charges and The peace advocates in the party conducted 

declares that **even if this presentation were by Henry Ford leave Christiania, Norway, for 

correct ... it does not in any way sufficiently Stockholm, Sweden; serious dissension exists 

warrant attaching blame to the commanding among the delegates, and Mr. Ford himself has 

officer of the war vessel." abandoned the undertaking. 

December 19. — In the Greek parliamentary December 23. — Minister of Finance Ribot in- 
elections, the followers of ex-Premier Venizelos forms the French Senate that subscriptions to 
refrain from voting as a protest against the the new war loan are in excess of $2,850,000,000. 
conditions under which the elections were held. December 24.— British casualties (up to De- 
Germany admits the destruction of the small cember 9) are announced by Premier Asquith as 
cruiser Brrm^ii and a torpedo-boat, by an Allied totalling 1W,923 killed, 338,758 wounded, and 
submarine in the eastern Baltic 59^545 missing; the losses in the Dardanelles 
December 20. — It is announced at London and expedition alone were 26,202 killed, 75,809 
Paris that the Allied forces have been with- wounded, and 12,544 missing, 
drawn from the Suvia and **Anzac" regions on yht French steamship Ville de la Ctotat is 
the Gallipoli Peninsula. sunk (without warning, it is alleged) by a sub- 
Minister Lloyd George reports to the House of marine in the Mediterranean; 80 lives are lost. 
Commons regarding the munitions situation; he December 25.— King Peter, of Serbia, arrives 
declares that an early and successful conclusion in Italy on an Italian warship, after a flight 
of the war depends upon the attitude of organ- through Albania. 

ized labor toward the use of unskilled workmen. December 27.145,000 British Indian troops. 

A Russian squadron bombards the Bulgarian ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ; ^„ ,h^ ^^.^ ,j„^ j^ p^^^*-^ 

forts at Varna, on the Black Sea. ^^j Belgium, are withdrawn for service "in 

December 21. — French troops in Alsace capture another field of action." 

German trenches at Hartmannsweillerkopf (a An official Russian statement describes the 

Vosges peak). defeat in Persia of a German-Turkish force 

The German Reichstag grants $2,500,000,000 aided by Persian insurgents, 

asked by the Government, nineteen Socialists December 28.— Eight indictments are returned 

voting against the bill. by a federal grand jury at New York, charging 

The members of the Irish party in the House a Congressman, an ex-Congressman, and six 

of Commons renew their resolve to resist any other men with conspiring to restrain commerce 

attempt to enforce compulsory military service, in their efforts to hinder the shipment of war 

maintaining that the men necessary can be sup- supplies to the Entente Powers, 

plied by voluntary effort. . ^ . . December 29.-An Austrian squadron bom- 

The Japanese ^XtT^mtxY asaka Maru is sunk Warding Durazzo, Albania, is driven off by Ital- 

by a submarine m the Mediterranean; no lives j^^ ^^^ ^^^er Allied ships, with a loss of two 

^^^ ^^ destroyers; the Austrians declare that a French 

December 21-22. — Important changes in British submarine was sunk, 
commands and army staffs are announced; Lieut.- December 30.— Austria replies to the American 
Gen. Sir William R. Robertson (Chief of the note of December 19, relating to the sinking of 
General Staff m France) becomes Chief of the the Ancona, reiterating that the sinking occurred 
Imperial General Staff in London, succeeding an hour and a half after the vessel had stopped, 
Lieut-Gen. Sir Archibald J. Murray, who has been and declaring that the loss of life was due to 
appointed to succeed Sir Charles Monro at the panic; for not taking into consideration the panic, 
Dardanelles; General Monro will command the the submarine commander has been punished. 
First British army m France. The British cruiser Natal is destroyed by an 
December 22. — ^The second American note to internal explosion while at anchor in port; 325 
Austria regarding the Ancona sinking (dated members of the crew lose their lives. 
December 19) is made public at Washington; The British passenger steamer Persia is sunk 
the note declares that the admission that the (presumably by a submarine) in the Meditcr- 
vessel was torpedoed after it was stopped is "ranean near Alexandria, Egypt; 330 of the pas- 
itself sufficient to fix responsibility upon the »cngers and crew, including an American con- 
submarine commander. sular official, lose their lives; 165 escape in 

The British Parliament passes a measure in- «niall boats, 

troduced by Premier Asquith calling to the colors December 31. — It is officially stated at Ottawa 

1,000,000 additional troops, raising the total au- that 212,690 Canadians have enlisted* 11^,922 

thorized to 4,000,000; the Premier states that being already in Europe. 
168 




RECORD OF EVENTS IN THE WAR 153 

The First Week of January effort (begun in April, 191S) to cooperate with 

T«.%.«..^ 1 A v.i..:.n /.ff*««v« rry^^m^m^¥ *^« ^^^t lo reduclog the Turkish forts. 

January 1.— A Russian offensive movement ^j^ j ^ j^ British battleship King, Ed- 

upon a large scale, agamst the Austro-Hun- ^ !/ r/Vf L «« ^V u ^ V^ -^u X^ 

»rr:«» t^^^^ :« ^Ji:*,:« ««^ n..ip^..r:». ««:«- wartf VII is announced, by contact with a mine; 

garian forces in Galicia and Bukowina, gains ^„ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^J 

neaaway. ^^^^ German War Office announces the re- 
January 2.— Figures compiled at Washington capture of positions near Hartmannsweilledcopf, 
show that during the first year of the war (up in Alsace, lost on December 21. 
to * " "^''^ • -> . « , .-. 

wa 

tria, 

inuaiy 4.— Lord Derby's report upon his en- declared to be the most important 

littment campaign in England, Scotland, and the Western front since September. 

Wales shows-that 1,150 000 single and M79.2S3 j^ lO.-Herbert Samuel, Postmaster-Gen- 

"" "* J^r?, " "•*' « *T'r' °* .V*" *"''' era". " appointed Home Secretary in the Asquith 

™! • S ^ i J? ^ • . ^ t T • S ""■ "binet, in place of Sir John Simon, who resided 

married and 59 per cent, of the married came ^^^^^^ ^^ P j, objection to the Compulsory sTrv- 

^ ' ice measure. 

January 5.— Premier Asquith introduces a January 11.— An Austrian force from Cattaro 

Compulsory Service Bill m the House of Com- captures the nearby Montenegrin stronghold on 

mons, applicable to unmarried men and widow- Mount Lovccn, after a four-days' attack; the posi- 

ers without children between the ages of 18 and ^^^^ ^^^ ^f ^ importance to the Allies. 

41 ; Ireland is excluded from the measure. _ T^ r«. ^ i « . . .t. 

As a means of stating the British casualties January 12,-Thc Compulsory Service bill 

during the offensive around Loos, it is announced ??»"» '^» 8««>"^ readmg in the British House 

in the House of Commons that nearly 60,000 men ?f Commons, by vote of 431 to 39; the Irish 

were killed, wounded or missing during the Nationalists and some Labor members withdraw 

period from September 2S to October 8. from the opposition. . • , j r ^ r 

_ , _, r-, t « . ««•«! *^ *^ learned that the Greek island of Corfu 

January 6.— The Compulsory Service Bill is to be used by the Allies as a place for the 

passes Its first reading m the House of Commons, Serbian army to recuperate. 

by vote of 403 to lOS; the opposition is composed , -, r«***'- •*! £ i^m s, 

of sixty Irish Nationalists, 34 Liberals, and 11 . January 13.-Cetunje, capital of Montenegro, 

Laborites; 10 Labor members vote with the "_ «^"P««<* »>y the invading Austrian army 

Government '* announced that for the protection of their 

Statistics published at Rome indicate that five P<>8it»<>? a^ Salonica the Allied forces have de- 
months of war (June 1 to November 6) cost the ^''T^^,9'^^^^ '^'^'^^^ »>"^g" ^* ^'""'"^ »»«»" ^ 
Italian Government $S61,000,000. *"^ Kilindir. 

The City of Nancy, France, is bombarded by January 14.— The French Minister of Finance 
IS-inch guns behind the German lines fifteen introduces in the Chamber of Deputies a pro- 
miles away; 30,000 persons leave the city. Po»al to tax extra profits due to the war. 

January 7.--The German Ambassador at j^e Third Week of January 

Washington gives formal assurance that Ger- ' '' 

man submarine activity in the Mediterranean January 16. — Official reports from Allied capi- 

has been and will be conducted in accordance tals show progress for the British relief expedi- 

with international law and without using re- tion in Mesopotamia and Russian expeditions 

prisal measures applied in the war zone around against Turks in the Caucasus and in Persia. 

^'^^r^'^""^ Islands. ^ January 17.— It is reported that Montenegro has 

The extent of recovery of Russia's armies is surrendered unconditionally to the Austro-Hun- 

indicated by reports from Petrograd that for garian armies of invasion, thus becoming the first 

fifty hours they concentrated the fire of 400 guns of the belligerents to withdraw from the war. 

upon the Austrians at Czernowitz, Bukowina. - *« * «• • i * 

The Frrnich Government acknowledges the January 18.--An official Austrian statement 

justice of the American protest against the seizure ^^c^ares that the Russian offensive in Galicia 

by a French cruiser of German subjects on an J^" brought to an end on January 15, with, a 

American steamer '^** ®' 75,000 men. 

A British force 'hastening to the relief of the ^"^ the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, Herr 
Bagdad expedition (intrenched at Kut-el-Amara) ^^ Heydcbrand, the Conservative leader, re- 
in Mesopotamia, is halted by a Turkish force at *«" }^ America as among Germany's worst 
Sheik Saad. enemies. 

rjy, o J Tjr 1. I f January 18. — ^Reports from London indicate that 

1 he becond Week of January Great Britain and France are planning to adopt 

January 8.— In the Frye case, Germany replies l^^^^^I blockade measures, with a view to shut- 
to the American note of October 14; pending tmg off neutral commerce with Germany now car- 
decision of disputed points by arbitration, Ameri- "«^ o" through Holland and the Scandinavian 
can vessels will be sunk only when carrying countries. 

absolute contraband and when passengers and January 19. — An official statement at Paris de- 
crew can reach port safely. clares that Montenegro has not yet capitulated, 

January 9.— The British and French forces are the Austrian terms being unacceptable, 

entirely withdrawn from the Gallipoli Penin- ^ It is reported in Germany that the Allies have 

sula, and the attempt to force the Dardanelles instituted a close blockade of Greek ports and 

is abandoned; 115,000 British soldiers alone landed new forces near Athens to intimidate the 

were killed, wounded or taken prisoner in the Greek Government. 



RECORD OF OTHER EVENTS 

(From December 17, 1915, to January 19, 1916) 

PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS vention to meet in Chicago at the time the Re- 
January 4.— Both branches reassemble after publican Convention is to assemble there in order 
the holiday recess. . . . The House Committee ^ have, if possible, "both the Progressive and 
on Banking and Currency favorably reports a Republican parties choose the same standard- 
Rural Credits bill. bearer and the same principles." 

January S.—In the Senate, many members par- FOREIGN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 

ticipate .n a discussion of the propriety of Amen- p^^ber 19.-Four of General Villa's Heu- 

cans sailing on belligerent merchant ships, and ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^j^ ^^,j.^^^ ^j ^ 

the proposal to place an embargo upon munitions ^ ^^^ment with Carranza representatives, 

for belligerents. * u ^^ t t • i- * • • 

t /-i^ue.j* !*•-. December 23, — ^Juan Luis Fuentes is maugu- 

J'^T^ ^~V'» ?»" • M 2? ? * ,f*~''"""' rated President of Chile, 
offered by Mr. Fall (Rep., N. M.), calling upon 




States relations with Mexico during recent years. * separate dynasty. 

January 8.— In the Senate, the Committee on J^^y^^ 5.— A plot to assassinate President 
Suffrage favorably reports an amendment to the d*Artigucnave and start a new uprising in south- 
Constitution providing equal suffrage. ... The c^" Haiti is frustrated by American forces under 
House passes the Ferris bill, throwing open to Rcar-Admiral Caperton. 

fifty-year leases water-power sites on public January 8. — ^The Japanese Minister of the Navy 

lands, under joint control of State and federal outlines in the Diet his proposals for a greatly 

governments. enlarged navy. 

January 12. — In the Senate, the murder of January 12. — ^Alfredo Bazuerizo Moreno it 
nineteen American mining officials in Mexico elected President of Ecuador, 
is the cause of sharp debate upon the President's January 13.— Gen. Victoriano Huerta, who for 
policy of "watchful waiting. seventeen months ruled Mexico as Provisional 
January 13. — In both branches, resolutions are President and Dictator, dies shortly after hit 
introduced providing for sending the United release from a federal prison in Texas. 
States army into Mexico to protect Americans. januaiy 17-18.— Two of Villa's principal mili- 
January 17. — The Senate debates the Philip- tary officials, — General Rodriguez and Col. Baca- 
pine bill, with particular reference to the date Valles, — are captured and put to death as ban- 
when independence shall be granted. dits by Carranza officials in Mexico; it is stated 

that Rodriguez was responsible for the murder 
AMERICAN POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT ®^ nineteen Americans on January 10. 
December 18.— President Woodrow Wilson INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 
and Mrs. Norman Gait are married at Mrs. December 27.— The Second Pan-Americaa Sd- 
Gait's home in Washington; few guests are entific Congress assembles at Washington, with 
present. more than a thousand delegates from the twenty- 
December 24. — Secretary Daniels makes public one republics: Secretary of State Lansing speaks 
a report of the General Board of the Navy on the relation of the Monroe Doctrine to the 
hitherto kept secret; it urges a policy which by Pan-American spirit. 

1925 would make the United States navy the January 6.— President Wilson addresses the 

equal of any. Pan-American Scientific Congress at Washington, 

• December 26. — The report of the Commissioner outlining his views on Pan- Americanism ; he 

of Navigation shows that during the year ending declares that the states of America should unite 

June 30, 1915, ships flying the American flag in guaranteeing to each other political independ- 

were increased by 460,741 tons. ence and territorial integrity. 

December 31. — Laws prohibiting the sale of January 10. — Nineteen American employees of 

liquor become eflPective in seven States: Wash- a mining company are taken from a train near 

ington, Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, Arkansas, Chihuahua, Mexico, and shot to death by banditt 

Iowa, and South Carolina. said to be followers of General Villa. 

January lO.-The Government's suit against ^y^^^^ OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH 

former directors of the New Haven Railroad vi ■•!-■% wx.^*«w%»-^ ^ , . . 

system, for conspiring to monopolize New Eng- December j9.— The Panama Canal is reopened 

land transportation facilities, results in the ac- ^^^ vessels of light draft. 

quittal of six defendants and a disagreement of December 20. — ^Robert R. Moton, Principal of 

the jury upon the guilt or innocence of the other Hampton Institute, is chosen Principal of Tuske- 

five; the trial was begun on October 13. gee Institute. 

January 11. — The Progressive National Com- December 23. — The price of copper in the 

mittee, meeting at Chicago, calls a national con- New York market reaches 21 cents a pound (the 

154 



RECORD OF OTHER EVENTS 



highcM point in (en years), due in part Eo the 
purchase of 50,000 (ons by Great Britain. 

December 2S. — Censui sialisiica made public at 
London indicate (hat New York has since 1911 
been the larges( ci(y in the world. 

January S, — The Greek liner Theiiatomki, 
after drining helplessly for more (han a week, is 
abandoned in a sinking condition, }50 miles )ou(h- 
easl of New York. 

January 7. — A mob of several thousand drink- 
craied strikers and sympathizers in East Youdrs- 
town, Obio, burns the business section of the 
town; in the rioting three persons are killed and 
nearly a hundred mjured. 

January 11. — A tidal ware and excessive rains 
in Holland cause rivers to overflow and dikes to 
burst; many .towns and districts ar; inundated, 
and extensive damage done. 

January 15.— An explosion on (he submarine 
£ 3, — Relieved to have been caused by gases, 
generated during experimental 'and repair work 
at the New York Navy Yard,— wrecks the in- 
terior and kills fourmen. . . . The official report 
on the New York State census shows a total 
population of 9,687,774 on June 30, 1915, an !□■ 
crease of 20 per cent, in ten years; 52 per cent, 
of the population is in Greater New York. 

January 16. — Fire destroys a large section of 
the seaport ci(y of Bergen, Norway. 

OBmiART 

December IS. — Dr. Alexander T. Ormond, for 
many years professor of logic and philosophy at 
Princeton, 67. . . , Edouatd Vailtant, dean of 
the Socialiso in the French Chamber and former 
candidate for President, 76. 

December 19.^ — Sir Henry Enlield Roscoe, a dis- 
tinguished English chemist, 82. . . . Arthur W. 
Wright, professor cracriius of experimental phys- 
ics a( Yale, 79. . . . Rev. Dr. Edward Wall, 
professor emeritus of litera(ure at Stevens Insti- 
tute (New Jersey), 91. 

December 20.— Dr. Rudolph August Witthaut, 
of New York City, an authority on poisons, 68. 
. . . Henry F. Greene, of Minnesota, formerly 
United States Civil Service Commissioner. 56. 

December 22. — Lieut.-Gen. Otto von Emroich, 
leader of the lirs( German army of invasion in 
Belgium. ... Dr. Daniel Giraud Ellia(t, of New 
York, an authority on birds, 80. 

December 23.— Dr. William Howard Doane, (he 
lio(ed composer of music for hymns, 82. 

December 26.— Thomas F. Richardson, con- 
structor of the Pike's Peak cog-wheel road and 
many other engineering works, SO. . . . Col. 
William Seymour Edwards, politician, 59, a prom- 
inent Kentucky lawyer- 
December 2S.— Ewan Macpherson, a well-known 
New York journalist, writer and editor, 60. . . . 
Frederick G. Ireland, chief examiner of the Civil 
Service Cororoission of New York City, 69. 

December JO. — Winfield Scot! Hammond, Gov- 
ernor of Minnesota, 52. 

January 1.— Tomaso Salvini, (he noted Italian 
tragedian, 8S. . . . A1 Ringling, (be veteran cir- 
cus man, 63. . . . Dr. Joseph J. O'Conoell, 
Health Officer of the Port of New York, 49. . . . 
Dr. Isaac Ot^ a distinguished Pennsylvania neu- 
rologist 68. . . , Alfred W. Benson, former jus- 




(JoKph R. Lamar, ol Georgia, was an eminent judge 
in thai Stale before Presidinl Taft put him on ttie 



ied at Washinglon on January i. agtd .58. He was a 
;r(ny^]le''M.*Do(im, of Council Bluff 1, la., was in hi) 



iville M. Dodge, of Council Blutf. 
ly-fifth year when he died on Jan 



Civil War on the Union side. Afterwards he built 
IJnion Pacific, Rai.lroad. and had international Jami 



13 of n 



Iroad c< 



lion) 



lice of the Kansas Supreme Court and ex-United 
States Senator, 72. 

January 2. — Joseph Rucker Lamar, Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
58. . . . Dr. Cha«les Clifford Barrows, Professor 
of Gynecology at the Cornell University Medical 
College (New York City), 58. 

January 3. — Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, a fa- 
mous corps commander in the Civil War, and con- 
structor of the L'nion Paciflc Railroad, 84. . . . 
Col. Robert T. Van Horn, founder and for many 
years editor of the Kansas City Journal, 91. 

January 4. — Henry Lawrence Burnett, breveted 
Brigadier-General at the close of the Civil War, 
and later a prominent New York lawyer, 77. 

January 6. — Charles Welboutne Knapp, until 
recently publisher of the St Louis Republic, 69. 

January 7. — Right Rev. Richard Scannell, 
Bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Omaha, 
71. 

January 8.— Ada Rehan, the noted actress, 55. 
. . . Dr. Mcrrttt C. Fernald, former president 
of the University of Maine, 77. . . . Charles 
CiHirad Schneider, of Philadelphia, an expert on 
bridge construction, 72. 

January 9. — Lord Burnhara, publisher of the 
LondtHi Daily Telegraph, 82. 

January 10.— Frank H. Dodd, the New York 
magazine and book publisher, 71. 

January 12. — John Christopher Schwab, libra- 
rian of Yale Univeriity, and former professor of 
political economy, 50. 

January IJ. — Gen. Vicioriano Huerta, recently 
Provisional President and Dictator in Mexico, 61. 

January 17.— Jeannette L. Gilder, the noted 
writer and literary critic, 66. . . . Brlg-Gen. 
William N. Graham, U. S. A. retired, 81. 



158 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



! S«H (New York) 



The statesmanship of our foreign policy 
may be criticized, but not its literary quality. 
The present administration, indeed, bids 
fair to pass into history as the note-issuing 
period of our national career; and many are 
the cartoons that have appeared on this phase 
of Uncle Sam's activities. 



e Lcadir (Clevclan 



CURRENT AMERICAN TOPICS IN CARTOONS 




The cartoons on this page represent not 
only the general impatience in the later de- 
velopments below the Rio Grande, but at 
the same time show how the sober second ■ 
thought of lesponsible leaders in and out of 
Congress has served to steady public opinion 
and keep the country out of war. 



UooU Kewi Btntet. N<w Tork 

he some fike eaters all. right— but 
they're not hungry 

From die AmtritxH (New York) 



158 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



The statesmanship of our foreign policy 
may be criticized, but not its literary quality. -' "■ 
The present administration, indeed, bids 
fair to pass into history as the note-issuing ^ 
period of ooir national career; and many are 
the cartoons that have appeared on this phase 
of Uncle Sam's activities. ^ 



CURRENT AMERICAN TOPICS IN CARTOONS 



- 1 BOW TO YOU. UNCLE" 




THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEIVS 



fou!" 

' <PbiUdclphU) 

Mr. Bryan's attitude toward the Adminis- 
tration, as shown in the submarine cartoon 
on this page, was farther illustrated last 
month by the announcement that the Great 
Commoner would "trail" President Wilson 
on his coming speech -ma king tour in support 
of his "preparedness" program. 



F LITTLE RED H 



CURRENT AMERICAN TOPICS IN CARTOONS 



XOOM FOR ALL UNDER THE NEW.UMBREUJl [ 
"one for all, AND'aU. for one" From the JVnij (Minnfapolii) | 

From the Timet Siar {Cincion.ti) gf (|,g Monroe Doctrine ; Others consider it 

j-v .. . L L L as a wholly distinct policy, and one pictures 

On this page wc are shown how the new ■ u w ■ Ji. i -i . l 

, f n . . J . It as a new baby in the family, to whose ar- 

eospel ot Pan-American amity is received in ■ , , ,. u .u /»* r^ ■ \ 

S»„m„.. Some of ,he crtooni,,, ngard ?'"! the elder brother (Monroe Doctrine) 
the Pan-Americanism of to-day .s a corollary ? "°? ■>";" ™««il"l- The two cartoons 
'in this column portray the contrast between 
I the Pan-American brand of internationalism 

j and the European, to the disparagement of 

the latter. 



CITIES AND SCENES IN THE 
WAR ZONES 



PAUCE OP ARCHBISHOP IN CZERNOWTR NOV USED AS AUSTRIAN RED CROSS STATION 
(Cicrnowiti, the most impanani city in tbe Austrian province at Bukowina, bag been the objecii 
new Kuuian oflcnaive campaign of recent weeki, and aevere engagement! io the vicinity of ihis city ha 
edly been reported) 



CETTINJE. TIC CAPITAL OF MONTENEGRO. CAPTURED BY THE AUSTRIAN TROOPS LAST MONTH 

(Situated at an altitude of nearly !000 feci, in a deep valley surrounded br mounUini. Cettinie in genent 
appearance ■> more like a village than the lapiUl of a kingdom. The palace of Ihe monarch ilsell is a modert. 
one-story building. The population numbers less than SOOO. The liiy has before Ihis been subjecled lu the 



CITIES AND SCENES IN THE IfAR ZONES . 163 



V 



dCnlcn PbMB Sarin 
(This flufaliiiil 



A COMFORTABLE FRENCH CROTrO NEAR THE BATTLE LINES 



vhilc one of their number wati 



MAKING CtBRALTARS OUT OF THE GERMAN THENCHES 



(Tlie lamouii itont 
tin Ftencli. The Ge 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



BRITISH TOOOPS CWnH SUN HELMETO AND SHORT TROUSERS) IN MESOPOTAMIA 



TURKI91 ARTILLERY ADVANCING ACROSS THE ISSEXT 



KlH'-ELJkMARA ON THE TIGRIS. THE SCENE OF SEVERE FIGHTINC BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND THE TURKS 



CITIES AND SCENES IN THE WAR ZONES 165 



AN AUSTRIAN BATTERY ON THE EASTERN FRONT 



A RUSSIAN niANSPORT BATTUNC Wmi ItlE SNOW IN BUCOWINA 



RLSSIAN GUNS LINED UP FOR AN ATTACK IN CAUCU 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



THE GERMAN AND BULGARIAN COMMANDERS IN THE BALKAN CAMPAIGN 
ure, from left to rigbl, are Field- Marshal von Machcnsen, commander in -chief of the AuilnhGs- 
invasion: Bulgarian Staff OfBcer SUntcbeR; (JenersI Jenkow, commander of the Bulgarian right fin!: 
rheff, Bulgarian Military AlUchf at Berlin; Major- General Tappen of Ihe German army, Maior- 
eeclct of the German army. Crown Prince Boris of BulgarU and General too Falkenhayn, Ctirf 
a General Sulf) 



■ marching through a 



SEA POWER IN THE WAR 

BY FRANK H. SIMONDS 

I. A Year and a Half Always it has been well understood that 

sea power could not win a war of itself, 

WITH the coming of February the that it could not prevent the success on land 
Great War will have passed the half- of a great nation, superior in preparation 
way mark of that three years which Lord and in organized military strength to its 
Kitchener fixed as the minimum duration of enemies. Despite all French naval supe- 
thc world struggle. Eighteen months of bat- riority in the War of 1870, German victory 
tie and campaign will then have left the bel- was complete, and French naval officers and 
Iigerents and the neutrals alike with slight troops were landed to defend Paris, 
promise of peace, with little evidence of the In the Napoleonic Wars the great Em- 
approach of a decision. Once more the paral- peror won Austerlitz after and Ulm just 
IcI of our own Civil War comes to mind. In before Trafalgar. His first abdication came 
the same period, opening with the first Battle nearly ten years after British sea power be- 
ef Bull Run, there had been fought the Pen- came supreme and it was immediately pro- 
insular Campaign with its series of defeats; cured, not by the British fleet, but by the 
Second Bull Run with its disaster ; the tem- armies of the last great coalition. 
porary relief of Antietam had been annulled Yet there is plain possibility that the im- 
by the reverse of Fredericksburg; and a few portance of sea power will be overlooked, 
months later Chancellorsville was to come as that too much store may be set by the land 
the climax to Northern disaster. operations alone, and that the lessons of the 

Eighteen months after the first great battle past may be forgotten. This has, it seems 

of the Civil War, great in its consequences, to me, actually happened in the present case, 

there was hardly an observer of experience and that the world has permitted its atten- 

in a neutral country who believed that the tion to be fixed upon land victories, which 

North could win, or questioned the ultimate have not been .decisive, when the victory of 

independence of the South. Not until the sea power had not only been immediately 

two-year mark had been passed, not until decisive, on its own element, but was daily 

Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July, 1863, contributing to reverse the actual situation 

had restored the Northern prestige and pros- on land. 

pccts lost at Bull Run in July, 1861, did Napoleon's ultimate defeat was due to 

the world appreciate the fact that in pre- British sea power, although he surrendered 

venting the South from gaining a decision in to conquering armies. It was due to the 

the earlier years, the North, with superior fact that Great Britain was able, while im- 

rcsources in men and money, above all with mune from attack herself, to use her money 

the control of the seas, had in fact won the and the discontent and jealousy of Napoleon's 

war, however long it might take to enforce land rivals to incite war after war, while 

the decision. in Napoleon's desire to strike at Britain he 

In the present article, — covering a month was led from one campaign to another, he 

in which the military operations have been was forced to annex one port after another, 

of small importance, and there is at the mo- to extend his control of the sea front of 

ment, no prospect of an operation offering Europe in the attempt to close Europe to 

any promise of immediately important con- British commerce, to strike at London 

sequences, — I desire to discuss at some length through Moscow, and thus to ruin the nation 

the fashion in which sea power is steadily he could not reach by arms, 

becoming more and more of a decisive factor, In the course of the years that stretch 

and more and more seems to be re-establish- from Amiens to Fontainebleau Napoleon won 

ing those lessons which were taught by the several complete decisions over his land ene- 

Napoleonic Wars, by the Wars of Louis mies. He defeated and conquered Austria 

XIV, and were again emphasized in our at Austerlitz, Prussia at Jena,. Russia at 

own Civil War. Friedland, Austria a second time at Wagram, 

167 



168 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

and his victorious armies swept Spain from they choose to seize it The Great Britain, 

the P3nrenees to Cadiz. But sea power kept of Asquith has dealt with Germany as the 

up the fight and, master of the oceans and Britain of the Pitts dealt with France, both 

the seas alike, Great Britain sustained the of the Monarchy and the Empire. It has 

battle and raised new war after new war, abolished German commerce, appropriated 

until the French people grew weary of the German colonies, sealed up German har- 

struggle and France was bled white of con- bors to trade, and it has prevented the Ger- 

scripts. Yet it is well to recall that not mans from inflicting any material loss upon 

until a year had passed, not until seven the British in their own kingdom and from 

months before the abdication, did the Em- effectively interfering with their trade or 

peror sustain a real defeat in battle and their transport. 

only four months before he yielded, had hos- To-day Britain fe giving financial aid to 

tile troops entered France. Russia and to Italy, she is giving military aid 

to France and She is engaging Germany's 

II. What Sea Power Has Done J""'^'^^ f^- ftf *5*^p*' her money her 

tieet are all available for use, wherever Ger- 

Taking the existing situation, it will be man activity calls for Allied effort. By no 

recognized that up to the present British means all of her ventures have been suc- 

sea power has accomplished ail that Nelson cessful, but in the Napoleonic War there 

accomplished for his country and a little were several Gallipolis, notably on the Island 

more, that is to say it has established the of Walcheren and in the case of Sweden. 

British supremacy on water beyond question, Even the Spanish affair was for long such 

it. has abolished the German commerce from a failure as almost to lead to its abandonment, 

the sea, it has destroyed the German war- The real obstacle to peace, at the present 

ships and undersea boats that have ventured moment, lies in the fact that Great Britain 

within reach, it has given to British com- has so far been the sole nation to profit by 

merce and to British transport the safe use the war, and her profits have been absolute, 

of the sea. Despite the sensational details Germany has made conquests on land, she has 

of the sinking of a few great liners, it is most of Belgium, a corner of France, much 

well to remember that the actual percentage of Russia, and (with her ally) Serbia and 

of loss of British shipping from GJerman ac- Montenegro. But Germany has lost the sea. 

tivities is far smaller than tjiat inflicted by Not a German ship can put to sea, and Ger- 

French privateers in the Napoleonic time many cannot return to the ordinary business 

and never did the British in the earlier wars of life until she can again begin to ship her 

with the French succeed in paralyzing so manufactures by water and draw her raw 

completely an enemy commerce as they have materials by the same route, 

now. Thus, in effect, Germany has occupied 

Following the earlier precedent, British Warsaw, Lille, and Belgrade, only to lose 

sea power has made it possible for British Hamburg and Bremen, which are to all 

expeditions to operate in Europe and outside intents and purposes in British hands, since 

of it. In Europe British armies have ren- they cannot be used by Germany. After 

dered great help in France and contributed eighteen months Germany has captured noth- 

to abolish all prospect that the Germans can ing that can give her a basis for bargain 

win a decision in the West. They have per- with Britain. And what Britain holds 

mitted the British to undertake a campaign makes all of Germany's conquests of little 

in Gallipoli, which has failed as did the sev- value. She is, as I have said before, in the 

eral campaigns undertaken against Napoleon, position of a burglar, who has entered a 

before the great campaign of Wellington in house and collected the silver but cannot get 

Spain. In the same way sea power has per- out to dispose of it. 

mitted the concentration of troops at Salonica Now, unless Germany can outlast Britain, 

and in Egypt, thus blocking a Turkish thrust or find some way to exercise compulsion upon 

upon Suez. Britain, she must ultimately go to London 

Outside the European and Mediterranean and ask for peace, because she must ulti- 

field sea power has enabled the British to mately resume her sea commerce, she must 

gather up all but one of the German colonies ; ultimately use the oceans. Nothing is more 

with French and Japanese help, the remain- idle than to suppose that there is a mar- 

ing colony, too, German East Africa, lies ket or a future for Germany as a self- 

within the grasp of the British whenever contained empire, even if that empire ex- 



SEA POWER IN THE WAR 169 

tends from Hamburg to Bagdad. The very many can get to Paris, if she can get to Petro- 
character of German industry makes the sea grad, she may yet dispose of her land rivals 
the necessary way of transport, and it is and readjust her own financial problems, 
from her trade beyond the frontiers of her She may yet conquer the Continent, as 
allies that she draws the revenue which keeps Napoleon did, but she has so far failed to 
her great population living in a restricted conquer any great opponent, even tempo- 
area, rarily. She has failed to cripple any great 

Aside from this question of the future, opponent materially, and she has lost for the 

there is, too, the question of the present, period of the war, so far as one can see, the 

the problem of food and munitions for a war use of the ocean. 

of exhaustion. To escape from this situation, Germany 

tried first to go to the Channel. Had she 

III. Sea Power and a War of arrived at Calais and Boulogne she might 

Endurance ^^^^ dominated the Straits of Dover and 

seriously crippled British commerce, con- 

Despite the various rumors, I do not be- ceivably shut up London. But she was 

lieve that the German people are starving stopped in the Battles of Flanders and the 

or in immediate danger of starving. Per- check has become permanent. She tried the 

haps after a year or two more of war there submarines and they failed, absolutely failed 

will be real suffering where there is now so far as the British waters are concerned, 

only hardship. But hardship there is, hard- She tried Zeppelins and the consequent 

ship which is revealed in a multitude of "terribleness** and these failed. She has not 

ways. There is, too, a shortage of certain even been able to survey the British coast, as 

things essential in war, for which substitutes did Napoleon from Boulogne. 

may be found in most cases, although not. There remains one more thrust, that 

for example, in the case of rubber. Still it toward Suez, which I shall discuss later, 

is possible to believe that another year or but here it is sufficient to say that the best 

two of war would not exhaust German ma- informed naval observers in Washington, the 

terial or reduce Germany to starvation. best informed military experts outside of 

On the other hand, it must be recognized Germany, are agreed that there is small 
that Germany's men are limited. She has chance of a Teuto-Turk success at Suez and 
already lost seven men for one of the British not the smallest warrant for believing that 
and her population is but 67,000,000, against a full success would affect the British block- 
more than 60,000,000 for Britain and her ade or cripple British industry or imperial 
white colonies. Financially the war is cost- interests. 

ing her, with advances to her allies, almost Yet, if she cannot find a way to break the 

dollar for dollar with the British, and she British blockade, the fact is self-evident that 

has no such resources of accumulated capital Germany must persuade Britain to raise it. 

as Britain upon which to draw. She is, in To do this is to surrender on British terms, 

fact, mortgaging her future beyond imagina* Such terms, at the very least, would carry the 

tion, while Britain is still drawing upon her evacuation of Belgium, of France, of Russia, 

past. the restoration of the status quo ante in 

In a similar situation Napoleon was able Europe, with probable provision for French 

to live upon his land enemies and keep France reoccupation of Alsace-Lorraine, Italian oc- 

free from debt, but Germany has been unable cupation of Trent and Trieste, and the sur- 

to do this. She has drained Belgium dry render of Turkey to Allied mercies. Of 

and made heavy drafts upon the resources course Germany would not now consider 

of her French conquests, but Poland and such a peace, but the thing that I desire to 

Serbia are destitute of all real resources, hav- make * clear is that British sea power has 

ing been completely wasted by war, and become absolute; it bars the way of every 

French and Belgian sources have been drained German port ; it is hampered by no British 

dry. The rapid decline of German credit in loss of territory essential to the empire, in 

the open markets of the world, the neutral fact by no loss of British territory whatso- 

markets, is perhaps a fair evidence of what ever. ^ 

the world thinks of the German financial So far as the seas go, Germany is a be- 

situation. sieged nation; and the besieged nation, like 

All these circumstances should be appre- the besieged garrison, must break the lines 

dated in their proper proportion. If Ger- of investment, ultimately, or surrender. ,Not 



170 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

only has Germany so far failed to do this, sea. She is fighting, not to destroy the Ger- 

but she has failed where Napoleon succeeded, man nation, but to destroy Germany as a 

He conquered his land foes, occupied their rival naval power and marine competitor, 

capitals, and paid the costs of his war from Absorbed in our study and interest in the 

their treasuries. All this Germany has been land operations, properly impressed by the 

unable to do. magnitude of German victories, we in 

America, as indeed the observers in the whole 

IV. The Decisive Element T""^^; ^?''^. ^"^ ""'^ appreciated the truth 

that the land operations have lacked the char- 
Early In our Civil War, the North iso- acter of a decision; and the fact that they 
lated the South; but it took years to reduce have lacked this character has given to the 
the fortress thus isolated, and it was always naval operations an importance far in excess 
possible for the South, by occupying Wash- of those on shore. British muddling, defeat, 
ington and our eastern cities, to win the war. disaster on land have captured the mind of 
But ultimately the blockade was fatal, when a generation which is too unfamiliar with 
coupled with the failure of the South to British history to appreciate that the same 
obtain a decision on land. Unless the Ger- things have marked every great British con- 
mans shall find a way to break the blockade flict and were fatal only in the case of our 
or compel the British to raise it, there seems own War of the Revolution, and then merely 
to me no reason to doubt that the end of because Britain at the decisive hour also 
the war is assured. It is a fact that Ger- temporarily lost control of the sea. 
many has so far failed in every attempt to On the map, the German conquests make 
reach Britain; and her failures have been a formidable showing, but how much more 
so costly, that it is difficult to believe that it impressive is the showing of the British con- 
is any longer within German power to com- quests if you color the seas to indicate them, 
pel Britain. Some day Europe will talk peace, but what 

Bear in mind, always, that this war is, in value will peace have for Germany if it docs 
Its main issue, a contest between the Ger- not include in the terms the right to use the 
mans and the British. The dispute between seas? But how is Germany to persuade 
the French and the Germans is limiied to a Britain to concede this right, if she cannot 
single province. Russia and Germany could conquer it ? Does any one suppose that Ger- 
arrange their differences by bargain. Italy many will be able to exhaust Britain before 
could be bought off by a payment in terri- she is herself exhausted? This is absurd, 
tory. But it is not any question of relatively because Britain is still able to carry on a 
minor importance that separates Germany portion of her industrial life, and her rc- 
and Britain. On the contrary, Germany has sources in capital far exceed German, 
asserted that Britain has deliberately set out As for ruin, when peace is made, if the 
to thwart her expansion, to check her natural British are able to compel the Germans* to 
growth, and that it is only on the ruins of give up their merchant marine, even if they 
British sea power that she can erect that em- are only able to forbid German ships the 
pi re which is necessary to her existence. right to use their harbors and their colonial 

Great Britain on her part, slow to per- ports and naval stations as ports of call, in 
ceive the challenge, has now taken it up as concert with their allies, German shipping 
she took up the challenge of Holland, of will be out of the race and the British will 
Spain, and of France both under Louis XIV replace their only rival in the carrying trade 
and Napoleon. In every one of these cases of the world, and find her new wealth to 
Britain did not pause with a victory or replace old. 

abandon hope when she was left alone to Prophecy is idle and I do not mean to 
fight. She fought to the end and to the prophesy. What I do mean to emphasize 
destruction of her foes, so far as their ma- is, that eighteen months after the outbreak 
rine ambitions were concerned, because she of the war, sea power, navalism if you please, 
saw in these ambitions a peril to her own has so completely bested militarism, that the 
existence. To-day she has accepted the Ger- situation that exists, unless Germany can 
man challenge as Rome took that of Carth- find some way to modify it, by success over 
age. She is bending her energies and her the British, insures German defeat exactly 
power, not to throw Germany back within as Napoleon's defeat was insured when he 
her own boundaries in Europe, but to put an failed to dispose of sea power and faced the 
end for a generation at the least to all peril at Continent in arms. 



SEA POWER IN THE WAR 



FRENCH Ue> CREEKS AT SALONICA 
1 their mtUi he1mel«. looking with inleresl at the Cicek highUnders, who 
ate equally inletrsled in Ifae viailors) 



e tcale la Serbia 



172 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



V. The Beginning of the End 

From my own standpoint, — and I have 
tried in all the long series of articles on 
the war to make clear the situation as it 
appeared to me, — the war on land has been 
fought out and there is practically no hope 
of a real decision there. In the spring there 
is every reason to suppose that if Germany 
still has the men, and it seems far from im- 
probable, she will make one more great bid 
for a decision in the East and seek to resume 
and complete her march to Moscow and 
Petrograd. 

In the same fashion there is likely to be 
a great Anglo-French offensive in the West. 
The success of this operation may well de- 
pend upon the extent to which Germany is 
compelled to reduce her armies in the West 
to make a new campaign in the East. I do 
not believe that the spring offensive will 
reach the German frontiers, or clear Belgium. 
It may conceivably rescue the portion of 
France now in the invader's hands. It is 
even conceivable that Germany will, herself, 
shorten her lines in the West, recognizing 
that no terms of peace can be thought of, 
so far as France is concerned, while French 
territory is in German hands and French 
armies unconquered. 

Italy, on her side, will doubtless pursue 
her selfish and local campaign, useful to the 
Allies only as it distracts the attention of 
some hundreds of thousands of Austrian 
troops. As for the Near East, I shall deal 
with Suez a little later. Having now con- 



quered Montenegro, there is little reason to 
believe that the Austro-Germans will lose 
it, and less reason to suppose that the Allies 
at Salon ica will be able to conquer either 
Bulgaria or Turkey. 

But if Germany should next fall arrive 
with her armies, greatly weakened by losses 
and hardships, at Moscow or Petrograd^ 
would this affect the war to the extent of 
producing that victorious peace which Ger- 
many still expects and demands? I do not 
believe it, because I cannot see, even in such 
a victory, any real menace to the British 
blockade. Nor, with Russia out of the war, 
is there any real reason to suppose that Ger- 
many would then be able to muster suffi- 
cient men to break the French and British 
lines in the West. Mere arithmetic makes 
this seem utterly improbable. 

Meantime there must be no mistaking the 
steady growth of British military strength 
and of what is far more important, Brit- 
ish national determination and moral and 
intellectual mobilization. By next fall 
Britain will certainly have as many men 
under arms as Germany and they will be 
physically far better men, because Germany's 
best have already been removed from the 
firing line, like those of France and Russia 
and Austria. 

Coincident with this is the growth in 
Britain of a realization that victory means 
for the Empire the end of the gravest peril 
since the Napoleonic era, and a determina- 
tion to abolish that peril not by a mere vic- 
tory, but by terms of peace which shall dis- 



^ 

T U R K 1 5 T A 



1 ^ r ^ 




71 






N^ 



THE MESOPOTAMIAN FIELD OF WAR AND THE SUEZ CANAU A POSSIBLE GERMAN-TURKISH OBJECTIVE 



SEA POWER IN THE WAR 173 

pose for a long period of years, perhaps "Nach Suez" has replaced **Nach Paris" 
forever, of a rival on the sea. It is no and "Nach Calais" as a German watchword, 
idle statement that the Germans make, that Yet there seem to be grave doubts as to 
France and Russia are fighting Britain's the soundness of this view. Conceive that 
battles. They are; and in destroying Ger- the Teuto-Turk armies actually pass the 
man manhood they are removing the com- Canal and enter Egypt. How can this shake 
petitors of British industry. But of course the British Empire? It will not interrupt, 
both the French and the Russians are equally but merely lengthen the voyage to India, and 
serving their own purposes. India was conquered and held when only 

The Allies, Italy now included, have sailing vessels were on the water and the 
covenanted not to make a separate peace, and East was reached by way of the Cape of Good 
every British end is served by prolonging Hope. Of itself, Egypt is not essential to 
the war to the utter exhaustion of Germany. British existence because it neither furnishes 
And Britain retains the decisive weapon, for men nor produces material necessary for 
even peace with all her other foes would not Britain. It is a more valuable colony than 
enable Germany to take up her national in- any German overseas possession, but Ger- 
dustrial life again or begin the terrible task many has lost the use of all her colonies with- 
of paying for the war. It is to London now out losing the war or any real advantage 
that one must look for the decisive gesture thereby. As for India, Japan is bound by 
as to peace. And all recent talk of peace treaty to defend that, so it does not enter into 
has died out because, for London, the war the question. 

is just beginning; the prospects of victory, the It is hard to see on what the German con- 
meaning of success to the British Empire, ception of the importance of Egypt is based, 
have only just been perceived. but what chance have the invaders of pass- 

Even now British ministers and statesmen ing Suez? An army of 25,000 Turks 
arc planning to make the victory over Ger- was heavily defeated before Suez a year ago 
many absolute by arranging in advance of and the British have had twelve months to 
peace a condition which will abolish German prepare. We all know that a shorter time 
competition on the high seas. The British was sufficient to enable the Turks to fortify 
have waked up, as they have not waked up Gallipoli. For a whole year the British 
before since the war began. They have have been busy preparing a hundred miles 
appreciated the value of their weapon of sea front. Indeed they have reduced this front 
power, and they are now preparing to make by a third by flooding the east bank of 
good all that Admiral Mahan has written of the canal near the northern end, and per- 
the possibilities of sea power, and to repeat haps another third by filling the other lakes 
against William II the absolute successes along the route. Certainly there is not more 
won against Napoleon. than fifty miles of front available for Turk- 

ish attack. 
VI. NACH Suez Behind this front and parallel to it is a 

railroad. The canal was defended last year 
It is characteristic of the German genius by warships, as well as by forts. All the 
that it builds for itself one colossal dream resources of sea power are available for the 
after another, and the collapse of one only transport of munitions, men and supplies and 
inspires greater faith in the next Thus Ger- Cairo and Alexandria are available as bases, 
many has believed, since the war began, that as well as Port Said and Suez. 
France could be abolished by a six-weeks' The Teuto-Turks, on the contrary, must 
campaign and the struggle won; that the bring their troops, guns and munitions over 
successful advance to Calais would bring the Taurus Mountains and over the Amanus 
Britain to heel; that the submarine would by road. Since the tunnels on the Bagdad 
accomplish the same result ; that Russia could Railroad are unfinished, they must transport 
be eliminated in a summer campaign ; that the them for a hundred and twenty-five miles 
advance to Constantinople would conquer the over the barren Sinai Desert, with only a 
will of the Allies and insure peace. few wells to furnish water and no other roads 

Now the German mind has seized upon than desert trails. Finally, they must draw 
Suez as the key to the British Empire, Eng- upon distant regions for food, for neither 
land's "Heel of Achilles." The whole Brit- from Palestine nor Syria can they derive food 
ish Empire is to be undermined, overthrown or forage for any considerable army, 
by a successful Teuto-Turk drive at Egypt. The British and their allies can put almost 



174 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 




THE GALLIPOLI PENINSULA 

(The black portions show the territory occupied by the 
English and French forces durinff the TDardanelles cafm- 
paign. The first landings of Allied troops were made 
on April 25. 1915, and their complete withdrawal was 
effected on January 9, 1916) 



any number of troops on the Canal line, 
whose restricted length calls for not more 
than 250,000 even accepting the standards 
of Western warfare, and these are certainly 
not applicable to this region. At Ypres less 
than 150,000 British bore the weight of a 
German attack made by numbers estimated 
at 500,000. For days they held lines that 
they never had the time to fortify. They 
were then destitute of any considerable 
amount of heavy artillery and lacked high 
explosive ammunition. Now they have heavy 
guns, and they have also the fleet batteries 
and unlimited ammunition. 

As to insurrections in the British rear, 
these are unlikely because the area in which 
men can live off the country in Egypt is 
exceedingly restricted and there is lacking 
any considerable military population. Egypt 
has always been conquered and held by small 
forces. In case of peril the whole Allied 
army could be transported from Salonica far 
more quickly than could the Turks send new 
forces from Constantinople. 

In sum, while there is probably no reason 
to doubt that the attempt to force Suez will 
be made, nothing but criminal folly on the 
British part could have left it open to suc- 
cessful attack, and there is no real possibility 
that the Turks could acquire the guns or 



transport to maintain an army sufficient to 
prevail on the narrow front, long ago forti- 
fied and protected alike by the desert and by 
the fleet. 

VII. The End of Gallipoli 

It remains now to review briefly the single 
considerable military incident of the month, 
the withdrawal of the Allied troops from the 
Gallipoli Peninsula. This was accomplished 
with practically no loss and with a skill and 
rapidity that surprised the world. The Brit- 
ish public have for weeks e>q)ccted to hear 
of some grave disaster. Even the least pessi- 
mistic British writers have firmly believed 
that the withdrawal, foreseen to be neces- 
sary, would cost at least as much as the 
bloody landing, which, at Sedd-el Bahr alone, 
brought 15,000 casualties. 

The successful withdrawal, therefore, did 
much to lessen for the British the sting of 
the disaster which the campaign constituted. 
It had cost the British more than 100,000 
casualties and those of the French were also 
heavy. It had been marked by a series of 
blunders and mistakes which had cost the 
commander. General Ian Hamilton, his posi- 
tion and had proven the graveyard of the 
reputations of many subordinates. For Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand this terrible cam- 
paign will have permanent memories ; for the 
burden of the losses were borne by the Colo- 
nials. 

Coincident with the withdrawal, the Brit- 
ish learned how near success had been, how 
the prize was lost, not by Turkish skill or 
bravery, great as were both, but by the un- 
speakable stupidity and incapacity of the vari- 
ous commanders. To a nation which had 
just seen its commanding general, Field- 
Marshal French, withdrawn from France, 
which had read of the mistakes at Loos and 
the minor advantages obtained in a battle 
that cost 60,000 casualties, the Gallipoli 
withdrawal came as a final blow to pride. 

Probably the question of the Gallipoli 
campaign will continue to be argued for 
many years. Its wisdom or folly now di- 
vides England. It cost Winston Churchill 
his position in the Cabinet and it almost cost 
the Cabinet its life. Yet it nearly succeeded, 
and had it succeeded, the whole situation in 
the near East, the duration of the war itself, 
might have been settled to the satisfaction of 
the Allies. But the withdrawal, making the 
failure absolute, removed the last latent frac- 
tion of Allied prestige in the Near East 
and left Germany supreme in Constantinople 



SEA POWER IN THE WAR 



and Sofia, and dominant in Athens and 
Bucharest. 

Hard and fast upon the evacuation of 
Galiipoli came the further progress of the 
Austro-German invasion of the Balkans. The 
Montenegrins were driven from their moun- 
tain, which commanded the town and Bay 
of Cattaro, Lovcen fell into Austrian hands, 
Cettinje followed Belgrade into the posses- 
sion of the enemy, and Nicholas, like Peter, 
became an exile, and the Montenegrins sur- 
rendered unconditionally to Austria. So 
once more the Serb race was overcome and 
the invaders of the North repeated the suc- 
cesses of the Turk, which five hundred years 
before, at Kossovo, had eliminated the Serbs 
from the free nations of the earth. 

De^ite a pretence made by the Italians 
at sending aid, there was no mistaking the 
fact that the father of the Queen of Italy 
had been left to face Austria single-handed 
and that the Italians had pursued toward 
Montenegro the same policy that they had 
shown toward Serbia, a policy frankly sug- 
gesting their readiness to see a possible Slav 
rival in Adriatic waters eliminated, or at the 
least crushed so completely as to promise no 
peril for the Italians for many years. 

Yet there was no mistaking the fact that 
thb cool and calculating policy seemed to 
have an immediate and eventual peril for 
the Italians, for it removed the last obstacle 
to complete Austrian control on the eastern 
shore of the Adriatic, north of Albania, and 
it foreshadowed an Austrian descent to Av- 
lona, key to the Straits of Otranto and pros- 
pective base of Italian supremacy in this sea. 
Meantime about Salonica the Allied armies 
took root, fortified the surrounding hilb, en- 
deavored to turn the eastern city into a sec- 




ond Lisbon and its approaches into a new 
Torres Vedras, which should thvrart the 
Germans as the Portuguese lines had, under 
Wellington, thwarted the French. Before 
these lines the Bulgars halted and the Aus- 
trians and Germans showed no immediate 
activity. Indeed the coming of a Russian 
offensive in Bukowina seemed to make a 
draft upOTi German and Austrian troops so 
great as tt) leave a force in the Balkans in- 
sufHcient to venture upon an attack and the 
great French soldier, De Castelnau, the vic- 
tor of Nancy and Champagne, and the new 
second-in-command in the French armies, 
declared that Salonica had become im- 
pregnable. 



MOW TURKEY PROCLAIMED THE HOLY WAR 



THE SMOULDERING EAST 

BY T. LOTHROP STODDARD 

DURING the autumn weeks of 1914, here as elsewhere, the truth lies between the 

when Turkey stood wavering on the two extremes. No general revolt has oc- 

brink, we heard a great deal about the "Holy curred anywhere in Islam, but for all that, 

War." Much of this talk was very alarmist behind the censor's veil wc catch the loom of 

in character. Nothing short of an immediate a giant unrest, growing with every Allied 

and simultaneous rising of the whole Mo- defeat, quickened by every Turkish victory, 

^hammedan world was predicted. Well, Furthermore, we should remember that this 

Turkey did take the plunge, the Holy War unrest is nothing new. For many yeat^ 

:was duly proclaimed^>ut no general rising Islam's anger has been steadily rising against 

of Islam occurred. Thereupon comment that conquering West which has subjected 

veered round from pessimistic alarm to scoff- every portion of the Moslem world, save 

ing optimism, and wc were told either that Turkey, to its imperious will. And this anger 

there was no pan-Islamic solidarity at all, or has been increasingly focussed against the 

that, even if some such sentiment did exist, present "Allies," — against Russia, always 

the Mohammedan world at large regarded considered Islam's arch-enemy; against 

the Turks as traitors to Islam. In short, France, Russia's ally and the conqueror of 

Turkey's action was to have no perceptible Moslem North Africa; against England since 

effect upon other Moslem lands. her entente with Russia and the Anglo-Ru»- 

In the year which has elapsed since the sian strangling of Persia, Thus, whatever 

proclamation of the Holy War. little Eastern flames may now be bursting forth in the 

news has run the Allied censorship blockade. Moslem world, the live coals have long been 

Yet, scant as are the tidings, they show that, glowing beneath the ashes of sullen despair. 

IIS 



THE SMOULDERING EAST 



177 



THB RECRUDESCENCE OF THE TURK 

Without venturing any direct pronounce- 
ments as to the exact course of events, we can 
yet profitably examine the general situation 
in the Islamic lands, analyzing both the fac- 
tors of stability and the elements of conflagra- 
tion. The first consideration is, of course, 
Turkey. It is upon Turkey's offensive power 
that all the rest depends. At the present mo- 
ment Turkey's prospects look extremely good. 
Ottoman prestige, so shattered by the First 
Balkan War, has risen immeasurably during 
the past year. Solemnly condemned to death 
by the Allies in the autumn of 1914, the Ot- 
toman Empire has ever since been showing 
startling signs of vigorous life. Turkish 
armies have invaded Russian Transcaucasia 
and Russian Persia, have raided the Suez 
Canal, have heroically held the Dardanelles 
against large Anglo-French armies and the 
greatest armada of modern times, and are 
now imperilling the retreat of a defeated 
Anglo-Indian army in Mesopotamia. The 
opening of the Berlin-Constantinople high- 
road has relieved all danger of a munitions 
shortage, and is fast arming hundreds of 
thousands of Turkish soldiers in training for 
many months but hitherto unable to take the 
field for lack of rifles and artillery. Some of 
these new troops may be required for service 
in the Balkans, but the bulk of them will be 
available for use in Asia, and they, added to 
the veteran forces already with the colors, 
will constitute a mighty factor in the whole 
Eastern theater of war. 

LAYING THE RAILS FOR THE ATTACK ON 

EGYPT 

The question now arises where Turkey's 
Asiatic armies will first be employed. Every- 
thing points to an expedition against Egypt. 
The Turkish attack on the Suez Canal line a 
year ago proved that the building of the "Sa- 
cred Railway" from Syria down to the holy 
cities of Mecca and Medina, together with 
the recent development of motor transport, 
had destroyed Egypt's isolation. No longer 
could the possessor of the Nile valley laugh 
at threats of invasion across the desert zone 
lying between Egypt and Syria. In fact, the 
Turkish attack of a year ago seems to have 
been less a daring raid than a calculated first 
step in a fnore ambitious plan. Though re- 
pulsed from the canal itself, the Turks suc- 
ceeded in holding most of the Sinai peninsula, 
and their German engineers have been busy 
building branch spurs westward from the 
"Sacred" trunk-line. The railheads of these 

Feb.— 4 



A 5 /A M/NOR 




THE RAILROAD APPROACHES TO THE SUEZ CANAL 

(The Hejas Railroad from Damascus to Mecca, with 
probable routes — numbered 1, 2, and 8 — of spurs built 
eastward to within a short disunce of the Suez Canal 
by the Turco-Gcrman forces for their reported cam- 
paign against Egypt) 



spur tracks are now said to be within fifty 
miles of the Suez Canal. Obviously this wift 
make possible the quick massing of a large 
army and heavy artillery within easy striking 
distance of the Suez line. Of course the Eng- 
lish position is immensely strong, — a narrow 
front flanked by waters entirely under British 
naval control. Still, Turkish infantry is such 
splendid stuff, and German artillery achieves 
such marvels, that no one can predict offhand 
that any military lines are proof against so 
formidable a combination. 

INSECURITY OF ENGLAND'S HOLD ON EGYPT 

One thing which must disquiet the British 
is the insecurity of their tenure on Egypt it- 
self. English rule has never been popular in 
the valley of the Nile, and a few years ago 
Egyptian unrest became so violent that the 
Liberal Government of Great Britain was 
forced to abandon its policy of conciliation 
and resort to frank repression. Lord Kitch- 
ener was accordingly made proconsul, and 
till the outbreak of the present war he gov- 
erned Egypt with a rod of iron. Egypt 
ceased to figure in the press headlines, but 
England was no more beloved than before. 
Discontent was driven underground, — and 



178 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

became thereby the more dangerous. Since ^ems also safe from immediate trouble, 
the war Egypt has been flooded with British Both in Algeria and in Tunis the Frcndi 
troops and put under the sternest sort of have succeeded in making their rule more 
martial law. Nevertheless, ugly symptoms popular than the British have in Egypt. Also 
have showed here and there, and a Turkish these countries possess a considerable Euro- 
victory on the Suez Canal would probably be pean colonial population, mainly French or 
followed by serious outbreaks among the French-feeling, which would support French 
swarming populace of Cairo and the teeming ascendancy to the death. Thus, unless ap- 
millions of the Fellaheen. The same is true pearances are more than usually deceitful, 
of the Egyptian Sudan. The Mahdist em- nothing less than the conquest of Egypt and 
bers are not quite cold, and Englishmen them- Tripoli by the Turks and Senussi wduld 
selves admit the possibility of trouble in these rodse the natives of French North Africa to 
regions. serious revolt. 

Another disquieting factor in the situation After Egypt, the Moslem land of most 
is the disturbed conditions on Egypt's west- imiiiediate interest is Persia. This ancient 
em border. In the recesses of the great Sa- empire has, during the last few years, sunk 
hara desert lie the fertile oases which are the to th6 status of a Russo-British protectorate, 
scats of that mysterious Moslem brotherhood, Russian troops occupying its northern prov- 
the Senussiyeh. The re'ligious hold which inces with. England predominant in the south, 
these fanatical sectaries have acquired over Probably nothing has so roused the general 
the populations of North Africa has long resentment of the Islamic world as the cyni- 
been a strong one, and while little is know© cal fashion in which the Russian and British 
of their numbers, their fighting qualities are Governments combined to throttle Persies 
unquestionably of a high order. The Sen- reviving national life, and the horrid crucl- 
ussi have already taken the field against the ties of the Russians iri their sphere of influ- 
Italians in Tripoli, and the aid thus afforded ence have greatly embittered Moslem rancor 
the revolting Tripolitans has had important against the dreaded Muscovite enemy, 
consequences. Despite the rigid Allied cen- 
sorship we know pretty definitely that the ^"^ situation in Persia 
Italians have suffered several bad defeats and Persia is of much deeper import to Islam 
now hold little more than the towns of the than might at first sight appear. The broad 
coast. Of late the Senussi have been turn- belt of the Moslem world, stretching from 
ing their attention Egyptwards. The past Morocco to China, here narrows to relatively 
two months have seen brisk fighting between slender proportions, and most Moslems hold 
the British and strong Arab reconnoitring the Iran plateau between the Caspian Sea and 
parties well armed with good rifles and ma- the Persian Gulf to be the vital bridge join- 
chine-guns. Already the British have aban- ing the two halves of Islam. It is true that 
doned their outposts on the Tripolitan border the Persians are Shiite heretics, but the old 
and have retired well toward their Egyptian bitterness between Sunnite orthodoxy and 
base. It is interesting to speculate what Shiism has been much softened of late by the 
might happen in Egypt if a horde of fanatical growing feeling of Moslem solidarity against 
Senussi dervishes should sweep into Egypt the European peril. 

out of the Western deserts at the height of a The despairing rage felt by Persian patri- 

Turco-German assault upon the Suez Canal, ots at the Anglo-Russian destruction of their 

liberties caused trouble in Persia from the 

THB FBELING IN FRBNCH NORTH AFRICA outbreak of the present war, and the Turkish 

As to the rest of Moslem North Africa, Government hastened to fan the flames of 
there seems to be little immediate danger of revolt by sending flying columns of light 
trouble. Of course, Morocco is not yet troops into the Russian sphere, while Turk- 
pacified, considerable French and Spanish ish and German emissaries under the able 
armies being still engaged in the thankless leadership of the German Prince Henry of 
task of subduing the fierce mountaineers of Reuss sowed disaffection throughout the 
the Atlas and the Riff. Morocco is, how- country. England and Russia apparently 
ever, so isolated from the rest of the Moslem planned a bold counter-stroke in the shape 
world, both by geographical remoteness and of a Russian thrust southward through Ar- 
by the heresy of its inhabitants, that any menia and a British advance up Mesopotamia 
fresh Moorish disturbances would probably from the Persian Gulf, the Allies to meet at 
remain localized. The great French African Bagdad or Mosul, thus cutting off Persia 
empire lying between Morocco and Tripoli from Turkish help and closing the bridge be- 



THE SMOULDERING EAST 



SENUSSI PATROLLING THE SINAI PENINSIAA 

twccn the Ottoman Empire and the Moslem would be a present impossibility. Naturally, 

East. This plan, however, has failed. The if the war should be very prolonged, German 

Russians got stuck in the Armenian moun- engineering skill might gradually build com* 

tains, while England's Mesopotamian cam- munication lines akin to those now being 

paign has probably been shattered beyond re- constructed across the Sinai peninsula 

pair by the recent defeat at Ctesiphon. towards Egypt ; but this would be a matter, 

The effect of this failure upon Persia has not of months, but of years, 
been already pronounced. Although news Of course, if British rule in India should 
from this remote region is both scanty and be thoroughly shaken by acute and wide- 
distorted, it is plain that Persia Is getting spread native revolts, a small Turco-German 
more and more out of hand. If a strong army of choice troops might be thrown across 
Turkish army should enter the country, as is Persia, but no such revolts seem likely, 
highly probable when the snows of the border There is undoubtedly much more unrest in 
highlands melt in the spring, Persia would India to-day than Englishmen care to admit, 
probably flare up from end to end. but this unrest is sporadic and is confined al- 
most exclusively to the Mohammedans, the 
THE QUESTION OF A TURCO-GERMAN EXPE- j^jj^^ Moslems being Only some twenty-five 
DiTiON TO INDIA p„ ^„j ^^ ^j,^ ^^.j^j papulation. Another 

The query now obviously suggests itself thing to remember is that the vast majority 
whether the expulsion of the Russians and the of India's teeming millions arc so unwarlike 
English from Persia would be followed by that they would be disinclined to rise for any 
a Turco-German march on India. If by this cause whatever. The distinctively fighting- 
is meant an army sufficiently large to conquer stocks of India do not number more than 
India without the aid of pronounced disaffec- sixty millions, and only half of these are 
tiwi against British rule, the answer is prob- Mohammedans. The other half are divided 
ably no. Persia is a vast semi-desert plateau, from the Moslems by sharp barriers of race 
ringed round by mountains. It is totally de- or religion, consisting as they do of Brah- 
void of railways, and has no roads worth minical Hindu Rajputs, Buddhist Mongoloid 
mentioning. To move a great modern army Gurkhas, and the Sikhs professing a cult- 
with its heavy artillery and enormous trans- militant peculiarly their own. One and all 
port train across such a stretch of territory traditional foes of Islam, these peoples would 



180 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

probably fight rather than favor a Turco* the best parts of the country. Should Rus- 
Perso-German expedition which would neces- sian rule in Central Asia be overwhelmed by 
sarily appear to them a Mohammedan inva- a flood of Afghan and Turcoman fanaticism, 
sion of India. the fate of these Russian colonists would be 

a frightful one. 



THE ROLE OF AFGHANISTAN 



TRANSCAUCASIA AS A POSSIBLE WAR 

THEATER 



In any such Middle-Eastern troubles a not 
unimportant role would undoubtedly be 
played by Afghanistan, the buffer-state lying It is highly probable that, as spring ap- 
between British India and Russian Central proaches, Turkey may use a portion of her 
Asia. This land of savage mountains is in- new armies against another of Russia's Asi- 
habited by an equally savage people whose atic fronts, — ^Transcaucasia. A year ago 
tremendous fighting qualities have been Turkey launched a preliminary oflFensive in 
abundantly proven since the earliest times, this quarter, and though the Ottoman forces 
Under the long reign of its late ruler, Emir did not penetrate far into Russian territory, 
Abdurrahman, Afghanistan gathered un- they have never been entirely expelled. For 
wonted strength, for this able sovereign months past the fighting in this region has 
sternly repressed the internecine wars which languished, both Russia and Turkey having 
chronically consumed its surplus energy, drafted away portions of their Caucasian 
Since his son and successor, Habibullah armies for respective service in Poland or at 
Kahn, has continued in his father's footsteps, Gallipoli. The mountainous nature of 
Afghanistan must to-day be well rested and Transcaucasia would render its conquest an 
spoiling for a fight. exceedingly difficult undertaking, but its f<fr- 

Fanatical Moslems as they are, it is diffi- tility and natural wealth make it a tempting 
cult to believe that the Afghans could resist prize. Furthermore, a Turkish invading 
the contagion of Persia's example if that army could count on finding many friends, 
country should throw off the Russo-British Fully half of the population are Moslems, 
yoke. Indeed, the tribes on the Indian bor- some of them very fanatical, and even the 
der have for months past been causing the Christian population is none too well affected 
British much trouble. Still, even should toward Russia. 

Afghanistan explode, India's northwest The Armenians might stick to Russia 
frontier is so strong that the Afghan irrup- through thick and thin, but the Georgians, by 
tion would probably do most damage in Rus- far the most important Christian element, 
sian Central Asia, or "Turkestan." Here are full of rancor against Muscovite rule. 
the Afghans would have no mountains to This interesting people, with its well-marked 
cross, and they would find a solid Moslem national consciousness and its proud cultural 
population as fanatical as themselves. past, has long suffered from relentless Russi- 

Furthermore, the Russians have never sue- fication which has. ended by entirely estrang- 
ceeded in making their rule so relatively pop- ing it from the Russian Empire. Again, the 
ular in Turkestan as the British have done in Russian Revolution of 1905 caused such 
India. It is often said that Russia knows how political and social explosions in the Caucasus 
to win the hearts of Asiatics. Broadly speak- that the country has never wholly quieted 
ing, this is not true. Such particular indi- down. All things considered, there arc ex- 
viduals as are willing to give up their na- ceedingly interesting possibilities in this land 
tional consciousness are warmly welcomed of many races and tongues, 
into Russian official service and find their Such are some of the possible reactions of 
careers barred by no such race or color bar- the White Man's War upon the Moslem 
riers as exist among West European nations, world. What the full consequences are to be 
But for all who resist Russianization the cannot yet be seen. But the East is smoulder- 
Muscovite yoke is neither an easy nor a pleas- ing. That much we know. The fires may 
ant one. We should also note that in Turk- sink down once more beneath the ashes, or 
estan as elsewhere native fears have been they may burst forth everywhere into lurid 
roused by colonization schemes which have flames. The thing to be remembered is that 
planted large numbers of Russian peasants in they are there. 



OUR CANADIAN-AMERICAN 

HIGH COURT 

BY LAWRENCE J. BURPEE 

(Secretary of the International Joint Commission) 

[The signing of the so-called Waterways Treaty in 1909 created an international commission for 
the prevention as well as settlement of such differences between Canada and the United States. In 
the following article the Canadian secretary of the commission shows how it serves Canada and the 
United States as an umpire of disputes and how it gives to the world, in a dark and troublous timcy 
a shining example of international comity. — The EDrroR.] 

"1^7 AR is one method of settling disputes justment and settlement of all mch ques* 
^ ^^ between the people of two neighbor- tions as may hereafter arise/* 
ing nations, but it is not the only way. The language of the preamble is signifi- 
Ncithcr is it in the long run the most sen- cant. It provides for the settlement of 
siblc or eflFective or economical way. Here present and future matters of diflFerence bc- 
is an alternative plan, — an experiment, if tween the two countries, but it puts first of 
you like, — ^which the two English-speaking all the prevention of disputes. And it is just 
countries of North America committed them- there that the child of the Waterways 
selves to some five years ago, and which has Treaty, the International Joint Commission, 
ever since been running so smoothly and finds its greatest field of usefulness. It has 
noiselessly that ninety-nine people out of any already settled a number of matters of dif- 
hundred on this continent have never even ference, and doubtless will dispose of many 
heard of it. more in the future, but its supreme value to 

At Washington, on January 11,. 1909, the United States and Canada lies in the 
James Bryce, then British Ambassador to fact that its mere existence has an increasing 
the United States, and Elihu Root, Secre- tendency to prevent such disputes, 
tary of State, signed what is known as the 
Waterways Treaty. This treaty embodied ''ailure of old diplomatic methods 

the results of several years' negotiation be- In the past all international questions, 
tween American statesmen on one side and large or small, could only be disposed of 
English and Canadian on the other. It dis- through the roundabout and red-tape-encum- 
posed of several vexed questions that had bered channels of diplomacy. Think what 
been more or less at issue between the United that meant. Suppose a dispute arose over 
States and Canada, but it went much farther the use of one of the boundary streams, 
than that. It created an international com- such as the St. Mary's River, for power pur- 
mission, consisting of three Americans and poses, and the aggrieved parties on the 
three Canadians, and vested in that body Michigan side sent a complaint, through. the 
such powers and responsibilities as it is usual channels, to Washington. The com- 
safc to say have never before in the plaint, gathering to itself like a snowball 
world's history been entrusted to a similar successive folds of official reports and memo- 
tribunal, randa, would roll ponderously through the 
The preamble of the treaty sets forth its federal departments at Washington. It 
general objects, "to prevent disputes regard- would then go to the British Embassy; 
ing the use of boundary waters and to settle travel overseas to the Foreign and Colonial 
tdl questions which are now pending between Offices in London ; back across the Atlantic 
the United States and the Dominion involv- to the Governor-General of Canada ; be 
ing the rights, obligations, or interests of tossed back and forth in the federal depart- 
either in relation to the other or to the ments at Ottawa ; and finally, perhaps, reach 
inhabitants of the other, along their common the local officials on the Canadian side of the 
frontier, and to make provision for the ad- St. Mary's River. 

IBl 



182 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Then the original petition or complaint, weight in gold. The Treaty provides that, 
by this time pretty well buried under its pile under the direction of the Commission, die 
of documentary blankets, would start back two rivers are to be treated as one stream 
again on its long journey. And sp it might for the purposes of irrigation ; that the St. 
travel, like the Wandering Jew, to the end Mary is to be connected with the Milk by 
of time, while the see<is of ill-feeling were a canal, and the channel of the M-ilk in 
spreading like a plague along the interna- Canada used for carrying a portion of the 
tional boundary. Even admitting that this wat^r$ of the St. Mary down to the lower 
is an extreme case, and that the methods of Milk Oliver Valley in Montana, where thou- 
the old diplomacy sometimes did result in a sands of acres of land are waiting for irriga- 
settlement, it is nevertheless true that the tion ; and that the waters of the two streams 
jfinal decision rarely got to the. heart of the are to be diyided equally between the people 
difficulty, or came in time to . prevent the of the two countries. Some delicate prob- 
mischief bred of local irritation. lems of engineering, and perhaps of diplo- 

macy, are involved in the working Out of 
THE NEW TRIBUNAL jj^jg provision of the Treaty, but these need 

The point of the new method, of dealing not be entered into here, 
with international disputes is that it is - Another article Of the Treaty provides 
prompt and business-like and gets right to that, in addition to the Commission's general 
the core of the trouble. The International jurisdiction over questions involving the use 
Joint Commission is before all things a of boundary waters, any other matter of dif- 
tribunal for the people, 'the American and ference arising anywhere along the common 
Canadian people. The man with a legiti* frontier shall be referred to it for examina- 
mate grievance against his neighbor on the tion and report, by either the Government 
other side of the line knows that he can of the United States or the Government of 
bring it for final settlement before a court Canada, 
that is not merely Canadian or American, 

but international, vested with powers pos- ^ ^^^^^ ^^^" ^^ ^^^^^^ 

sessed by no other tribunal in either country. The tenth article of the Treaty is one of 
And because he knows that he has this privi- extraordinary significance. It provides that 
lege, his grievance is no longer magnified "any questions or matters of difference oris- 
into a monstrous wrong, but in nine cases ing between the high contracting parties in" 
out of ten finds its own settlement in the volving the rights, obligations, or interests of 
common-sense and good-feeling that are the the United States or of the Dominion of 
natural heritage of neighbors on either side Canada either in relation to each other or to 
of the boundary. their respective inhabitants, may be referred 

for decision to the International Joint Com- 

INTERNATIONAL IRRIGAT^ION PROBLEMS ^isfionjy the COnm.t pf the tWfl p^ies." 

The -Waterways Treaty, in addition to It will be seen that there is absolutely no 
the general authority it vests in the Com- limitation of any kind to the character of 
mission to dispose of questions involving the the question that, may be referred to tfie 
use, obstruction or diversion of boundary Commission under this article of the Treaty, 
waters, contains a number of speKSl articles. It is not confined to matters of dispute along 
One limits the amount of water that may be the boundary; it is not liipited ii> any.pos- 
diverted for power purposes on either side sible way. It is as broad as the jurisdiction 
of the Niagara River to an amount that will and interests of the United . States and Can- 
not interfere with the scenic beauty of the ada. It , might be a copupcrcial question 
Falls. Aiiother deals with a very interest- connected with the Gulf of Mexico, or the 
ing problem in the West. Two rivers, the navigation of the Panama Canal, or fishing 
St. Mary and Milk, rise in Montana and rights in Hudson Bay. It might even be a 
flow across the boundary into Canada. The question of national honor. And further, 
former, empties into the Saskatchewan, and provided the two countries agree to refer 
ultimately finds its way to Hudson Bay. such a question to the Commission, the treaty 
The Milk, after running for over one hun- provides, that the decision of -the Commission 
dred miles in Canada, returns to Montana is final. This article makes the Commission 
and empties into the Missouri. These two in a very real sense a Hague Tribunal for 
streams flow for some distance through what the people of North America, 
is called the semi-arid belt of Montana and The Commission since its organization has 
Alberta, where water is worth almost its dealt with a variety of questions, involving 



OUR CANADIAN-AMERICAS HIGH COURT 















ttleal bwyeci 


in the 


(A lesdcr of ih* bar of ihe Provinic 
of QlKblc) 


(Ch. 


rman 


for tbe DoDimion of 
CanaJs) 



the use of boundary waters for power and 
other purposes, from Maine in the East to 
Montana in the West. For two thousand 
miles of the international frontier its juris- 
diction, as defined by the Treaty, is supreme. 
It is the final court of appeals for the people 
of both nations. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE INTERESTS INVOLVED 

When it is remembered that these boun- 
dary waters support a population of over 
7,000,000 people, American and Canadian; 



that the navigation interests alone of the 
Great Lakes represent an enormous invest- 
ment ; that approximately 95,000,000 tons of 
freight, valued at more than $800,000,000, 
and carried by over 26,000 vessels, are trans- 
ported on these waters annually, — more than 
three times the volume of freight taken 
through the Suez Canal; when you add to 
this the rapidly increasing power interests 
along these waters, and all that depends 
upon them; and the vital uses of the Great 
Lakes and their connecting waterways • for 



HON. JAMES A. 






-ormetly Member 


of Con grew 


(Formerly Govtrror 



HON. UBAOMH gardneh 
Chaiiman lor Ihe United Slate 
merly United Siatei Senator fn 



THE AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS 



184 



THE AMERICAN REVIEtV OF REVIEWS 



domestic and sanitary purposes; it is not 
very difficult to appreciate the opportunities 
for usefulness that lie before the Interna- 
tional Joint Commission, or the value of 
that tribunal to the people of the two coun- 
tries. 

Of the questions that have already been 
referred to the Commission by the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Canada, for 
investigation and report, two arc of special 
importance. The first requires the Commis- 
sion to report what levels of water in the 
Lake of the Woods can be maintained which 
will best meet the needs of all the various 
interests on both sides of the boundary, — • 
navigation, agriculture, fishing, lumbering, 
and power. 

To most people the Lake of the Woods 
country is a comparatively unknown region, 
and the popular impression probably is that 
it is of little or no importance to the inhabi- 
tants of either the .United States or Canada. 
That is not the case. 
The investigation 
which the Commis- 
sion has already car- 
ried out shows 
among other things 
that the navigation, 
power, and other 
interests that will 
be afEccted by the 
Commission's d e - 
cision have invested 
something over 

I_ $100,000,000 in the 
I Lake of the Woods 
I district; that the 
I natural resources of 
I the region arc enor- 
I mous and only be- 
ginning to be de- 
veloped ; and that 
communities as far 
apart as Dututh and 
Winnipeg are more or less directly interested 
in the fixing of a level on this lake that will 
give the maximum benefit to the people on 
both sides of the boundary. 

POLLUTION OF WATERS 

The other question is in many ways the 
most important with which the Commission 




has yet had to deal. It involves the ascer- 
taining by means of sanitary surveys of the 
localities and extent of pollution of boundary 
waters; and the recommendation to the two 
governments of the best methods of correct- 
ing the evil. This matter has been under 
investigation for two years, and a report has 
already been submitted on the extent of the 
pollution. It discloses the gratifying fact 
that the great bulk of the Great Lakes 
water remains in its pristine purity, in spite 
of the fact that millions of people on both 
sides have contracted the very had habit of 
dumping all their sewage into these waters, 
and that the entire shipping of the Great 
Lakes, carrying in one season not less than 
15,000,000 passengers, has followed the same 
evil practise. 

Serious pollution, however, was found at 
many points along the boundary, particularly 
in the Detroit and Niagara Rivers, where the 
cities of Detroit and Buffalo, with a number 
of smaller communi- ■ 
tics on both sides of 
the rivers, have been 
doing their best, or 
worst, to make the 
waters of these 
rivers unfit for hu- 
man consumption. 
Severe epidemics of 
typhoid fever in the 
lake cities have for 
years warned these 
communities that, 
while they were 
spending hundreds 
of millions of dollars 
on their streets and 
buildings and in 
other ways adding 
to the comfort and 
convenience of their 
inhabitants, the most 
vital consideration 

of all, that of public health, was being 
grossly neglected. If the IntemationJ 
Joint Commission should achieve nothing 
more than to awaken the cities and towns 
of the Great Lakes to the vital impor- 
tance of protecting their water supplies, 
it will have more than justified its exist- 
ence as a permanent body. 




■nS. TWO NICARACUAN HARBORS-FONSECA RAY ON THE PACIFIC AND CORN ISLANDS ON THE ATLANTIC- 
OFFERED TO THE UNITED STATES FOR NAVAL BASES 
(The map alio itiowi the Nicaraiua Canal roulc, which wa> abandontd in favor of the route acrou Panama. 
:° — l.-j ./.... .I...-J c k — k.. -liTiLnaling the poaaibilily of any olh« nation obuining the conceiaion) 



* inuited lo th« United Suies, i 



AMERICANIZING NICARAGUA 

How Yankee Marines, Financial Oversight and Baseball Are 
Stabilizing Central America 

BY CLIFFORD D. HAM 

"^-"-— ir-General ot Customs in Nicaragua) 

I by perhaps a hundred American Marines in the capital of N'ica- 
ilion guard, has resulted tn a state of law and order probably 
^public. The conditions described by Mr. Ham in the following 
when contrasted with the state of affairs existing in Mexico during 



now awaiting 
Eates Senate is 
lieve that the 
of it. A few 
c chronically 
se it, because 
'in" the treaty 
roval, but the 
'c been raised, 
to both coun- 
brief resume: 



(2) Two naval bases (one on Fonseca Bay 
in the Pacific and the other on Corn Islands in 
the Caribbean), both within comparatively short 
distance from the Panama Canal. 

(1) Forever eliminating the danger of ■ for- 
eign power seeking and obtaining those conces- 

(♦) The promotion of better diplomatic and 
commercial relations with our Latin- American 
sister republics. 

(S) An important link in the chain, which we 
are attempting to forge, of preparedness and 
national defense, and the protection of our la- 
the Panama Canal. 



When we remember that tht; nearest coal- 
ng station under our control on the Pacific 



THE -AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



MARINES PLAYING BASEBALL WITH IHE NICARACUANS 

Ocean, north of Panama, is in Lower Cali- treaty, which, if passed, will undoubtedly 

iornia, and that on the cast wc have only sta- enable a bonding arrangement to be consum- 

tions in Cuba and the island of Culebra, near mated. 

Porto Rico, the strategic value of these two Is the United States still interested in 

bases can be readily understood. Nicaraguan matters? The answer must be 

"yes" if the Monroe Doctrine amounts to 

'Advantafts to Nicaragua: anything. In January, 1914, three Euro- 

(1) The pnyment of $1,000,000 lod the tffect pean nations — Germany, Italy, and Great 
of Jh ""J^Ij "P"**''"" '" ^"^ *" ""* ''*''*^* Britain— were at Nicaragua's throat dcmandi 
" (2) '-n," tendency toward* a pccmancnt and mg payment of debts due their nationals, 
lasring internal peace. The professional revolu- This is mentioned merely to show that the 
tionitt will become extinct, and revolutionary United States cannot escape its Monroe Doc- 
moveraent* from pertonal ambition will be dii- trine obligations even if it wishes. 
"""^'a practical illustration of measure, di.- Nicaragua threw up its hands to the de- 
cussed and approved in Pan-American confer- mands of these European governments, and 
cnces, congreiiet, and on official visits. answered that while it recognized the claims, 
it had no money and could not pay. Uncle 

Nicaragua feels that these rights arc worth Sam intervened at this stage in the person of 

considerably more than the sum offered, and Secretary of State Bryan, who told the rep- 

ihat it is a bargain compared with what we resentatives of the European nations that if 

have paid, or are paying, for Panama Canal they would be patient the United States 

rights and the Canal Zone territory. would sec to it that in time the Central 

m FINANCIAL DISTRESS American country would pay. 

Nicaragua still is in a very bad financial ™« "'''"^•- influence of American 
condition, for most of which the present gov- marines 
emment is not to blame, although it has some The question has often been a^cd. What 
things to answer for. The debts were sad- are American marines doing in Nicaragua? 
died on the country by former administra- They are merely a guard maintained in our 
tions, or else represent property destroyed legation at Managua for the same reason 
during revolutions. The monetary reform — that a guard is stationed at Peking, — ^to pro- 
begun in 191 1 and completed last fall, when tect the lives and property of the American 
the conversion of paper currency was finished Minister and his family. Do they need pro- 
— also cost Nicaragua a considerable amount, tection? During the three days' bombard- 
n'hich should be offset against the debt. ment of the city by the Liberal revolutionists 

Altogether the little republic owes $15.- in 1912, numerous shells and bullets fell near 

000,000 gross, which can be scaled down to or whistled by the American legation. I 

$12,000,000. This is a heavy burden. Their know, because I saw and heard them, 
hope is in the United States and the canal There being no revolution now, one might 



AMERICANIZING NICARAGUA 



THE btSBAU. TEAM OF THE UNITED STATED MARINE CORPS GUARD STATIONED AT NICARAGUA 

-wonder why the legation guard is retained, stroyed, and heavy expense incurred, pro- 
A prominent merchant, — a EunqKan who vided they have a chance to get "in." 
has lived in Nicaragua for many years, and The only practical difference in party prin- 
k:n»ws the country and its people. — came to ciples in Central America — perhaps I ought 
me recently and asked if the American guard to limit the remark to Nicaraguan political 
^pvouid be withdrawn. "If they are with- parties, and to confine myself to personal ob- 
drawrn," he continued, "I shall sell my stock servation — is that one is "in" and the other 
and leave the country, notwithstanding I is "out." With the exception of the pro- or 
have a good business and have prospered more anti-United States issue, and one or two not 
or less. A revolution would surely follow materialquestions (Church-and-State is one), 
Yvith all its horrors." there are no issues and no differences about 

Business meh who are Nicaraguans, edu- such matters as tariff, labor, trusts, corpora- 
eated men of property and standing (both tions, and so on. The names "Liberal" and 
Liberals and Conservatives, but not politi- "Conservative" are terms only. 
cians), tell me the same thing. The Nicara- The question of how rtie "artesanos" re- 
guan government wants the marine guard to gard the presence of the American marines 
stay. It is the best insurance for peace, sta- is very pertinent. They are the skilled labor- 
bUity, and prosperity, — inexpensive, and do- ers, the small tradespeople, and the middle 
ing no harm except to political revolutionists class generally. They arc a fine lot. The 
and their friends in and out of Nicaragua. more I know and come into contact with 
Nicaraguans of property and education them the better I like them. They are in- 
(those who are not politicians) are pleased dustrious and want work. 
with the legation guard, as it means order 

and stability. Both Liberals and Con- baseball turns the SCALE 

scrvative* have so told mc. Politicians are At first these middle-class people were un- 
divided on the subject. The Conservatives favorable, and resented the presence of the 
favor the presence of the marines, because it American soldiers. Then they got interested 
means no revolution and peace; and, being in seeing the marines playing baseball. A 
the "ins," that is what they want so that the few got balls and bats, and soon otbers joined, 
country can be developed. The Liberals, be- The American soldiers aided and instructed 
ing the "outs," want the marines removed at them. The "artesanos" found the soldiers 
once, as revolution would follow, — so say were personally all right and good chaps, and 
many Nicaraguans, — and what care Central mutual acquaintance began. 
American politicians about a revolution, even Under the guidance of the officeis and sol- 
if many people are killed, much property de- diers of the marines local "nines" were 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



THE QUARTERS OF THE UNITED STATES LEGATION GUARD OF MARINES AT NICARAGUA 

formed, to play among themselves. After- rines sent to Nicaragua as a legation guard? 
wards they and the marine team began to Up to 1909 Jose Santos Zelaya, head of the 
play. The Nicaraguans at first were wofully Liberal party, had maintained himself in 
beaten, but the sdldiers encouraged them and power for seventeen years, sending the con- 
they kept at it. Now they occasionally de- stitution to the scrap-heap, holding farcical 
feat the marines. The result is a league of elections, and doing many other improper 
Nicaraguan dubs, some at Managua, others things. He jailed or bani^ed and looted his 
at Granada and Masaya. The marine dub political opponents. He reduced grafting to 
visits and plays with them all. a science. His exactions and tyranny became 

The Nicaraguan children play ball in worse and worse. 
every vacant lot. American base-ball terms There were sixteen revolutions or wars 
only arc used, — "strike," "foul," "batter-up," with other Central American republics dur- 
"you're out," — for the Spanish language docs ing those seventeen years. The revolutions 
not provide them. all failed, but more and more people became 

Immense crowds full of enthusiasm at- alienated. Finally, the revolution of 1909- 
tend the Nicaraguan baseball games. They '10 succeeded, because the people were tired 
are under the patronage of the President and of tyranny, spoliation, and disturbance, 
the Archbishop, who frequently attend. Two It has been charged that the United States 
of the marines are always invited to officiate Government overthrew Zelaya by sending an 
as umpires. The result of all this is that the army of marines. Of course it did nothing 
American marines are now very popular with of the kind, although it might well have done 
the "anesanos" and many other Nicaraguans so, after his insulting treatment of that gen- 
who once looked askance. tlemanly and scholarly young American Min- 

Baseball has done it. It would be a crime ister, John Gardiner Coolidge, who left be- 
to withdraw the marines and Stop the base- fore the receipt of his asked-for recall, rather 
ball craze in Nicaragua. It is the best step than submit to the discourtesies and humilia- 
towards order, peace, and stability that has tions of Zelaya. The legation secretary, 
ever been taken. It beats the work of poli- John H. Gregory, stood it as Charge for a 
ticians and statesmen. People who will play while, and he, too, left, 
baseball and turn out by the thousands every In an efFort to bring the Central Ameri- 
week to see the match games, are too busy to can republics together and to do away with 
partidpate in revolutions. Three cheers for wars and revolutions, Secretary of State 
the American marine who is teaching base- Root, in 1907, had brought about joint trca- 
ball and real sportsmanship! Incidentally, it ties among the five countries and the estab- 
should be said that the members of this lega- lishmcnt of a permanent Central American 
tion guard of marines are a fine set of repre- Court of Justice to settle their differences by 
sentative Americans. They have behaved arbitration. The plan proved more or less 
^lendidly. a farce, because President Zelaya flagrantly 

and repeatedly violated the stipulations of 
SOME NICARAGUA^ HISTORY j^^^^ j^^^j^^ fl„^,ing the United States un- 

In our baseball enthusiasm let us not forget der whose au^ices they had been ^gned (I 
the main question; Why were American ma- am quoting from offidal State Department 



AMERICANIZING NICARAGUA 



THE PRINCIPAL STREET IN BLUEFIELDS 

documents). He violated Honduras, and The revenues had been depleted by favoritism 

idiscredited treaty obligations to the detri- and grafting. The foreign debt was $6,472,- 

mcnt of Costa Rica, Salvador and Guate- 689, of which $5,733,OCW were English 

mala. He kept Central America in a tur- bonds. There were also recognized, adjudi- 

moil. In Nicaragua, republican institutions cated debts of $1,615,999. Claims against 

ceased to exist except in name. Free speech and the government for acts committed under 

the press were strangled, and a prison was the Zelaya were $1,865,800. The cost to both 

price of every patriotic movement. The ma- sides of the revolution of 1909-10, in expendi- 

jority of the Central American republics pro- tures and claims, now falling on the new gov- 

tested to the United Stales against the situa- ernment, was $2,822,027. This made a total 

tion, and in consequence the Nicaraguan of $12,593,515, though many of the claims 

Minister at Washington was given his pass- were worthless. 

ports. Then there was the paper currency, with 

nothing to back it except the credit of the 

THE FI«ST LANDING OP MAWNBS government. It amounted in September, 

The charge that Zelaya was driven out of 1910, when the new government assumed 

power because hundreds of American marines charge, to 28,764,103 pesos, which has since 

were sent to Nicaragua, and thus prevented been converted into a gold currency under 

his government from exercising sovereignty, the monetary reform at the rate of 8 to 1. 

is one of those historical stories from which The revenues had not equaled the expenses 

the real facts take all the glamour. The only for a couple of years. The financial and 

marines present during the revolution against commercial situation was desperate. The in- 

Zelaya were landed from an American ship terest on the bonded debt held in England 

at Blucfields, when the government troops was defaulted, 
and revolutionists were threatening to fight a 

battle in the town, the bushes, men of which '"' "■'^"- ™ ™" """■«"' STATES 

are mostly Americans. The marines threw a The new government wanted help and 

guard around the place, and notified the two wanted it badly. Their only recourse was to 

factions they could battle to their hearts' con- the United States, — the friendly appeal, of 

tent outside, but not inside nor too near, a small country in the throes of financial and 

That was the extent to which the American other distress, to a powerful and wealthy 

marines had any connection with the down- neighbor, 

fall of the Zelaya Liberals. Here is the message of the Nicaraguan 

When revolutionary leaders took posses- Provisional President to the United States, 

■ion of the government they found it a wreck. After asking for recognition, promising to 

The treasury was empty. The monetary sys- call a constitutional convention and to hold 

tern had long before been debased from silver an election for President within a year, it 

currency to an irredeemable mass of paper, said: 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

ceed the provisional gov- 
erninent. 

The State Department, 
among its other helpful 
as^stance, complied with 
Nicaragua's request to aid 
in securing a loan from a 
group of American bank- 
ers, so as to establish a gold 
monetary system and thus 
retire the almost worthless 
paper currency. The bank- 
ers arranged a favorable 
loan, and gave much ad- 
vice and assistance to the 
little republic. 

During these financial 
reforms, which took some 
In my Bdminiitration I Bhill try to rehabilitaie time, the politicians in Central America 
and develop the public finance, and to refund the ^^A the United States were shouting "dol- 
natioDBl debt, and to that end art the aid of the < ,. , >• • t j j ■ 

American government to pUce a loan on the I""^ diplomacy in loud tones, and trymg to 
•ceuri^ of part of the cuMoms duties who« prevent the rehabilitation which might inter- 
collection will be made in a manner agreed fere with their plan to get "in" again. But 
upon bemeen the United States and Nicaragua, "dollar diplomacy" has lost its Sting since the 
. . . With the object of facilitating the fulfil- a„„„ „„ „ii, _j a -^ c 

ment of the«; and «her arrangement. I a»k that American people have made every effort of 
the Government of the United State, iend lo diplomacy to establish bankmg and commer- 
ManaguB a Comminioner in caae any of the.e cial relations with Latin America, .and tincc' 
negotiaiiona require (he fonoality of a conven- "dollar exchange" has become the watch- 
'"*"■ word. 

It was up to the United States. The 
Monroe Doctrine imposes obligations as well 
as benefits. Either the States had to give the 
assistance requested, or abandon Nicaragua Right in the midst of the efforts being 
to a turbulent and revolutionary fate and to made by the United States to help Nicaragua, 
its European creditors, one of the chiefs of the provisional govern- 

The State Department did the proper ment, — whose written faith had been pledged 
thing, and agreed to help as requested. It to the American Government, — tried to 
sent the best Latin-American diplomat avail- wreck the whole arrangement, aided and 
able, the late Thomas C. Dawson, as Min- abetted by Nicaraguan politicians who want- 
ister to Nicaragua to confer with the new cd to get "in" by throwing the provisional 
government and form a plan of rehabilitation, officials out, and who saw no chance by wait- 
Nicaragua did everything recommended by ing for the promised election. The revolu- 
the Washington Government. A constitu- tion of 1912 ensued. The efforts of the 
tional convention was called to formulate United States Government were mocked, 
anew a republican form of government. The American property in Nicaragua was seized, 
customs were turned over to a trustee, — an and the attempt was made to throw over the 
American, — in the mutual interest of the work of reform, including the proposed eleo 
Govemment of Nicaragua, the British bond- tions, and to establish a dictatorship in which 
holders, and the American bankers who Liberal politicians would have been promi- 
financcd the conversion of the Nicaraguan nenC, using General Mens, the revolutionary 
currency. The monetary reform formulated leader, as a puppet. 

by Mr. Charles A. Conant was strictly car- The United States had two alternatives, 
ried out. Nicaragua had to borrow $2,* One was to keep out, leaving the revolution 
750,000 and economize distressingly, but the to run its bloody course, with American and 
new government wanted sound money so that other foreign properry destroyed, people 
industries and commerce would develop, killed, possibly a dictatorship established, and 
Later on a President, Vice-President, and its own standing and prestige in Latin Amer- 
two houses of Congress were elected, to sue- ica and the rest of the world made a by- 



THE PENDING TREATY IVITH COLOMBIA 



word and a mockery. 

Unless the United States 
as a nation was a weakling, 
whose faith was utterly un- 
reliable, it could do but one 
thing; and that it did. It 
sent a force of marines 
to Nicaragua, to protect 
American and foreign prop- 
erty and lives and to put 
down the political bandits 
who were killing and loot- 
ing — just as has recently 
been done in Haiti. And a 
handful of marines has been 
left in Nicaragua to pro- 
tect the American legation 
and Minister, and his fam- 
ily and assistants. 

No brief is held by me 
for either political party in 
Nicaragua. Both the "ins" 

and the "outs" are able to criticize their op- for political and financial rehabilitation, de- 
ponents and to defend themselves. But in spite much distress. It has cut its budget in 
justice to the present Nicaraguan Govern- two. It has kept faith with the United 
ment one thing should be said : It deserves States. Will the American nation keep faith 
credit for sticking steadfastly to its promises with Nicaragua? 



A, WING OF THE KATIONAL PALACE AT MANAGUA 



THE PENDING TREATY WITH 
COLOMBIA 

BY EDWIN MAXEY 

(Professor of International Law, University of Nebraska) 



THE treaty now pending in the United 
States Senate, between Colombia and 
the United States, for the adjustment of 
claims by the former against the latter is a 
document of more than ordinary interest. 
This statement is true whether we consider 
it from the political, the legal, or the his- 
toric viewpoint. It reopens a diplomatic in- 
cident of more than a decade ago and coun- 
tenances a refusal upon the part of Colom- 
bia to recognize accomplished facts. But this 
is not necessarily conclusive against it, for 
what in the language of diplomacy is known 
as a fait accompli is always subject to review 
in the court of public opinion, where the 
Statutes of limitation are not so rigidly ap- 
plied as in the courts of law. Let us then 
in a spirit of frankness and candor examine 
the facts upon the basis of which Colombia 
now seeks reparation from the United States. 



In 1903, the Hay-Herran treaty was 
signed by the diplomatic agents of the two 
countries acting under the advice of their 
respective governments. By the terms of 
this treaty, the United States was to pay 
Colombia ten million dollars in gold, and an 
annuity of a quarter of a million dollars a 
year, gold, beginning nine years from the 
ratification of the treaty. When this treaty 
was signed, there was no intimation on the 
part of Colombia, or anyone else, that the 
United States had overreached or attempted 
to overreach, bully, trick or deceive an un- 
wary vendor or to drive a hard bargain at 
the expense of a weaker neighbor. Of such 
there is no evidence in the treaty or else- 
where. And it is worth remembering that 
the treaty was negotiated and signed on the 
part of Colombia under the direction of 
President Maroquin, who was at that time 



192 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

exercising the powers of a dictator, which their own. Having reached the conclusion 

powers he continued to exercise until after that their political guardians were recreant 

the treaty was rejected, by a Congress which to their duty, they proceeded with dispatch 

he was not compelled to call and which as to discharge them and to act in their own 

political creations of his were ready to do right That every citizen of the province 

his bidding. It is, therefore, within the facts took part in the revolution is improbable, 

to say that, between the time of negotiating but the indifferent readily acquiesced in what 

the treaty and its rejection by Colombia, the leaders did. So far as I can find there 

President Maroquin had seen a new light, was a much smaller percentage of Panamans 

Nor is it at all improbable that the light opposed to the revolution than there was 

which had bedazzled his vision was the pros- of Tories during the American revolution, 

pect that negotiations might be drawn out Even the Colombian soldiers in Panama 

until after the expiration of the franchise joined in the revolution. Within four days 

of the French Company when their rights the revolutionists were in full control and 

could be confiscated and the forty million their independence was recognized by the 

which the United States was to pay the United States and very soon thereafter by 

Canal Company would go to the Colombian the countries of Europe. A treaty was ne- 

treasury, of which the aforesaid Maroquin gotiated between Panama and the United 

was the watch-dog. States providing for the payment to Panama 

, of the same amount which under the Hay- 

PANAMAS REVOLT jjerran treaty was to have been paid to 

But whatever may have been the motive Colombia and granting to the United States 

or the arguments for the rejection of the substantially the same privileges as were 

treaty, whether the desire to enrich the granted in the Hay-Herran treaty. 

Colombian treasury at the expense- of the ,, ,, 

Canal Company, which was the rightful Colombia guessed wrong 

owner of the property to be transferred, or What then is Colombians grievance? 
to enrich certain Colombian politicians at What is the nature of her injuries? And 
the expense of the United States treasury ,-or -who is responsible for them? True, she has 
the inability of the Colombian Congress to not received the ten million which she ex- 
alienate Colombian territory, the effect of pccted to get, nor the annuity, both of which 
rejecting the treaty was well understood by went to Panama, nor the forty million which 
the people of Panama. By them it was in- went to the French company, nor the bribe 
terpreted to mean that their interests were to the Bogota politicians which stayed in the 
being jeopardized by the government whose United States. But the fact that she did not 
duty it was to protect those interests, and get the first two is wholly her own fault and 
that their progress was being unwisely re- to the last two she never had any legitimate 
tarded by one who should use every reason- claim. I say her own fault, because the 
able effort to promote it. Nor was this United States stood willing and ready, and 
an unnatural interpretation for them to place there was no question as to her ability, to 
upon it. Other people under similar cir- carry out the provisions of the Hay-Herran 
cumstances would have reached a like con- treaty had Colombia not rejected it. In 
elusion. Given a modicum of intelligence, order to gain an uncertain advantage she 
and natures not altruistic to the extent of sacrificed a sure thing. She was speculating, 
being incapable of being moved by-ronsider- and guessed wrong. Whether in public or 
ations of self-interest, and what could be private business, what usually happens to 
more natural than for them to be disap- the speculator who guesses wrong is a loss, 
pointed in the act of the Colombian govern- Colombia now thinks that the loss due to her 
ment which had all the appearance of ruth- mistake should be borne by the United States, 
lessly disregarding the larger interests of the But to us it seems to be expecting too much 
province of Panama. of the United States to expect her to indem- 
The matter was not argued at great nify the Latin-American states against losses 
length. To the people of Panama it seemed due to their own errors of judgment, and 
that what was necessary was action, not still more unreasonable where the error, as 
argument. And accordingly they acted with in this case, seems to have been one of motive, 
promptness. Within four days after the re- The plea that Colombia had no power to 
jection of the treaty and adjournment of the ratify the treaty was hypocritical, for as 
Colombian Congress they had declared their soon as the revolution broke out she was 
independence and set up a government of anxious to reopen negotiations with the 



THE PENDING TREATY WITH COLOMBIA 193 

United States and ratify the treaty. Their nice and neighborly in her future relations 

constitutional powers were the same in both with the United States, 

cases, but their keenness for legal refine- While the treaty does not specify for what 

ments weakened perceptibly when instead of injuries the lump sum of twenty-five million 

gaining them time it was costing them coin, is reparation, we are not precluded from in- 

If Panama disposed of property which quiring. Nor is this an inopportune time 
belonged to Colombia at the time the for such inquiry. Though a part of it may 
transfer was made or in which Colom- be compensation to Colombia for the loss of 
bia had a legal or equitable interest, the in- her reversionary interest in the Panama rail- 
jury has been done by Panama. Now, as way, no one claims that all of it is for this 
Panama is a responsible state and received purpose. This claim is one the justice and 
the consideration for the property transferred, amount of which could have been much 
Colombia should look to the one who perpe- more accurately determined by arbitration, 
trated the wrong and reaped the fruits But waiving the inexpediency of settling 
thereof. She should establish the fact that this by negotiation rather than by arbitra- 
Panama is but a trustee of the fund which tion, there is still a considerable part of the 
in equity and good conscience belongs to lump sum to be accounted for. Is this bal- 
Colombia. This is a justiciable question ance to be paid as damages due to Colombia 
which could very properly be submitted to by reason of the premature recognition of 
a board of arbitration and their award would Panama by the United States? 
settle the legal and equitable rights involved. It is true that President Roosevelt recog- 
nized the independence of the Republic of 

THE BURDEN OF PROOF ON COLOMBIA Panama within a very short time after the 

It is not conclusive to say that "Colombia declaration of its independence by the people 

feels aggrieved, and whatever may be said as of the Isthmus. But a recognition of inde- 

to whether or not this feeling is justified, pendence is merely the expression of opinion, 

no one will deny that she has sustained finan- by the recognizing state, as to the existence 

cial loss in the separation of Panama from of certain facts. Clearly the lapse of time 

her." The very nub of the whole question between the assertion of its independence by 

is whether or not her feeling that the United a political community and the recognition of 

States has done her an injury is justified, that independence by other states, cannot be 

for if not she is asking alms instead of as- the sole determinant of the correctness of the 

serting a right. In order to give her case judgment or the good faith of the recogniz- 

standing in court she must assume the bur- ing state. Being the expression of an opin- 

den of proof in establishing the fact, not ion as to the existence of accomplished facts, 

merely that she "feels aggrieved," bat that promptness or delay in acting is a matter of 

she has suffered an injury and that not sim- indifference so long as there is a bona-fide 

ply someone, but that the United States is belief that the action accords with the facts. 

responsible for that injury. If we are to Nor must the recognizing state act at its 

be dispensers of charity for the promotion of peril in determining upon the existence of the 

happiness and good will throughout the facts. Provided it acts in good faith, there 

world, let it be clearly understood that what is no precedent for holding that an error of 

we are doing is dispensing charity rather than judgment in deciding that a political com- 

mislead ourselves or anyone else as to the munity seeking recognition, whether of bel- 

nature of the transaction by purporting to ligerency or of independence, is entitled to it 

pay debts which we have never incurred and furnishes the basis of a claim for damages. 

whfch, as a matter of fact, do not exist. This is simply another way of saying that 

a"%c r\nr, ru\r\ -^ o"^ State has no reasonable right to expect 

$25,000,000 AS REPARATION FOR WHAT? omniscicnce on the part of another state. A 

Such being the nature and extent of Co- necessary corollary to which is that the fail- 

lombia's grievances and the responsibility of ure to exercise an infallible judgment does 

the United States therefor, what is the rep- not render a state liable to respond in dam- 

aration provided for by the pending treaty? ages for the real or fancied wrongs result- 

Thc United States agrees to pay Colombia a ing from such failure. 

lump sum ^-twenty-five million dollars, to England never asserted a claim for dam- 
give her coastwise vessels free transit through ages against France for premature recogni- 
the canal during the continuance of our lease, tion of the independence of the United States, 
and expresses regret. In return for this, although that was a glaring car? ci the ex- 
Colombia agrees to do nothing, but to be pression of a hope rather than a judgment. 



194 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Although Spain complained of our recogni- tive need for the appointment of a commis- 

tion of the South American republics, she sion of lunacy. When the United States 

did net make it the basis of a claim for refused to allow a shipload of Colombian 

damages. soldiers to fight in the vicinity of the rail- 
way and sent them back to Cartagena it was 

THE CHARGE THAT THE UNITED STATES but acting in accord with the terms of the 

FOMENTED REVOLUTION ^^eaty of 1846 and conforming to the policy 

In order to recognize the validity of Co- outlined by Seward in a dispatch to Mr. 

lombia's claim against the United States for Burton of October 9, 1866: 

damages resulting from the independence of ^. ,^ . , ^ , , . . * r 

T> 11 _ u 4.U ^^ ^1 '^ -.u 4. The United States have always abstained from 

Panama, we must reach the conclusion that ^„y connection with questions of internal rerolu- 

the United States fomented the revolution tion in Panama or any other of the states of the 

and officially and wilfully aided the revolu- United States of Colombia, and will continue to 

tionists in establishing their independence, maintain a perfect neutrality in such domestic 

D^t ' .\ £ ^ , t controversies. In the case, however, that the 

But where is the proof to support such a nansit trade across the Uthmu. should iuffer from 

conclusion? I have read all that I can find an invasion from either domestic or foreign dit- 

bcaring upon the history of the event and turbances of the peace in the state of Panama, the 

confess that I can find no convincing evidence H^"^/,"JJ' "'" '"''*' themselves ready to pro- 
of guilty cooperation on the part of the 

United States in bringing about the changed John hay's testimony 
poliricaL relations on the Isthmus The i„ -^^ refusal to allow the use of the 
conclusion rests upon assumption rather than railroad for the transportation of troops, the 
upon proof. Moreover, the assumption is United States was not, therefore, introducing 
a gratuitous one, rather than one which is ^^y ^^ interpretation of the Treaty of 
neccKary in order to explain the facts. ,846. And it is worth noting that it exer- 
There was ample incentive to revolt, apart ^.j^^j j^is right against the troops of Panama 
from any outside inspiration or interference ^3 ^^,1 ^ ,,3^ ^^^ox of Colombia. As 
The people of the Isthmus had never derived ^ jn^t ^^^ unsupported assumption of guilty 
any very substantial benefit from dieir polit- participation in the revolution by the United 
ical connection with Colombia. Only about gj^j i ^^^ j^e word of John Hay, than 
one-tenth of the revenues collected from ^^om no ofie was in a better position to 
them were spent for their benefit and what ^ ^^ ^^^^ ability, truthfulness and 
protection they received they received from ^^^ ^f honor do not suffer by comparison 
the United States. To be thus used as a ^jji, ^^at of any other diplomat America has 
political asset for the benefit of a knot of cor- produced. In a letter of December 8, 1903, 
nipt politicians at Bogota was certainly not ^o James Ford Rhodes, the historian, Mr. 
well calculated to strengthen their feeling of jj^y ^y^. 
allegiance. Viewed in the light of Colom- 
bia's past indifference toward the welfare of When I think of how many mistakes I have 

the Isthmian provinces, it seems entirely P"^* '^Il'tJ''''VK *■''•'' u°'lf.':..Vj!?^*„"^ 

^ 1 , t. « • • 1 be dissatisfied with being lambasted m an occa- 

natural that, when their interests were scl- ^jonal case where I have done right. It is hard 

nshly sacrificed and their reasonable hopes for me to understand how any one can criticize 

blighted by the exhibition of political nar- our action in Panama on the grounds upon which 

rowness and stupidity, tinctured with hypoc- " " ordinarily attacked. The matter came on 

• ^' ^u u u ^ ^ -.L US With amazing celerity. We had to deade on 

risy, m rejecting the Hay-Herran treaty, the ,j,^ j„,,^„, ^,,,fh„ ^e would take possession of 

people of the Isthmus should have done ex- the ends of the railroad and keep the traffic clear, 
actly what they did, namely, dissolve the or whether we would stand back and let those 
political bond which kept them from render- gentlemen cut each other's throats for an indefi- 

;^^ *u« o^^r.v^ «^J ^A«,^:^^ 4\>^ u^^^a*, ..rU.Vk nite time, and destroy whatever remnant of our 
mg the service and reaping the benefit which ^^^^^^ »^^j .^^^^^J^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ I l^^^ „^ 

(jod and nature intended they should. hesitation as to the proper course to take and 

It is an injustice not to concede to those have had no doubt of the propriety of it since, 
people, situated upon the world's highway of 

commerce, some degree of intelligence and I" "^ less uncertain tone does he speak of 
some degree of self-interest. Not to have the part taken by President Roosevelt In a 
manifested a determination that their great lc«er of January 20, 1904, to Professor 
natural resource, due to their situation, be George P. Fisher, he says: 

used to their own and the benefit of mankind, • *u ^ t *i. d "j * u ^ — *^ Ait 

, , , , , I , , ' I am sure that if the President had acted dir- 

rather than senselessly wasted, would have fcrcntly, when, the 3rd of November, he was con- 
been unmistakable evidence of an impera- fronted by a critical situation which miglit easily 



THE PENDING TREATY WITH COLOMBIA 195 

have turned to disaster, the attacks which are whether or not she had acted in good faith, 

now made on him would have been ten times and this as we have shown is not incidental 

more virulent and more effective. He must have u *. -.u^ xj ..i -.• -_uj-.- 

done exactly as he did, or the only alternative ^M* ^^^ fundamental question to be deter- 

would have been an indefinite duration of blood- mined. 

shed and devastation through the whole extent The provision allowing the Colombian 

of the Isthmus. It was a time to act and not to coastwise vessels to pass through the canal 

theorize, and mv judgment at least is clear that / x ^ 11 * ^ i*^^i ■ • 

he acted rightly "^^ ^ ^^" *^ "°^ ^ "^"^ surprising in view 

of the recent insistence of the present ad- 
ARE WE TRESPASSERS IN THE ZONE? ministration that the provision in the act of 
But the present administration, which is Congress exempting our own coastwise ves- 
now urging the ratification of this treaty, does sels from tolls should be forthwith repealed, 
not really believe in the theory of guilty Why we have greater power in regard to 
cooperation on the part of the United States, other coastwise vessels than in regard to our 
or anyone in an official position to represent own is not clear. Should Great Britain in- 
the United States. For if it did, the present sist that this violates the provision in the 
treaty becomes a mere subterfuge, and, far Hay-Pauncefote treaty in regard to "all ves- 
from being generous, it does not right a sels" being guaranteed equal treatment we 
moiety of the wrongs which the United would be under the necessity of either con- 
States has inflicted upon Colombia. Under vincing Great Britain that all vessels means 
this theory, the treaty with Panama is no all vessels when applied to our own, but 
justification for our possession of the Canal not when applied to those of Colombia; or 
Zone, we are without title or color of title, else buy oflF Colombia at a price which will 
but by reason of the fraud are trespassers "satisfy Colombia's sense of justice." 
and have no right to the improvements which There are those who object to the expres- 
we have placed there. This is a well-known sion of regret, which amounts to an apology, 
principle of English and American law and But this feeling is not well founded, for 
was recognized by the Supreme Court of the either we have wronged Colombia or we 
United States in Kutter v. Smith, 2 Wall., have not. If we have, an apology is cer- 
491. The canal having been built on Co- tainly due her. If we have not wronged 
lombian soil by a wilful trespasser belongs Colombia, there is no excuse for the treaty. 
to Colombia and not to the United States, To satisfy her sense of outraged justice re- 
as those not parties to the plot had all along gardless of its justification might readily 
supposed. Though restitution would at this have a tendency to encourage an epidemic of 
stage be disappointing, it would be a legal such feelings upon the part of our other 
duty, if the United States conspired with neighbors, and Mexico might, eleven years 
Panama to oust Colombia from her rightful hence, demand several million and some re- 
possession of the Isthmus. grct for our hesitation in recognizing 

The present administration is not, how- Huerta. 
ever, prepared to admit any facts which will The pious hope of the administration that 
involve the United States to such a degree or the treaty "will give prestige to the United 
smirch a preceding administration to such States throughout Spanish America," seems 
an extent. And fortunately such facts do to evince a lack of knowledge of human 
not exist The administration appears, how- nature. Prestige is not the product of con- 
ever, to be willing that "in order to satisfy cession. Whether between States or between 
the sense of justice of Colombia" the United individuals, prestige is not enhanced by yield- 
States shall be mulcted moderately and that ing to arbitrary and unjust demands. I 
a preceding administration shall be smirched shall not attempt to discredit such demands 
gently. The offer to Colombia to arbitrate by applying to them the epithet "belated 
the whole controversy is not conclusive that black-mail," but if anyone else should so 
she has a strong case, for Colombia well characterize them I would not be in a posi- 
knows that no nation would at the present tion to dispute the accuracy of the character- 
time submit to arbitration the question of ization. 





O !-'*■ 

MEXICAN FAMILIES ABANDONING THEIR HOMES IN SECTIONS REt^mERED [ISOLATE BY YEARS OF CONSTANT 
ARMED STRtFE.-'OniOM A RECENT PHOTOGRAPH) 



FROM DIAZ TO CARRANZA 

The Story of Five Years' Misrule and Insurrection 

FOR the past five years there has been The Madero Insurrection Against Dian 
civil strife in Mexico without interrup- It happened, however, that a leader came 
tion. The wheel of fate has turned unceas- forward at that time to champion the cause 
ingly, bringing forward new leaders one day, of the downtrodden Mexican people. He 
only to cast them into oblivion the next. At was learned enough to formulate an Impos- 
least > dozen men have at different times re- ing and appealing program of reforms, and 
ccived the homage of the multitudes; and wealthy enough to command attention and 
R number of these have in turn been wel- to have his doctrines circulated widely. That 
(-omed by outsiders as the long-awaited one leader was Francisco I. Madero, Jr. He 
destined to lead the Mexican people back had been so audacious as to present himself 
into the paths of peace and prosperity. as a candidate in opposition to Diaz, and had 

Five years ago the republic was enjoying been cast into prison. Afterwards released, 
X fair measure of peace and prosperity, and he continued his propaganda from the safer 
was accorded the respect of the entire world, soil of the United States. 
Gen. Porfirio Diaz had been "elected" and Mexicans in the northern provinces found 
on December 1, 1910, inaugurated Presi- much they liked Jn the Madero promises, 
dent for the eighth rime. A substantial bal- They had suffered most from the two great 
■nee was in the treasury, and there was evils which had developed under Diaz,— the 
apparency no immediate prospect of change exploitation of natural resources by foreign- 
in the situation. ers, and the acquisition of vast estates by a 

Some murmurings of discontent might small group of rich families, 
have been heard, to be sure; but they seemed The insurrection spread rapidly and gained 
to be no louder than at any other time during strength. On the 7th of May, 191 1, Prcsi- 
the thirty years' rule of Diaz. There was dent Diaz professed willingness to retire 
good reason for dissatisfaction, for the Diaz "after peace is restored." Eighteen days 
regime had seemed to give undue prosperity later he decided to resign without further 
to a few and to keep the rest submerged, delay. He left the country at once, and 
But the Dictator's personality was so domi- Dr. Francisco de la Barra (Minister of 
nating, his power so great, that he retained Foreign Relations, and former Ambassador 
the alliance of the military and was in a to the United States) became Provisional 
position to ignore the complaints of the peon. Pr||]dent pending an election. 



FROM DIAZ TO CARRANZA 197 

The Madero Presidency Hucrta himself could not legally be chosen 

On October 1, 1911, the people of Mexico President. He assumed dictatorial power, 
participated in their first general election of and on one occasion imprisoned 110 members 
a really popular kind. There was only of the Chamber of Deputies. A member of 
slight opposition to the candidacy of Madero, ^c Senate who protested too vigorously is 
leader of the revolution, and he was duly reported to have been put to death, 
chosen and inaugurated. Th^ Wilson administration* withheld for- 

His troubles soon began. He made an ^al recognition of the Huerta Government, 
honest effort to plan for the division of land for three reasons:- (1) the fate of Madero, 
among small proprietors; but so radical a (2) the failure to hold a real election, and 
change could not be brought about at once, (3) the fact that Huerta was not in control 
and the lower classes became restless. He of the larger part of the country. In his 
found it hard to satisfy the demands of his message to Congress on December 2, 1913, 
immediate followers; yet he appointed his President Wilson referred to Huerta's 
uncle to head the Treasury and paid his own 'usurped authority" and "pretended govem- 
brother $700,000 out of the public funds for ment," and to his own "policy of watchful 
moneys advanced during the revolution. waiting. 

At the end of six months there was actual ^t was during the Huerta regime that 
revolt against Madero, by the same elements President Wilson sent several personal repre- 
which had fought Diaz ; but the cause lacked sentatives to Mexico, to investigate and re- 
a leader, and lost headway. Port upon conditions. Chief among these 

was ex-Governor John Lind, of Minnesota. 
The Felix Diaz Rebellion Against Madero The attitude of the United States em- 

When Madero had served nearly a year, barrassed Huerta in his relations with other 

Felix Diaz (a nephew of the former Presi- foreign governments, and tended to aid his 

dent) launched an insurrection at Vera Cruz, enemies at home. 

Something went wrong, for the revolt was mi, ^ .-. .• #• . r ^. v • 

easily suppressed and Diaz thrown into The Comtttuttonaltst Insurrection Agamst 

prison. Under any other Mexican ruler, he ^^^ ^ 

would have been put to death at once. That Within three months after General 
was in October, 1912. Huerta's elevation to the Presidency the re- 
Four months afterwards Felix Diaz "es- form elements in the northern provinces 
caped" and appeared in Mexico City at the were again in revolt, and the outside world 
head of a substantial revolutionary force, began to hear of Venustiano Carranza and 
They seized the city, and confined President the Constitutionalists. By December, 1913, 
Madero and the Government troops in the they controlled the entire north and were 
National Palace. Several days later (Febru- gradually pressing southward. The most 
ary 18, 1913) Gen. Victoriano Huerta, com- successful military leader was Francisco 
mander-in-chief of the federal army, deserted Villa, a former bandit. Carranza's demo- 
Madero and forced his resignation. cratic ideas followed his flag. He confis- 
rr,. ,trr • f>* rr «. . cated and divided many large estates, selling 
The Unrecognized Huerta Regime the parts to the poorer classes at low prices, 

The climax of Felix Diaz, leadar of the on favorable terms, 
revolt, was ignored and the army pro- In February, 1914, the revolutionists cap- 
claimed Huerta Provisional President, the tured their first port, Mazatlan, and by 
choice being immediately ratified by a sub- April 8 they had reached Tampico, the 
servient Congress. great oil port. Five days later that city fell 

Madero's brother was executed forthwith ; into their hands. During the attack the 
and four days afterward Madero himself and United States became accidentally precipi- 
his Vice-President, Pifio Suarez, were shot tated into Mexican affairs, 
dead "while attempting to escape." Few ^, ^ . ^ .. , , ^ . 

people believed it anything else than murder. ^^^ Tampico Incident and the American 

From the beginning it was evident that Occupation of Vera Cruz 

Huerta was not likely to establish order. Some American marines, landing at a 
His was purely a military rule, and it suf- wharf in Tampico on April 10, 1914, were, 
ficed to keep him in office for seventeen arrested and later released with an apology, 
months. Two fardcal elections were held, There had been previous affronts; and the 
but no one dared to become a candidate 4nd American naval officer demanded further 



198 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

cpology in the form of a salute to the flag, on account of the fate of Madero and later 
Not an unusual request, it was nevertheless because of Huerta's inability to extend his 
refused. Huerta supported the position authority over even half of the country, 
taken by the Mexican ofiicer at Tampico, Meanwhile the armed forces of Carranza, 
while President Wilson and Congress stood led by Villa, were regularly winning vie- 
behind the American officer. After eight tories. On July 9 they captured Guadala- 
days of haggling, an ultimatum was delivered jara, the second largest city, 
to Huerta, which he completely ignored. General Huerta — perhaps mindful of his 
The United States was left in a position predecessoi^'st, fate — at last sought safety in 
which seemed tocftU for action. . flight. H^. resigned on July 15, 1914, — 
Meanwhile a German steamship was ap- having been Provisional President for seven- 
proaching Vera Cruz, loaded with war ma- teen months, — ^^nd left Mexico on a German 
terials for_ Huerta's troops. *The President warship, bound for Europe. Last suipmer 
and his advisers decided to seize the custom Huerta attempted to return, but was inter- 
house there, and prevent the landing. Early cepted by .Ui^ted States authorities and 
in the morning of April 21, the necessary charged with planning a Mexican revolution 
orders were flashed by wireless to the fleet,- on United States, soil. While in prison 
and by sundown the port was in full con- awaiting trial, illness developed which re- 
trol of American sailors and marines. The suited in his death at El Paso last month. 
linesi>were lafcr extended, and the whole city The Minister of Foreign Relations, Dr. 
was occupied. Seventeen Americans were Francisco Carbajal, automatically became 
killed during the landing and subsequent President and served for nearly a month, 
fighting, the Mexican casualties totaling 126 when the approach of the Carranza forces 
killed and 195 wounded. caused him to dissolve the government and 

o ., J, . %jr J' .' T '.•^ J abandon the city. General Carranza for- 

South Amencan Medtatton ImtuUed ^^Hy ^„j„^j ^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^„ ^^^^ j9 

On April 25 it was announced that the 

diplomatic representatives at Washington of -^ ^ Carranza-VtUa Break 

Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, — the three As is so frequently the case, the victors im- 

most important South American republics, — mediately began to quarrel among themselves, 

had tendered their "good offices" to arrange Within a month after Carranza's entry into 

a settlement of differences between the Mexico City, Villa was in open revolt against 

United States and the Huerta government, the "Supreme Chief" for whom he had 

The offer was accepted, and on May 20 fought so valiantly. Exactly what Villa 

a series of conferences was begun at Niagara wanted has never been made clear. He dc- 

Falk, Canada. Besides the South American nied Presidential ambitions, 

diplomats, there were three delegates from Carranza desired to be chosen President in 

Mexico and two from the United States an election, and therefore shunned the office 

(the late Justice Lamar and Mr. Frederick and title of Provisional President. A con- 

W. Lehmann). vention of Constitutionalist leaders met and 

The conferences practically ignored the chose Gen. Eulalio Gutierrez for that office ; 
Tampico incident, and discussed the more but Carranza refused to approve the selec- 
serious problem of Mexico's internal affairs, tion, maintaining that the convention had 
Within a week they agreed upon the retire- not complied with conditions he had fixed, 
ment of Huerta, but for a full month there- Gutierrez appointed Villa as commander-in- 
after they disagreed upon the choice of a chief of all the forces opposing Carranza, and 
successor who would be satisfactory to the directed him to proceed. Carranza hastily 
opposing factions. Representatives of Car- withdrew from Mexico City, his rule there 
ranza were consulted, but did not formally having lasted only three months, 
participate. Finally, on July 1, 1914, the r/ ^ ... 
conference came to an end, without positive ^ ^^ Wtthdrawal from Vera Cruz and the 
result. Articles of peace were signed, yet Beginning of Border Outrages 
our troops remained at Vera Cruz. It was at this moment, curiously enough, 

TA- i>..:»^^*'^ t zj * ^^^ the Administration at Washington saw 

Ihe Resignation of Huerta c^ ^ -u i ^u tt '^ j c^ 4. ^ / 

' fit to withdraw the United States troops from 

The position of Huerta had gradually Vera Cruz (November 23, 1914), after 

become more difficult Foreign recognition seven months' occupation. Carranza, menaced 

and financial support were withheld, first at Mexico City by the Villa-Zapata combina- 



FROM DIAZ TO CARRANZA 



tion, saved himself by merely^ ttapsfem'ng his the Villa-Zapata-Angeles forces, on January 

government to Vera Cruz. X 5, March 27, April 8, April 15, and June 6. 

Hardly had our soldiers returned, when While some of these engagements were im- 

they (or some of their comrades) were called portant, none was decisive. 

upon to police the border. Twice during the ^, ,, , r ■ i .^ .- ■ 

first half of Decei^ifapr, 1914, the United ^*' ^''""'^ Latm-Amcrican Mediation 
States forces in ArizMa were materially in- President Wilson believed that the situa- 

creased. The Chief of Staff of the United tion demanded action on his part; and on 

States Army, General Scott, himself con- June 2, 1915, he called upon the factions in 

ferred with the belligerent factions, in an ef- Mexico to act together promptly for the rc- 

fort to persuade them to move away from lief of their desolate country, otherwise the 

the border. United States would employ means to help 

At about this time there began a period — Mexico save herself. The whole of north- 
not yet ended — characterized by attacks by ern Mexico had become paralyzed through 
lawless bands upon Americans, not only in incessant conflict, and even in Mexico City 
Mexico but upon United States soil, in the populace was starving as a result of inter- 
Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. Our sol- rupted railroad communication. 
diers especially were the victims. During the month of July the capital 

Tlleanwhile the struggle in Mexico con- city changed hands three times; and Presi- 

tinued, the followers of Carranza — under a dent Wilson once more acted. The diplo- 

new leader, General Obregon — gaining a se- matic representatives at Washington of six 

ties of victories over the Villa forces. In of the republics of Central and South Amer- 

January, 1915, the Constitutionalist conven- ica were invited to meet with the American 

tion deposed Provisional President Gutierrez, Secretary of State and discuss means for cnd- 

and selected Col. Roque Gonzales Garza to ing the chaos in Mexico. The result was an 

succeed him. Garza ruled for ten days and "appeal," signed by the seven diplomats and 

then fled before approaching Carranza forces, sent (on August 14, 1915) to certain Mexi- 

Later (in June, 1915) the convention de- cans who possessed authority or power. It 

posed Garza and chose Francisco Lagos Cha- proposed a conference of those directing the 

zaro for the Presidential office. armed movements in Mexico, and offered 

General Obregon reported victories over friendly and disinterested help. 



200 . THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVlEfVS 

A prompt acjccptancc came from Villa, hut is typical. The gross earnings for the last 

Cairanza— -after giving warning of dangers fiscal year were $1,776,982 (Mexican cur- 

which might ensue from interference — re- rency), compared with $61,447,791 three 

jected the proposals. years before. 

As Carranza was admittedly the dominant The position of Americans in Mexico has, 
factor in Mexico, the diplomats were forced since the downfall of President Madero, al- 
to invent a new plan. They met again on ways been dangerous and at times desperate. 
September 18, and agreed to recognize the In the beginning there were many thousands 
faction which at the end of three weelcs had of these Americans, engaged principally in 
best demonstrated ability to maintain order, the development of the country's resources. 
Upon the expiration of that period they de- Most of them have left Mexico, Of those 
clared that the Carranza party was the only who decided to remain, — and those who went 
one possessing the essentials for recognition as back because of the position assumed by the 
the de facto government, and on October 19, United States in withdrawing from Vera 
1915, the United States and eight of the re- Cruz and recognizing the Carranza govern- 
publics of Central and South America ex- ment, — several hundred have been killed, 
tended formal recognition. At the present moment wc find the British 
Ti. D c - Ambassador at Washington again advising 
1 he fraent l>itualion ,,1^ countrymen to be ready to leave northern 

Thus we find Mexico, after five years of Mexico, 
constant civil strife, in a pitiable condition. As for the United States Government 

For the first time since February, 1913, there itself, it is cordially hated by all factions. 

is a recognized government; and yet that The followers of General Diaz cannot for- 

government is powerless to maintain order, get that the Madero revolution was directed 

Villa refuses to believe himself beaten, and from our side of the border. The adherents 

Carranza dares not occupy the Mexican cap- of Hucrta remember the constant snubbing 

ital. and final imprisonment. Recognition of the 

If there has been political or social gain, it Carranza party was not intended as a grace- 
is merely theoretical, the realization of which ful compliment, and its effect is more than 
not only lies in the future but is by no means outweighed by the long period of doubtful- 
certain. Economically and industrially, half ness and hesitancy. Villa's hatred of Amerl- 
of the country has been at a stand-still. The cans, always in evidence, is now without 
condition of the Mexican National Railroad measure or bounds. 




TRAINING STUDENT SOLDIERS 

Obligatory Military Instruction in Our Land-Grant Colleges 

BY WYATT RUSHTON 

WHEN In 1862 Congress passed the soldiering which is maintained in these "land- 
first Morrill Act granting to the sev- grant" colleges is not, however, a part of the 
eral States public lands with which to cstab- work of the regular Army or of the State 
lish agricultural and mechanical colleges, and militia. Military instructors in the various 
providing that these colleges should include colleges are emphatic in declaring that their 
"instruction in military science" in the cur- departments are not mere "feeble imitations 
riculum, this country recognized for the first of West Point." These departments have a 
time the vital importance of training as a peculiar and distinct purpose. Their purpose 
part of the equipment of a volunteer army, is to train officers for an emergency volunteer 

The Civil War was then near its height, army in case the country should be attacked. 
There had been serious defeats at Bull Run "We are trying to develop a sense of re- 
and elsewhere in the early campaigns for the sponsibility in the young men of this coun- 
unorganized and poorly trained Union volun- try," says Major-General Leonard A. Wood, 
teers. There had been thousands of volun- "a sense of responsibility towards their mili- 
tecrs in 1860 and '61 eager to go to the tary duty. We educate them to perform all 
front, but without officers to train them, sorts of civil duties, but do not give sufficient 
This condition the Morrill Act sought in attention to their military duties." It is for 
some way to remedy and to take thought for the purpose of training college men in leader- 
in the future. "These colleges, founded in ship for the defense as well as for the peace- 
every State," said Representative Morrill, ful upbuilding of their country that courses 
the author of the bill, "will to some extent in military science and tactics are made ob- 
guard against the sheer ignorance of military ligatory in all "land-grant" colleges and 
art which shrouded the country, and espe- many other collegiate institutions, 
cially the North, at the time when the tocsin The regular instruction in the armory and 
of war sounded at Fort Sumter." After the on the drill-ground at the colleges during the 
army and the militia, these colleges were to winter months has about the same relation 
constitute an integral part of the national to the summer student camps and the busi- 
defense. ness men's camp maintained by the War 

As the result of this act, and of a second Department at various points over the coun- 
and revised act in 1890, there are now try that the regular sessions of these colleges 
ninety-six colleges in the country in which bear to the summer schools and the "short 
military instruction is offered under the di- courses" which they provide for special 
rect supervision of the United States War classes of students. During the regular ses- 
Department. Nearly thirty thousand college sion the student carries his regular school 
boys, — almost as many as there are profes- work along with his military training. In 
sional soldiers now in the mobile army of the the camps and at the barracks attention is 
United States, — are drilling this year under concentrated for the time on military train- 
thc command of regular or retired Army ing, and by dint of constant drilling the 
officers detailed for the duty of instruction in "rookies" at the camps are turned out in five 
these colleges. The War Department fur- or six weeks with a training approximately 
nishes these boys with the essential parts of the same, or perhaps a little more complete, 
their arms and equipment, as well as instruc- than that of the regularly enrolled college 
tion, and then requires them to measure up student who has attended his four hours of 
at least to the standard set for the militia of drill a week after school hours, 
the several States. The cadets of the civil The standard of instruction put before 
institutions of the country are a definite part both the college student and the camper is 
of the present scheme of national military that of "what every officer must know." 
education. Lieutenant P. G. Wrightson, Commandant 

The system of training for the duties of of Cadets at the University of Wisconsin, 

201 



202 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

puts It thus forcibly: "Wc do not teach the institution, "is not a matter of choice with 
student everything he ought to know to be a the students or with the authorities; it is a 
perfect officer ; we do not even teach him matter of law. The Congress of the United 
everything he should know to be a thorough States and the General Assembly of Illinois 
officer ; but we do teach him what he has have made it a special and imperative feature 
got to know to be a capable officer at all." of the charter laws of this institution, — an 

The course thus outlined consists of train- obligation in return for the advantages of a 
ing in the school of the soldier, of the squad free education." 

and of the company, the manual-of-arms, the This obligation to take military training 
fundamental principles of rifle shooting, of results in large numbers of cadets at some 
first aid, and camp hygiene, while it likewise institutions, particularly where a cultural 
includes such things as the preparation of curriculum is maintained in addition to the 
military papers, the making of maps, maneu- agricultural and mechanical education of- 
vers, and signaling of all kfnds. None of the fered. The University of Illinois had drill- 
higher strategy such as is contained in the ing, during the fall of 1915, two thousand 
curriculum at West Point is taught. one hundred and forty students. Other large 

About one-third of the instruction is theo- institutions of the Middle West, where the 
retical. After the first few months, as little State universities are predominant, furnish 
drilling is done as possible. Commandants scarcely less surprising figures. The Univer- 
try to place before their students the intel- sity of Wisconsin has fourteen hundred cadets 
lectual aspects of the game of war, as well in two regiments. The University of Minnc- 
as the necessity of physical fitness of individu- sota likewise has an even larger number, di- 
als for it. vided between a first and second regiment. 

For the purposes of drill, the students fur- Other schools throughout the country main- 
nish their own uniforms, either of a dark tain either a regiment or several battalions, 
blue or an olive drab. The colleges them- each accompanied by all the appropriate 
selves provide the armories and drill-grounds, military paraphernalia, 
and for the rest every need is supplied by Certain disadvantages naturally accompany 
the Federal Government itself. Two up-to- the advantages of this phase of preparation 
date 3.2-inch field guns, similar to those sup- for the national defense. Commandants of 
plied to the National Guards of the several cadets in the various institutions do not feel 
States, are furnished to artillery companies in that the system is perfect by any means. Its 
institutions of sufficient size and standing, weak points are the lack of previous military 
Krag rifles, such as were used in the Spanish- training in the high schools, the inability of 
American war, arc supplied in sufficient the instructors to enforce military discipline 
quantities for the use of every student under in all cases, and the fact that often the faculty 
drill. Proper equipment is also furnished to of the college does not take the work of the 
the signal, engineering, and hospital corps of military department seriously enough, 
the institutions where such corps are main- Many of the land-grant colleges receive as 
tained. much as one hundred thousand dollars a year 

In all of the colleges embraced in the from the Federal Government. Of this, 
^scheme of military education over which the scarcely more than one-tenth is spent for mil- 
War Department has control, the obligation itary instruction. Moreover, as has been 
to take the instruction offered rests either pointed out, the faculty often does not give 
upon the whole student body or upon spe- the military department the authority which 
cially designated classes. In the larger insti- is due. Often the instructors are not really 
tutions, where the numbers of the students considered as members of the faculty, with 
are overwhelming and the college work in the full rank to which they are assigned by 
the higher classes leaves little time for any- the charter laws of the institution. The fault 
thing else, drill is only required of the two sometimes lies with the officers themselves, 
lower classes. Cadet officers in these institu- Often they are ill-fitted for the work of 
tions are, however, chosen almost uniformly teaching. Sometimes, not being* college men 
from the upper classes. For the time con- themselves, they fail to understand properly 
sumed from their college work they are the spirit of college students. Generally, 
usually paid an honorarium which, though however, they wish to be considered some- 
small, is oftentimes an aid toward the paying thing more than the directors of a mild and 
of college expenses. innocent form of athletics. They hold that 

"Military instruction at the University of training for the duties of an officer is some- 
Illinois," say the military regulations of that thing more than that. 



THE WASTE BY FLOODS 203 

• The military curriculum in these civil A reasonable demand ought to go up from 
institutions undoubtedly needs to be stiffened the people of the several States that Congress 
up and extended. The commandants would strengthen this academic but by no means 
like to have it made possible for them to keep unimportant arm of the national defense, 
a greater number of students in the larger The people should demand of their Congress- 
institutions of learning enrolled, and to teach men a law allowing for a larger detail of 
the advanced students more of the details of officers for the service of teaching, a training 
officering. They would like to cover some- school, if possible, for the work of teaching, 
thing else besides the "high spots.** at West Point or elsewhere, and in general 
It should be realized that only as those a greater extension of the system for training 
"higher up*' are carefully instructed in the civilian officers. Congress by successive acts 
a^ of the national defense can we really have has already done much for the colleges; it 
a citizenry "trained and accustomed to arms." should do more. 



THE WASTE BY FLOODS 

BY PERCIVAL FASSIG 

THIS is flood time, and in some sections whole. After fully fifty years of river-tink- 

fear has already laid its hand upon the cring, our benefits therefrom are practically 

people. But as soon as July comes around nil. Would it not be advisable to make 

again, floods will be forgotten and will re- flood prevention part of our river-improve- 

ccivc little or no thought until next flood ments project? If Congressmen must have 

time. The great damage done by the floods the support of river improvements, why not 

of 1913 has been practically wiped out, and, try to give the people some benefit also? 
excepting for a few sections, has become There is no doubt that damage by floods 

merely history. At the time, wonderful can be lessened, and that the cost of preven- 

changes were proposed; army engineers and tion will be far less than the destruction 

specialists were brought together in consul- wrought by the floods. Of course, this is 

tation, and thousands of dollars spent in de- not necessarily a national issue; but neither 

vising plans to prevent the recurrence of such is the improvement of rivers. So long as 

a disaster. However, should another flood Congress is pledged to river improvement, 

of like dimensions occur to-day, the damage it should assume control of flood prevention, 

would be as great or even greater. letting the States pay for those parts of the 

In 1913 our Congressmen were rampant, project that are purely local. TKe army of 

The havoc being wrought by the floods, they employees connected with river improve- 

said, must be stopped. Only those living in ments, and the engineers in charge, should 

the flooded districts can fully realize the be in a position to put a flood-prevention 

hardship, — the loss of life and property, — project through with little additional cost 

that was caused. Congressmen got busy with so far as relates to rivers under improve- 

thc Engineering Corps of the Army, and of- ment. 

ficers were sent to the scenes of disaster. Unfortunately, much of the work done 

But, apparently, little or nothing was done, for river improvement increases the flood 

To-day the old fear is back, and with each possibilities. We go ahead with one project, 

heavy rain the people hope that the water without any thought beyond that in hand, 

will pass away without a repetition of 1913. Every structure placed in a river retards its 

This has been the case each year since that flow or discharge. Likewise every structure 

memorable one.' built on the shore line, or near it, contracts 

One wonders why our public affairs should the channel and causes a similar effect. This 

receive such treatment. Can we not get our not only relates to structures in connection 

affairs out of the present unbusinesslike rut? with river improvements, but to the build- 

With the millions expended in improving ing of bridge foundations or anything else 

rivers, it is strange that no thought is given in a stream. The subject of flood preven- 

to the prevention of floods. Two projects tion is so dovetailed with all kinds of river 

so closely related ought to be considered as a work that it can scarcely be separated. 



204 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Furtbcnnorc, our railroads and many of On the lower stretch of the Ohio they al- 

the large corporations are responsible for at ready have had a flood this year which 

least a portion of the flood damage. Take caused much, suffering. 
any large manufacturing district along a Not only bank erosion, but tons of earth 

river, and we find that foot after foot of the is washed from the hills and low-lying lands, 

river-bed is taken by encroaching. There which finds its way into our streams. It 

arc sections of the Ohio River where the might be claimed that this has always been 

channel has been contracted fully one hun- the case. True, but not to the extent it is 

dred feet. Congress has passed laws against to-day. Our hills in many sections are bare, 

encroaching on navigable streams, but those where formerly they were covered with 

laws are not strictly enforced. Many rail- trees and bushes. The same is true of the 

road sidings and stretches of main lines are low lands and the banks — trees, willows, aod 

built on ground filled in over the banks of bushes practically covered them, and the ero- 

our streams. The methods employed are sion was reduced to a minimum. To-day the 

often so small as to seem incredible. Some- low lands are cultivated and the banks cov- 

times the filling was dumped at night, ered with refuse. 

Again, cinders were strewn along the right- Here is where our Bureau of Forestry 

of-way, and swept over the bank, a little at a could render good service. Not alone by 

time. Any way to avoid suspicion. lessening erosion and thereby preserving 

One case in particular was that of a saw- acres of surface land, but by beautifying the 

mill below Cincinnati. For years the owner hills and banks, and restoring our nut-bearing 

had the waste thrown into the Ohio River, trees and bushes. Many of the hills, too 

He was finally stopped by the court. Then steep for cultivation, should be covered with 

he had the waste dumped on the bank, and trees and bushes — anything to prevent the 

each rise carried the material into the river, wash of ground. Furthermore, leaves and 

After much effort on the part of the engi- brush hold back the water draining into the 

neers, the court stopped that practise also, streams. At present, the water rushes from 

Had the dumping continued, it would have our hills after a heavy rain, there being noth- 

added greatly to the contraction of the river, ing to restrain it, and deep gullies are washed 

as the material lodged on bars or aided in the into their sides. But where the hills are 

formation of new ones. covered with leaves, grass, and brush you do 

There is scarcely a city, town, or village not find the heavy flow nor the deep gullies, 
along a river or creek that does not add its Flood prevention is a subject deserving 
mite to increasing flood danger. Not only of serious study and research. Under exist- 
do they tacitly permit the dumping of waste ing conditions, much good can be done by 
along the banks and into the streams, but the engineers in charge of river improve- 
their refuse finds its way into the waters, ments and by the Forest Service at not 
Most of our inland streams are positively greatly increased expense over what it costs 
filthy (p«tilence breeders), and their waters, to conduct the work now in hand. But the 
heavy with dirty sediment, are pumped to the subject is so great, and the benefits to be 
residents for domestic use. Frequently the derived so far-reaching, that it deserves ex- 
water of the Ohio River is so dirty that it is tensive research. Every State affected should 
not fit for any use; yet some of the large be required to bear its portion of the ex- 
cities supply it in its undiluted state. pense, because to get the best results no one 

So it is with bank erosion. Practically all city or State could devise plans without 

of the natural protection has been cleared reaching into another State, 
away, and no steps taken to replace it. The Each drainage basin must be considered 

material washed from the banks is carried as a whole to get the best results. Columbus 

along until deposited and bars formed, and Dayton, in Ohio, are now engaged on 

Every bar contracts the channel more or less, flood-prevention plans ; and no doubt they 

and either lessens the discharge area or holds will reduce their liability to damage. But 

back the water like a dam. Records show the rivers draining those cities are a part of 

that we have had more floods in late years the Ohio River basin, and to get the best 

than formerly. There is seldom a year with- results the Ohio must be taken care of, and 

out a flood along the Ohio ; in some years in turn the Mississippi, into which the Ohio 

they have two and three, and the floods are empties. So that flood prevention is in fact 

of longer duration and cause more damage, a national issue. 



NEW MONARCHY FOR OLD 

China, Four Years a "Republic/* Becomes a Limited MonaIichy 

BY STANLEY K. HORNBECK 

''Men, not walls, make a city/' 

^A great man is one who knows the times/' 

— Chinese Proverbs. 

YUAN SHIH-KAI, long recognized as societies had been: "Down with the Man- 
the ablest statesman among his people chus." The cry, "Establish a Republic," 
and for the past four years their president, was in large measure a campaign slogan, 
informally ascended the "dragon throne" of in order to get rid of the Manchus, develop 
the Hans on New Year's Day. enthusiasm for a complete change of govern- 

The "electors" of China affirmed their ment. 
preference for monarchy in October. The Yuan Shih-kai became legal successor to 
Council of State then tendered the throne to the authority of the Manchus through the 
the President, and, after proper protestations following provision in the Edict of Abdica- 
of reluctance, Yuan Shih-kai agreed on De- tion of February 12, 1911: "Let Yuan 
cember 11 to accept the imperial office. Shih-kai organize with full powers a pro- 

Four years ago this four-thousand-year- visional government and confer with the 
old monarchy, China, treated the world to republican army as to the methods of union, 
a great surprise when, in the course of four thus assuring peace to the people and tran- 
i^hort months, she discarded the twenty- quillity to the Empire." The Edict contin- 
fifth of her successive ruling dynasties and ued, however, to the effect that he should 
converted herself into a "republic." A local "form one Great Republic of China." 
mutiny had developed in four weeks into a Dr. Sun Yat-sen had been chosen by the 
nation-wide revolt. After a futile resistance revolutionary leaders as their chief execu- 
of four months, the Manchus gave up the tive. He resigned in favor of Yuan Shih- 
throne and ordered one of their Chinese kai as national president, and on March 10, 
subjects, Yuan Shih-kai, to establish a Re- 1912, the National Council, at Nanking, 
public The change involved the political adopted a provisional constitution, under 
destinies of nearly four hundred million which Yuan was to carry on the govern- 
people and four million square miles of ment. 

territory. Trained in the old school, an astute poli- 

Thc fourth anniversary of the beginning tician and statesman, of autocratic tempera- 
of the revolution occurred on October 10 ment, having a loyal body of henchmen who 
last. During the month which followed, had remained true to him and to the tradi- 
thc voters cast their ballots in favor of a tions of his successful administration as vice- 
return to the monarchical form of govern- roy of Chihli, Yuan proceeded step by step 
ment. Does everything in China go by to replace the young officers and frequently 
fours? inexperienced civilians who had come into 

What has this now passing "republic" power during the revolution by his own men 
been doing? flow far has Yuan Shih-kai and other officials who had had experience 
carried out the mandate given him by the under the old regime. It was his task to 
abdicating Manchus? Why this recent de- restore authority and to establish a new 
cision in favor of a monarchy, and how ? government, and he chose to employ men 

upon whom he could rely. 



HOW THE " REPUBLIC " CAME INTO BEING 



It b necessary in the first place to under- ^"^ kwo-mino tang (people's partv) 
Stand that the Chinese Revolution was not Yuan's success in depriving the radical 
primarily a movement toward making China leaders of office and keeping them out was 
a Republic. It was in the beginning anti- the chief factor in uniting the forces of the 
dynastic. The motto of the revolutionary disappointed and discontented into an or- 

205 



206 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

ganized opposition. In the summer of 1912 "Administrative Conference.** This Confer- 

the Kwo-ming Tang, or People's party, was encc authorized the dissolution first of the 

formed, and to its standards rallied the most National Assembly and then of the provin- 

radical of the Republicans. cial assemblies; thus China became, and it 

When the first National Assembly met in has continued, "a republic without represent 

Peking in April, 1913, the Kwo-ming party, tative legislatures." 
with a majority, regularly opposed legisla- 

tion which the President desired. In spite the revised constitutiok 

of the Assembly, and without its consent, The President and the Conference con- 
Yuan concluded the Five Powers' Loan, eluded that it would be most convenient, for 
which put new and substantial resources at the time being, to revise the provisional 
his command. This, together with the as- constitution. For this purpose there was- 
sassination of one of their leaders, which created a "Constitutional Compact Confer- 
they declared had been instigated by the ence" composed of representatives elected 
government, drove the Kwo-ming Tang to throughout the country on the basis of very 
a frenzy. Finally, when Yuan cashiered high electoral and eligibility qualifications, 
the Kwo-ming governor in one of the Yang- Of course, the government in large measure 
tse provinces and sent troops southward, the determined the composition of this Confer- 
leaders of this party raised the standard of ence and the character of its work, 
revolt. This Conference produced, and the Presi- 

That was in the summer of 1913. Yuan's dent promulgated on May 1, 1914, a re- 
generals put down the rebellion without vision, designated "The Constitutional Com- 
much difficulty, and its instigators and lead- pact of the Chinese Republic," which has 
crs were forced to flee. Then, in October, stood as the fundamental law of China 
the government succeeded in forcing a vote from then until the present moment 
in the Assembly for the election of a perma- The revised provisional constitution 
nent president Yuan was elected for a lodged very great power in the hands of the 
term of five years, with General Li Yuan- President Among other things, it gave him 
hung as vice-president. With his position virtual control of the budget. It authorizes 
thus assured, and after his government had the creation of a Legislature, of a Council 
been recognized by the Powers, Yuan pro- of State, and of a National Convention ta 
ceeded to dissolve the Kwo-ming party on draft a permanent constitution, 
the ground of the complicity of many of its The Constitutional Conference next de- 
members in the recent rebellion. This cided that the Council qi State should con- 
amounted to a prorogation of the Assembly, sist of seventy members, and the President 
for, purged of the Kwo-ming members, that proceeded to appoint conservatively minded 
body no longer had a quorum. men, satisfactory to himself, as coundlors* 

Among the first of its acts, the Council 

DOING AWAY WITH REPRESENTATiVB recommended that the provisions for the 

ASSEMBLIES election of the president be reconsidered. 

No one very greatly regretted the dis- This recommendation was acted upon, with 

appearance of the Assembly. It had been the result that a new law was drafted and 

in session for five months and had accom- promulgated, which provided that the presi- 

plished almost nothing constructive. The dent's term of office should be for ten years; 

Kwo-ming Tang members had dominated and that, if the Council of State should de- 

the committee on the constitution, and the cide it expedient, the president might con- 

eflForts of that committee had been concen- tinue in office for another term. The pro- 

trated on the problem of lodging all author- mulgation of these provisions, adding to the 

ity possible in the Assembly and placing already very great power given the Presi- 

limitations at every point on the power of dent, occasioned little adverse comment 

the President. The product of its labors among the people. 

now went into the waste-basket, and the TJic Constitutional Conference soon had 

government took up the problem of making ready laws and. rules for the election and 

a constitution. organization of the legislature. Very high 

The President decided first to create an educational or property qualifications, or 
advisory council. To this end, he and his both, were prescribed for voters and candi- 
cabinet and the governors of die provinces dates. The legislature was to consist of a 
appointed seventy-one representatives, who single chamber of two hundred and seventy- 
assembled in Peking in December as the five members and should hold one session 



NBIV MONARCHY FOR OLD 207 

each year. The president was given abso- the Constitution, as having said: "A mon- 
lutc veto power. archical system of government is better than 
Attention was next devoted to a law a republican system/* and, using this as a 
for the National (Constitutional) Conven- text, proceeded to urge that China needed 
tion. This law still stands, and according and must have a monarchical government, 
to its provisions the Convention is to consist Two days later the Peking Gazette pub- 
of three hundred and thirty-five members, lished an interview in which Doctor Good- 
some appointed, others elected from various now declared that he had been misrepresent- 
constituencies. It shall be the business of ed. A restoration of the monarchy in China 
the Convention to pass upon a constitutional would, in his opinion, be justified only under 
draft prepared by a committee of ten ap- certain conditions. He declined to express 
pointed by the Council of State. If the an opinion as to whether the conditions 
Convention fails within a four months' sesr- could be met in China at the present time, 
sion to agree upon a constitution, the Presi- Doctor Goodnow had, however, submitted 
dent shall dissolve it and order the election a long memorandum to the President dis- 
of another Convention. It was obviously cussing the relative advantages of various 
intended that the Convention be dominated types of government. In this he had said : 
by the government and that the work be en- 
tirely satisfactory to the President. China . . . has for centuries been accustomed 

gy/ ^ f^ \t 1 • f ^u ^ to autocrauc rule. . . . The Chinese have never 

Shortly after the conclusion of the nego- y^^^^ accorded much participation in the work of 

tiations with Japan m May, 1915, the government The result is that the political ca- 

Presddent issued orders that the lists of pacity of the Chinese people is not large. . . . 

voters for the primary elections should be China's history and traditions, her social and 

I jLo^ Li^ J*-. T..1 , k-. economic condiuons, her relations with foreign 

completed by September 13, and m July he ^^^^^ ^„ ^^^^ j^ probable that the country 

directed the bureau concerned with the elec- would develop . . . constitutional government 

tion of representatives to the National (Con- . . . more easily as a monarchy than as a re- 

stitutional) Convention to hasten its prep- Public 

arations. In the interval a Chinese newspaper, the 

THE AGITATION FOR MONARCHY Asia Jih Pao. camc out with an interview 

attributed to the President wherein Yuan 

Thus far had the legal reconstruction said that he was unwilling to become an 
gone when suddenly there began to come emperor under any circumstances. He con- 
rumors that the people were discussing the sidered, however, that the question of forms 
possibility and advisability of reverting to of government was a legitimate subject for 
the monarchical form of government. discussion, and he would not interfere with 

It IS, of course, somewhat significant that the discussion so long as it did not lead to 

the preparation of the machinery by which disturbance, 
the proposal was ultimately "referred to the 

people" was being hastened by the govern- opponents of the change 
ment at the very moment when the sugges- Objections to the proposed change were 
tion that the question be considered was in- raised chiefly in the south, but no organised 
sistently put forward. At the same time, opposition made its appearance. Certain 
in view of the fact that the time was ap- newspapers, adherents to the views of the 
preaching when the final step in the organi- dissolved Kwo-ming party, and many busi- 
zation of the republican government was, ness men expressed themselves adversely, the 
seemingly, about to be taken, it was natural business men not unnaturally fearing the 
that any group interested in averting this possible consequences of any change. The 
consummation and preferring some other foreign newspapers published in the "settle- 
form of government should at that moment ments" in some cases favored and in some 
come forward with counter proposals. cases opposed the change, the chief ground 

The discussion finally came into the open urged for opposition being the danger of 
with the organizing of a "Peace Planning disturbance which would ensue. 
Society" which began an active agitation in The fact that Li Yuan-hung, the Vice- 
favor of monarchy. Conspicuous among President, moved out of the palace and was 
the organisers and leaders of this society several times absent from the meetings of 
were some of the dose friends of Yuan the Council of State was hailed by the oppo- 
Shih-kai. On August 16 the society pub- sition as an indication that he was against 
lished a long manifesto in which it repre- the proposed change. But the evidence is 
sented Dr. Frank J. Goodnow, Adviser on inconclusive. Li did not resign his offices. 



208 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

He has apparently assumed an attitude of with the Japanese Charge as spokesman, in- 

neutrality. Himself one of the leaders in quired verbally concerning the possible rc- 

the establishing of the republic, he would suits in case China should undertake to 

naturally be disinclined to give support to make the change. The Japanese Charge 

the retum-to-monarchy movement. At the disclaimed any desire on the part of his gov- 

same time, having witnessed the difficulties ernment to interfere in the internal affairs of 

of the "republican" government, and being China, but suggested that, as^ there were 

an ardent admirer of Yuan Shih-kai, he may evidences of opposition in south China, and 

be not at all hostile to the idea of a limited in view of the disturbed state of world poli- 

Yuan monarchy. tics, the change should at least be delayed. 

Probably the strongest of the opponents The three ministers explained that the 

of the change, and certainly the most in- French Government, though not represented, 

fluential, was Liang Chi-chiao. Long an gave its support to these views. (A few 

advocate of constitutional monarchy, recent- days later the Italian Government announced 

ly a staunch supporter of and a holder of its concurrence in the attitude of the three 

high offices in the republican government. Powers.) 

easily the foremost of Chinese publicists, On the next day, it was reported in Wash- 
Liang explained his opposition in a powerful ington that the American Government had 
article in which, addressing Yuan Shih-kai, declined to express an opinion or to take 
he concludes: any action in the matter. 

The formal reply of the Chinese Govern- 
Why ihould I have opposed you when you first ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ through the Vice-Minister 
suggested the first change of government and ^t? •aii' iT iij-^ui 
oppose you again now? Because a chaage in the ^} roreign Attairs, who called at the lega- 
conduct of a government is a sign of progress, tions of the foreign powers and made verbal 
while a change in the form of a government is a statements. Thanking the powers for their 
sign of revolution. A sign of progress leads a fHcndly interest, he declared that the qucs- 
nation to progress, and a sign of revolution leads . ^ « j • ^l i j r ^i /-»!_• 
a nation to revolution. I have always opposed ^^O" was already m the hands of the Chmesc 
a revolution; hence I am opposing you now as I people and the consideration could not, 
opposed you before, for a revolution always therefore, be postponed. His government 
ictards the progress of a nation . . To say j^^d been informed by the officials in the 
that because you wish to reform the conduct of a . ^i ^ ^i u i_ li ^ i_ 
government a change of its form is necessary is Provinces that they would be able to keep 
nonsense. order. He besought the cooperation of the 

powers in restraining a small number of 

REFERENCE TO THE ELECTORATE rgbels who might seck to Operate in foreign 

Early in September the Council of State countries and in the "foreign concessions" in 
recommended that the President call a con- China. He made it evident that his govern- 
vention or "devise other proper and adequate ment considered the matter one of purely 
means to consult the will of the people" ; and domestic concern, 
on October 8 it passed a bill providing for an 
electoral convention to decide for or against 
the proposed restoration. The military ele- 
ments were by that time urging that the In the meantime, the choosing of repre- 
President declare himself emperor, but Yuan sentatives to decide the question had begun, 
refused to consider this. On October 12 The canvass of the returns showed that 
he issued a manifesto saying that he had re- all but fifty of the 2043 "electors" who 
ceived petitions from representative sources were chosen had declared for constitutional 
expressing the unanimous opinion that the monarchy. The Coundl of State immedi- 
republican form of government was unsatis- ately sent Yuan a petition asking him to ac- 
factory and requesting him to establish a con- cept the throne, and on December 1 1 it was 
stitutional monarchy. But, according to the announced that Yuan had consented to be- 
constitutional compact, sovereign rights were come emperor. 

vested in the entire body of citizens, there- That the question of the form of govern- 
fore he must leave the decision to the people, ment was submitted to the electorate, and 
The question was, therefore, referred to the that the electors voted for the monarchy in- 
electorate. dicates, to begin with, two things: first. 

On October 28 the Japanese Charge that the President had concluded that the 

d'AflFaires, the British Minister and the change was desirable or necessary; second, 

Russian Minister at Peking called on the that he was confident that it could be ef- 

Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs «nd, fected successfully -and without likelihood 



DECISION FOR MONARCHY ALL BUT 

UNANIMOUS 



NEW MONARCHY FOR OLD 209 

of serious opposition. Yuan has been and is that has experienced twenty-five changes of 

practically absolute. Had he not favored dynasty, established a temporary republican 

the change, he would have discouraged dis- government, and again reverted to monarchy, 

cussion and he could have prevented its con; may, if the time comes and it so chooses, ask 

sideration. He had control of the organ- another emperor to abdicate and establish 

izing of the electoral machinery; he knew another republican government, 
in advance what return he could expect in 

the elections. disturbances following the change 

HAVE "the people" SPOKEN? Before agreeing to accept the throne, 

Yuan announced that no change would be 

The decision in favor of monarchy must made "this year." Probably the intention 
be credited first to Yuan Shih-kai, who Js that the change shall not be effected until 
was undoubtedly affected by the pressure of after the Constitutional Convention shall 
the military element and influenced by con- have met and framed a permanent constitu- 
siderations of foreign policy. The con- tion.^ In view of the "suggestions," of 
firmation of the decision may be credited to October 28, and as a measure of practical 
the hmited aristocratic electorate, which was expediency, this would be good political 
essentially of the government's choosing, strategy. Nevertheless, we have the news 
The people as a whole have not known any that at the New Year's reception Yuan sat 
too mudi about the question under discus- on the imperial throne and was announced 
sion, and they have not in the mass decided as "his imperial majesty." 
either way. Their customary leaders and That the change would not be accepted 
spokesmen, however, of the well-to-do without some disturbance was a foregone 
classes have expressed themselves by their conclusion. The assassination of Admiral 
votes in favor of the monarchy, and, accord- Tseng, governor of Shanghai, on November 
ing to such theories of representation as, for \Q^ ^as an act in protest against the move- 
instance, that which prevailed in England ment. On December 5, a party of would- 
beforc 1832, the expression of these leaders be rebels attempted to seize a government 
is an expression of the will of the people, training ship lying in the river at Shanghai, 
In that sense, the "peoj)le" of China have but without success, 
voted for the monarchy. The rebellion which has broken out m 

China has been a republic only in the Yunnan is somewhat more serious. The 
sense that a state having an elected chief latest and most reliable reports indicate that 
executive with a limited term of ofBce is a the rising is confined . practically to the one 
republic Yuan Shih-kai Emperor will rule province, where the ex-Tutuh (military gov- 
little differently from Yuan Shih-kai Presi- emor) Tsai Ao is in command of a body of 
dent, but a state in which there is an emper- insurgents. 

or, with a life term and a fixed succession, Tsai Ao is one of the "young Chinese" 
will, of course, be a different state from who, after studying military science in 
that in which the people have a legal Japan, played an important part in the revo- 
right to change their executive at inter- lution. As Tutuh in Yunnan he made an 
vals, however long. excellent record by restoring and maintain- 

CHINA'S PRESENT NEEDS ^^,^0?^ J" ^^^ ^'"^hat rcstlcss province 

In 1913 he was ottered a seat in the Council 
As far as China's immediate future is of State at Peking, and later was appointed 
concerned, her greatest needs are security, director of the Bureau for the Surveying of 
•order, and an efficient officialdom. The peo- Lands. Early in December last he left Pe- 
ple have been little concerned as to what king, on the plea of ill-health, and he was 
the government shall be called or how or- next heard of as leader of the revolt in 
ganized, if only it will afford them security Yunnan. As he is reported to have been 
and do them justice. They have always among the first of those who circulated peti- 
considered that the test of a satisfactory tions for the restoration of the monarchy, 
government is to be sought in the happiness Tsai Ao's action is somewhat incomprehen- 
of the people. There is little doubt among sible. In estimating the significance of the 
qualified obscnrers that China's position revolt, it must be remembered that Yunnan 
among the nations will be strengthened by ;§ furthest removed of the provinces from 
die assurance that a strong executive is se- Peking; and also that the Yunnanese have 
curtly established in authority at Peking. 

As for the mort distant future, a country wm^*"" '*'''^*"'' '°' ^^"^ Convention are already under 
Feb.— • 



210 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

been particularly exasperated by the govern- him — ^whom they had two years before di»- 
ment's relentless campaign for the suppres- graced — as their best hope in the hour of 
sion of opium-growing, which was a lucra- danger; that Sun Yat-sen yielded the posi- 
tive occupation there. tion of chief executive in his favor; that the 
It is scarcely conceivable that the rebellion bankers of the Five Powers Group signed 
will make any great headway. In the first their loan contract with him personally in 
place, the armed forces of the nation, espe- spite of the opposition of the Assembly; that 
cially the better trained troops of the North, the best of the revolutionary generals, along 
are under the absolute control of Yuan — with the former ofBcers of the Manchus, re- 
to whom they are loyaL Nearly all of the mained loyal to him when their misguided 
military governors in the provinces are colleagues embarked upon the ill-advised and 
either old followers or personal friends of easily suppressed rebellion of 1913; and, 
Yuan, and the few exceptions arc practical finally, that for thirty years the representa- 
mcn and essentially conservative in disposi- tives of foreign countries, both official and 
tion. In the second place, monarchical gov- unofficial, who have ccwne in contact with 
cmment fairly represents the political ideal him have felt and have shown confidence in 
of the people as a whole. Third, even his him. 

worst enemies concede that Yuan is the If Yuan's government is overthrown, it 
ablest man to whom the nation can look, will be by forces greater than and very dif- 
both for reconstruction within and for de- ferent from those engaged in the rebellion 
fense against what, after all, is the greatest in Yunnan, 
menace to its liberties— danger from with- 
out Yuan's preeminence is demonstrated ^n j, ^^^ ^ avoid a naked spear, but not a 
by the fact that the Manchus looked to hidden sword."— Chinese Proverb. 



CHINA'S VAST RESOURCES 

How Japan and America Can Co-opeil\te to 'Aid in Chinese 

Development 

BY ADACHI KINNOSUKE 

AMERICA, Japan, and China stand in Regarding the preservation of the tcrri- 
the Far East arrayed with desires and torial integrity of China, Japan is even more 
aspirations of somewhat the following na- emphatic than America, This may sound 
ture: odd coming from a Japanese. But stop a 

The United States wants an "open door" moment and ask two pertinent questions: 
to the marts of the continental Asia, equal If Japan were to countenance — let alone 
opportunity to all who trade in China, and encourage by her example — the partition of 
special favors to none. Equally fair and Chinese territory, what would Russia do? 
righteous is hfer traditional policy regarding And Germany, France, and England? 
the territorial integrityof the Chinese Empire. Suppose Japan were able to take and hold 

Japan, like the United States, wants to a large portion of Chinese territory and 
sell her goods to China; has been trying to ignore Europe's protest, what would become 
sell more than she wisely can. If she could of her when the European war is over? Our 
monopolize the entire Chinese market, she American friends must credit us with hav- 
would. ing enough common sense to see the folly 

Furthermore, Japan wants more land for and madness of such a procedure, 
her people. Her population is increasing at What Japan really wants is customers 
the rate of 1.4 per cent, a year. In 1910 for her goods, rather than a lot of Chinese, 
Japan had 343 persons to a square mile, while brewing everlasting hatred for men and 
California had only 15. things Japanese over the ashes of homes 

Japan also wants to make money. China burnt down by an invading army, 
is her second best customer, and Japan's China wants many things. She wants the 
fight for her share in the Chinese trade is security of h'fe and property. Even above 
therefore backed up by elemental logic. that, she wants enough food and raiment 



CHINA'S VAST RESOURCES 211 

CHINA NEEDS CAPITAL 000,000 tons of workable and profitably 

So stand the three powers in the Far East, minable coal. In all Japan we have only 

And they do not seem any too happy, one 1,738,000,000 tons. Thus one coal mine in 

with the other. What is needed there ? China has nearly one-half the coal wealth of 

What is the solution of the problem? Simply the entire Empire of Japan, 

and emphatically this: Give the Chinese the In Chinese hands, the Fushun collieries 

wherewithal to get food and raiment, and produced a few thousand tons a month, 

a little more beside,— give him purchasing Under Japanese administration the produc- 

powcr. In 1912 the Japanese bought from tion for the entire year 1914 amounted to 

foreign countries $5.99 worth of goods per 2,500,000 tons. The South Manchurian 

person, whereas the Chinese imported only Railway Company, which opertftes the mines, 

$1.04 worth. This means that if China is the largest employer of Chinese labor in 

had the purchasing power of even her poor Manchuria. The Fushun Collieries alone 
neighbor across the Yellow Sea, she would, give work to 15,000 coolies all the year 

buy every year $1,732,500,000 worth of for- through. Every ton of coal produced with 

eign goods more than she ^s buying to-day. Chinese labor means putting into the pockets 

(Thecalculatiionismadeonthebasisof 350,- of the Chinese a certain amount of money, 

000,000 Chinese and 55,000,000 Japanese.) however small; it means the increase of the 

As Japan furnishes 18 per cent, of China's purchasing power of the Chinese, 

imports, it might mean an annual increase Hundreds of thousands of Shantung 

of $311,850,000 in the exports of Nippon, coolies cross over from Chifu into Manchuria 

But the eflFect of the increase in Chinese every year to work in the fields and mines, 
purchasing power would be even more spec- Each gets about fifteen cents a day. They 
tacular on the American export trade, spend about one cent each for lodging, four 
America is the original home of quality cents for meals, and three cents for the bar- 
goods and of lofty price. It would mean a ber,— the one great luxury of the Chinese, 
sudden rise in the Asiatic trade of America. They save the balance, seven cents every day. 

How can the purchasing power of the With all tb;Ui| the Chinese are not stingy. 

Chinese be raised? Who or what is going They axe painfully economical with their 

to raise it? The answer is: Nobody and funds, to a point that would insure them a 

nothing but the resources of China herself. measure of worldly independence. After ^ 

that, for the bodily comforts of themselves 

UNDEVELOPED COAL LANDS and their folks, for the good of business 

Take the concrete case of the Fushun Coal enterprises, they are ever ready to spend their 

Mine, dn Southern Manchuria. The coal money. 

deposit along the Hun River is a matter of I have instanced the Fushun Collieries, 

old-time knowledge with the Manchus. There are other important coal fields already 

Some of the Korean ancestors used to scratch being worked. The Kailan Mining Adminis- 

the beds with pickaxes. They did not know tration in Kaiping and Lanchau districts, 

that the deposit ran about ten miles along Chihli Province, was working 12 shafts in 

the River Hun, with a thickness of from 80 1914 with 13,700 men; German-operated 

feet to 175 feet, — any more than the present mines in Shantung (now in the Japanese 

dwellers of the Yangtse Valley know of the hands) ; Jamieson Collieries in Chinchua- 

heaps of iron and coal under their feet. chen, Honan ; Pao Chin Collieries in East- 

For many centuries the Manchus worked em Shansi; Lin Cheng Mines, connected 
the Fushun coal deposit. Even in the days with Peking-Hankau Railway by an eleven- 
preceding the Russian occupation of the mile branch at Ya Koing ; Pinghsiang Mines 
mines, the natives used to work them in a in the Province of Kiangsi, and others. Even 
leisurely, primitive fashion. During the rainy so, the exploitation of the Chinese coal fields 
season, from June to August, they stopped is still in its kindergarten stage, 
working altogether, for there was too much 

water and too little air in the shafts ; and "^^osiTS of iron, copper, gold, tin, and 

when they resumed, the miners used to spend antimony 

a month pumping out water and making re- The development of Chinas iron resources 

pairs. The mines gave work to from two is stiill more backward. At the Tayeh iron 

hundred to five hundred coolies. mjpes, the amount of ore heaped up on top 

Such was the Fushun collieries not mqi^^S^'^e ground has been estimated at 500,- 

than a quarter of a century ago. And yet, 000,000 tons. No one seems to have ven- 
there arc in the Fushun field alone 800,- tured even to guess the amount of iron 



212 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Stored up and down the Yangtse; in the Hankau that a number of the Chinese com- 
Tungkuan Shan district, some 55 miles above pradores had amassed a fortune by cornering 
Wufu, in the province of Anhui; and along the output of antimony. They were fore- 
the river valley in Szechuan. Investigation sighted enough to see the tremendous demand 
of mineral wealth in the provinces of Shansi for the metal to be used in the manufacture 
and Shensi has advanced only to the point of of ammunition. The Province of Hunan is 
keeping the mining world open-mouthed said to be supplying something like 90 per 
and big-eyed with expectation. In Manchu- cent, of the antimony used in the manufac- 
ria, a suspicion of the presence of iron be- ture of shells. A certain proportion of anti- 
came a fact when the Mukden-Antung line mony is necessary to render the steel shells 
went over her eastern hills. Ores found brittle and therefore much more deadly by 
along the line contain about 50 per cent, of making them burst in the greatest possible 
11 on. At Tiehling, north of Mukden, na- number of fragments at the time of explosion, 
tives have for years been taking out iron in Lead is there in Hunan, Kueichau, Szc- 
their primitive fashion. The only reason chuan, Yunan; zinc in Kueichau, and nickel 
why Mr. T. T. Read, late Professor of in the two provinces of Szechuan and Yun- 
Metallurgy at Peiyang University (upon nan. It has been found that North Manchu- 
whose report modern knowledge of the min- ria homes an excellent quality of asbestos, 
eral resources of China largely depends), 
does not see a great future for iron mines in the dream of a railway system 

Shantung is because the Germans have not Railway construction work is not a smaller 
been able to find much of the metal there, field than mining for capitalists. In Sep- 
In Yunnan and Kueichau, Le Clerc and tember, 1912, President Yuaa Shih-kai au- 
other travelers have reported an extensive thorized Dr. Sun Yatsen to organize and 
presence of the metal. The scientific knowl- head a corporation for financing and build- 
edge we have of it, however, is negligible, ing trunk-line railways. In a speedi before 
In Hunan, along the southern border, near the National Railway Union at Peking, E>r. 
Chinchau, the natives are taking out iron ore Sun traced his dream of a railway system 
of good quality. In the province of Fukien, upon the map of China. It had a length of 
about 70 miles from Amoy, "a large deposit about 67,000 miles, and would cost $3,000,- 
of magnetite" (said to be 10,000,000 tons) is 000,000 to build. China has to-day a little 
reported. In Kuantung and Kuangsi, active over 6000 miles of railways in operation. The 
work of mining and smelting is carried on at United States over 360,000 miles. And yet 
Heinhuihsien and Yanganhsien. China is larger than the United States, and 

The copper deposits of Yunnan, Szechuan, has three times as many people. It is diffi- 
Anhui, and Kangsu are nobody's secret now. cult to see wherein Dr. Sun's "dream" is as 
Transportation facilities and adequate capi- fantastic as some treaty-port newspapers in 
tal are all that is needed. China seem to think. Just what the ex- 

Gold in North Manchuria, — along the penditure of billions of dollars in so highly 
Tumen, the Amur, the Sungari, and other productive an enterprise as the building of 
rivers, — is much fabled by travelers who a transportation system, through millions of 
have peeped into that territory. At Chau square miles of well-settled land, would do to 
Yuen, Shantung (about 40 miles from the purchasing power of the people is some- 
Chifu), is the best-known gold mine in thing too immense for arithmetic 
China. Gold is found also in Szechuan, at Beside railway construction work, there 
Molo and other places; also along the bor- are public utilities of other kinds. The upper 
ders of Kansu and Tibet. Yunnan is re- reaches of the Yangtse River are a series of 
ported to have a promising future as a gold modest Niagaras for those who would utilize 
producer. water-power for electric power and lighting 

And that is not all. There is silver at plants in the cities of Szechuan. Building 
Jehol, in the Province of Chihli. Tin in the street railways is another profitable field for 
Mengtse district, in Yunnan, is worked after capital. Even at Shanghai, barely seven years 
the leisurely native fashion; yet it furnishes ago, there was no such thing as a street- 
about 5 per cent, of the world's production car. To-day, there are three services: one 
of the metal. And China, even to-day, British, another French, and the third built, 
stands as the largest producer of antimony, financed, and operated by Chinese. 
Hunan being the most active field. On These mining, railway, and public-utility 
the third day of last month, the correspond- enterprises would give work to millions of 
ent of the Associated Press reported from coolies. The Chinese are always willing to 



CHINA'S VAST RESOURCES 213 

work. All that they need to prosper is a is insistent. After supplying Brazil, Argen- 
fair amount of protection for property and tina, and Chile, has America engineers and 
person. administrators, — trained, bright, and young, 

— who are ready and willing to invade the 

WHY CHINA CANNOT DEVELOP HER OWN l . r rkj^^ ? 

Then, there is the question of climate and 
But, if the resources are there, waiting other life-and-health conditions which enter 
and ready for development, why does not vitally into an American invasion of indus- 
someone open the treasure-trove? Why are trial China. Still another thing: Young 
not the Chinese themselves doing it? Americans who are at home with the Chinese 

For two reasons: First, and chiefly, lack in their thoughts, literature, and mode of life 
of capital; second, the Chinese know, are about as rare as stars at noonday. In- 
through long and painful experience, some- finitely more vital than all these is the ques- 
thing about their government officials. Graft tion of affording to industrial plants and 
in China is more than an art; it is a science, undertakings a prompt protection in the hour 
That is the reason why Chinese of wealth of need. The government of China, it has 
are willing to buy stocks of a foreign corpora- been already said, is far from aflEording ample 
tion doing a profitable business in China; but protection to life and property. It is not 
never, or at least very rarely, those of a feasible to undertake industrial development 
purely Chinese company. This explains why in China unless you have a button handy, 
the Chinese Government can raise foreign and unless that button will respond to your 
loans so easily (in fact foreign countries are finger pressure with a force ready and suffi- 
pressing loans on China which she does not cient to put things to rights, 
want, most of the time), and yet finds it Japan is in a much better position, geo- 
difficult to float a domestic loan. graphically and in a military sense, to answer 

In short, the Chinese themselves have not such a button than the United States, 
the money to develop their immense re- 
sources, and they do not enjoy sufficient A solution of the far-eastern tangle 
security of property to encourage them in a why should not the United States let 
large industrial undertaking. Japanese energy and engineers and work- 

men work with American capital in the de- 
JAPAN IS ABLE TO SUPPLY LEADERS velopment of China's resources? 

If not China herself, then why not Japan? The Japanese are willing and eager to 
Japan, like China, lacks one thing needful — earn dividends for American capital, if 
capital. She has almost every other qualifi- America is willing to give just rewards for 
cation. She has well-trained engineers to their labor. China would welcome Amer- 
undertakc the work of mining and of build-' ican capital, for she knows that there is no 
ing and operating railways, electric trams, string of territorial consideration tied to it. 
lighting and power plants, and other public Chinese coolies would be delighted to find 
utilities. But of money she has little to work in mines and factories. The hardest 
^are. kind of work has no terror for them. It is 

empty stomachs, and the appalling and ever- 

AMERICA CAN WELL FURNISH CAPITAL ^^^^\^^ ^^^^eV of them, that they fear. 

The United States, on the other hand, has And America, — ^why should she object to 
plenty of capital. Every day that passes is handsome dividends on her investment, to the 
heaping idle gold in her treasury. The great increase of China's purchasing power, to the 
European war seems to have shifted the expansion of American trade with the Far 
financial center of the world from London East, to a better understanding between her 
to New York. Why does not America, then, and Japan ? 

play the fairy and wake the sleeping treasures Besides, this answer to the Far Eastern 
of ancient China with the touch of her magic question solves also the California problem, 
golden wand? She certainly can do it, if Let American capital and Japanese energy 
she so desires. develop northern Manchuria and Yunnan, 

There are, however, some considerations and you will see with what an indecent lack 
of ways and means in connection with her of manners "the politest race on earth" 
activities in China. The South American would turn their backs on the smiling foot- 
republics are opening up at a great pace ; their hills of California and the thirsty cities of 
call for skilled men from the United States Arizona. 



ECONOMIC UNPREPAREDNESS 

America's Losses Through Waste and Mismanagement of 

Resources 

BY DAVID Y. THOMAS 

(Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Arkansas) 

[Professor Thomas is one of the outspoken thinkers of the Southwest, who has the full cour- 
age of his opinions. It is not necessary to endorse his proposal to absorb dividends by taxation, in 
order to do justice to the sincerity with which he points to the great public losses accruing from 
our national wastefulness and our former sacrifice of public assets. There is dire need for public 
economy and a wise conserving of social values^ — The EorroR.] 

WHILE President Wilson devoted the vital, most of the present waste would be 
greater part of his address to Con- stopped. Below is a table of estimates of 
gress to military preparedness, some who losses due to lack of organization and effi- 
heard it tell us that he appeared to be most ciency. Some are but rough guesses, but 
interested in economic preparedness. Our others are the estimates of careful students, 
real strength must come, said he, from "the These figures are based on notes taken 
organization and freedom and vitality of irregularly from my readings for the past 
our economic life. The domestic questions few months. Only a few subjects have 
which engaged the attention of the last been mentioned — a good many similar items 
Congress are more vital to the nation in its were not noted — yet they foot up nearly 
time of test than at any other time." While enough to pay the running expenses of our 
he appears to mention this as an adjunct of extravagant national government for a year, 
military preparedness, it fits in with the prob- One writer estimates that rats consume 
lems of peace, for war is not the only enough grain to feed one hen for every man, 
"test" that modem nations have to face, woman, and child in the nation. 
As a part of this policy of economic pre- As for conservation, most of our resources 
paredness he insists that "At the same time are already in private hands. While some 
that we safeguard and conserve the natural are being held back, the most of them are 
resources of the country we should put them being used promptly. Lack of intelligence 
at the disposal of those who will use them in their use is indicated by some of the fig- 
promptly and intelligently." ures on losses: 

Most people would claim for our eco- 
nomic life a good deal of vitality, though By forest fires $50,000,000 

many would hesitate to say that it has Extraction and treatment of minerals. 300,000,000 

enough for times of great stress. Many ^'<>^» 238,000,000 

would also say that it is neither organized 

nor free. If it were thoroughly organized and Total : $588,000,000 



Waste from Inefficiency and Unpreparednf^s 

Losses due to tuberculosis $330,000,000 

" " typhoid fever 50,000,000 

hospital mismanagement 50,000,000 

smoke nuisance 100,000,000 

cattle tick 50,000,000 

rats 360,000,000 



« « « 

« u u 

H I< it 

it it « 



Total $940,000,000 



L 



914 



ECONOMIC UNPREPAREDNESS 215 

PROFITS TO INDIVIDUALS ing up," but I have no recent statistics about 

These figures are strong proof of the lack dividends. Up in Minnesota the people sold 

of intelligence. But there are other figures most of their mines to private owners, but 

which indicate that the owners have been they finally waked up and decided to keep 

intelligent enough and selfish enough to pile the rest. In one year they collected $325,000 

up enormous profits. m royalties on the ore mined under lease. 

Yet this represents only onerthirtieth of the 

DIVIDENDS DECLARED IN JULY, 1915 ore mined in the State. If the State now 

By 45 gold and silver min- owned all its mines and operated them under 

ing companies $11 551 133 or 130% lease, it would receive $10,000,000 a year. 

By 22 copper companies 15,673,607 , V i i_ f»» j 

By one zinc company (The I" other words, the power of taxation has 

New Jersey) : been surrendered to the owners of the mines. 

Regular dividend 2,000,000, or 20% just as elsewhere it has been surrendered to 

Stock dividend ^^^KA*''' fS" the owners of the oil wells. 

Surplus earned forward.. 25,000,000, or 250% t l • i. • i_ • 

By one coal company (The Lumber is one resource that is not being 

Lackawanna): used very promptly because the fortunate 

Dividend 3,460,117, or 52 J^% owners know that it will be worth a great 

Surplus of profits 2,513,478, or 40% j^^ ^^^^ j^ ^ f^^ 3„j ^ ^^^ j^. 

Old surplus 1,025,000 ,. , ^ u • u -.mi u i -.l 

mandmg the rest which still belongs to the 

Since organization the forty-five gold and public A few years ago the Bureau of Cor- 

silvcr companies have paid out $211,587,610 porations reported that 12,000,000 acres had 

in dividends, the twenty-two copper com- been sold for $30,000,000, though at the 

panies, $443,615,821. One of these copper time of sale it was worth $240,000,000, an 

companies, the Calumet and Hecla, has paid outright gift of $210,000,000 plus the power 

cut $125,250,000, which the New York of taxation through enhanced prices. 
Times says is 5500 per cent. The New Where do the people come in ? They may 

Jersey Zinc Company paid the figures given be divided into two classes, the producers and 

above after having paid out $5,000,000 a consumers. ^ Strikes are a chronic condition, 

year for the past three years, all on the mod- especially in the copper and coal mines, 

est capital of $10,000,000. Think of the conditions in Michigan and of 

The foregoing are only a few definite fig- that Calumet and Hecla dividend. The 
ures taken from the financial columns of the people are paying the cost. Some years ago, 
New York Times. I should like to give after a long and bitter strike in Pennsylvania, 
figures relating to oil and gas and iron, but the wages of the coal miners were advanced 
have noted no recent reports. The public 9 cents, the price of coal 25 cents. When 
well remembers the large dividends in Stand- the tax of 1 cent a gallon is put on gasoline 
ard Oil immediately after the decree of dis- the price probably will go up 5 cents. That 
solution, especially that of the Standard Oil is, the people will pay the oil companies 4 
of Indiana, which paid out $29,000,000, ex- cents to collect from them 1 cent for the 
actly the amount of the fine imposed by government. The same thing may be ex- 
Judge Landis and set aside by the Supreme pected in the iron and steel industries. 
Court as excessive. A November news item In view of these facts is it unreasonable 
stated that the stock of this company had ad- to ask that the question of a continental army 
vanced $15,750,000 within the past year, shall divide time with that of economic pre- 
while that of thirty-six oil companies had paredness? And to suggest that no more of 
advanced $148,137,017. Some individual our resources be turned over to unguarded 
shares arc quoted at $1600. private ownership? 

All the while the price of gasoline and oil In the matter of taxation it is not the pur- 
has been steadily advancing. After giving a pose of this article to oflFer a complete federal 
long list of such advances the reporter naive- budget, but only to make a few suggestions, 
ly adds: "The result of increased prices and The proposed tax on gasoline and steel will 
greater production this fall has already found produce some revenue, but at a fearful cost, 
reflection in the dividend payment of several For social and economic preparedness a tax 
companies," and he names two that have paid on dividends, with a very heavy tax, at least 
extras, one of $5.00 for the quarter and one 75 per cent, on stock dividends, will be far 
of $4.75. more eflFective. To this should be added a 

The iron and steel business has been "look- tax on gifts and inheritances. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE 

MONTH 

AMERICAN business conditions and military and naval preparedness are two prominent 
topics treated in our "Leading Articles" this month. There are also interesting ex- 
rcerpts from the comment on the war in foreign periodicals, notably the article by the editor 
of La Revue (Paris) in criticism of English leadership (page 220); an Austrian discus- 
sion of a method of finding employment for men made cripples by the war (page 226) ; 
an account of the important activities of the so-called "economic general staff' in Germany 
(page 228), and an Italian discussion of the Armenian situation (page 230). The effect 
of the war on the world's Protestant missions is summarized on page 232 and geographical 
aspects of the conflict are represented by articles on the Balkan railway lines and the course 
of the Danube River from the Black Forest to the Black Sea. 

Among the January magazines, the North American Review signalizes the return to 
this country of its editor, Colonel George Harvey, with an extended editorial note on the 
situation in England to-day, especially with reference to relations with the United States, 
and English views of President Wilson. Colonel Harvey's conclusion from his observa- 
tions while abroad is that on the whole the prospects for the Allies at the opening of the 
year are good, at least as far as pecuniary endurance is concerned. 

Other articles in this number of the North American, in addition to the contribution 
of Admiral Fiskc, from which we quote on page 224, are: "Seamanship and the Merchant 
Marine," by Lincoln Colcord ; "The Chicago and Alton Case," by George Kennan ; "The 
Colombian Treaty," by "Latin-American"; "Constitutional Change without Revision," by 
Joseph H. Choate, Jr.; "The Open Forum Movement," by the Rev. Percy Stickney 
Grant; and "Suffrage and Prohibition," by L. Ames Brown. 

One of the principal articles in the Forum is Mr. Hereward Carrington's study in the 
psychology of the soldier, portions of which are summarized on page 234. Other articles 
in the January number are: "Art, Promise, and Failure," by Willard Huntington 
Wright; "Understanding Germany," by Max Eastman; and "Herbert Spencer's *The 
Great Political Superstition,' " by President Nicholas Murray Butler. 

On page 241 we quote from the article entitled, "Lo, the Poor Immigrant!" in the 
January Atlantic, by Frances A. Kellor. In the same number there is a contribution by 
John D. R^kefeller, Jr., on the subject of "Labor and Capital — Partners." General 
H. M. Chittenden writes on "Manifest Destiny in America," and John Koren on "Social 
Aspects of Drink," with special attention to the prohibition argument; an appreciation 
of the late Dr. Edward L. Trudeau, of Saranac Lake, is contributed by Stephen Chal- 
mers, and there are three war articles: "Germany and Cotton," by W. J. Ashley; "The 
Balkans and Diplomacy," by J. W. Headlam; and "Can Sea Power Decide the War?" 
by Roland G. Usher. 

Colonel Roosevelt's article in the January Metropolitan is entitled "America First, — 
a Phrase or a Fact?" and is a sweeping arraignment of the administration at Washington 
for its foreign policy. 

In the Yale Retnew for the current quarter the arguments against preparedness are 
ably presented by Anson Phelps Stokes. We are quoting on page 223 from former Secre- 
tary George von L. Meyer's article in the same number on "Our Navy In the Event of 
War." Other contributions to this issue of the Yale Review are: "The War and the 
British Realms," by A. F. Pollard; "The American Democratic Ideal," by Brooks Adams; 
and "Invading Alsace," by a French officer. 

The usual wealth of anonymous material of distinctive literary quality and a piquancy 
that is frequently lacking in our "heavier" reviews appears in the current quar- 
terly issue of the Unpopular Review, One of these excellent articles, that giving the 
"Rear-Rank Reflections" of a Plattsburg "Rookie," is summarized for the benefit of our 
readers on page 225. "Efficient Democracy" is another interesting discussion, 
sie 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 

RETAIL BUSINESS CONDITIONS 



NOTHING is more common than broad 
generalizations regarding the current 
business situation. Yet the average busine&s 
man who attempts to gather for himself the 
data from which to make a study of condi- 
tions in the retail trade of this country finds 
himself seriously handicapped by lack of at- 
tested facts. TTie Associated Advertising 
Clubs, under the leadership of Mr. Mac 
Martin, of Minneapolis, have been for many- 
weeks eng^d in securing statistics of sales, 
stocks and collections in the six lines of retail 
trade throughout the country that arc regard- 
ed as having closest contact with the consum- 
ing public, viz., department stores, grocery, 
drug, hardware, jewelry, and clothing stores. 
The dealers who have reported these facts 
to Mr. Martin have also given in definite 
percentages the increase or decrease in the 
amounts they are spending for their own ad- 
vertising. The final report appears in the 
January number of Associated Advertising 
(Indianapolis). 

One year ago the Advertising Clubs con- 
ducted a like investigation, and while it was 
then commonly believed that business was at 
a low ebb and had been greatly reduced with- 
in the preceding year, the inquiry showed 
that the sales of the typical retailer had de- 
creased on the average throughout the United 
States only 2,3 per cent, that is, that the 



average consumer had curtailed his purdiases. 
only to that extent. At the beginning of 
1916, it is generally believed that there has 
been a very great increase in consumpti'on 
within the past year. Mr. Martin's report, 
covering the index month of November, 
1915, shows that American retail sales in- 
creased 15.93 per cent, over the sales for the 
same month In 1914; that retailers increased 
their advertising 2,5 per cent. ; that collet 
tions were 5.6 per cent, above normal; and 
that retailers increased the stocks they were 
carrying 4,81 per cent. 

Mr. Martin's committee took into aorount 
the fact that the population of the country is 
increasing at the rate of 2 per cent, a year, 
but considered that at the same time retail 
establishments are increasing more rapidly 
than arc consumers. It therefore regards 
the indicated increase of 15.93 per cent, as 
conservative. Only one cit}' among those 
canvassed showed an actual decrease in 1915 
as compared with 1914, and only nine cities 
showed as little as 2 per cent, increase. The 
average consumer increased his purchases in 
the different sections of the United States, as 
compared with the corresponding period of 
the preceding year, as follows: 

Nen England States 16.58 

Middle Atlantic States 13.66 

South Atlantic States 18.44 




raiS MAP. PREPARED FTIOM DATA GATHERED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE A350CUTED ADVERTISING O-UBS. SHOWS 
THAT BUT ONE COMMUNITY OF ALL THOSE REACHED BY THE INVESTIGATION EXPERIENCED 
A FALLING OFF IN RETAIL SALES FOR mS AS COMPARED WrTH 1914 
nle« indicsit inciM»« of more ihan S per cent; the dark liiclei, an increjK of ■ pet cent or !»•) 



218 THE AMERICAN REVIEfV OF REVlEffS 

East-South Central Statei 23.41 other hand, while there ma^ be SOme articles 

Eait-North Central Slates IS.12 sold by the jeweler that may be classed among 

w^'I'^^'-K ^T'l i'f "' \T1 the necessities, his sales for the most part ate 

West-South Central Statea 24.08 , - , , , - i- i 

Mountain States 1S.4S of articles that a purchaser IS not mciined to 

Pacific States lJ-23 buy when practicing strict economy. As go 

the sales of the jeweler, so would go the sales 

The investigation showed that the in- of the automobile agent, the high-class tailor, 
creases in retail sales were made without cor- the florist and the confectioner. The drug- 
responding increases in the stocks carried by gist and the clothier deal in a great many 
retailers. The retailer seems to have learned articles which people can do without when 
that he can do a larger business with a small- they economize and which they are prone to 
er stock investment than he thought practical purchase when they are spending freely. In 
before the war. Better profits have resulted, the statistics gathered by the committee, the 

The questi(Hi may occur to some readers, increase in consumer demand shown for arti- 
Why were these particular lines of retail cles distributed by the clothier and the drug- 
trade selected for the investigation? The gist comes very near the average for all. 
purpose of the committee was to gain an in- The hardware dealer is in a class by him- 
dex which might be applied to any class of self. His wares, while necessities, are often 
merchandise. While the committee fully closely related to building iterations. It is, 
realized that there are certain goods handled therefore, only natural that in 1914 it was 
by grocers which may be considered luxuries found that the sales of the hardware mer- 
the grocer for the most part deals in absolute chant had decreased 5.2 per cent. In 1915, 
necessities, and as his sales increase or de- on the other hand, the hardware dealer 
crease, so the sales of any other necessity may showed next to the greatest increase of sales, 
be expected to increase or decrease. On the — 18.3 per cent. 



THE BUSINESS DEATH RATE 



THE average length of life of business 
concerns in this country is a subject of 
which comparatively little has been written. 
The experience of Waterloo, Iowa, a fairly 
typical Mid die- Western city of lesser rank 
as to population is graphically described by 
Mr. Stanley A. Dennis in the January num- 
her ol System (Chicago). There seem to have 
been several gtHid reasons for choosing Wa- 
terloo for this particular investigation. It is 



a prosperous city, neither very large nor very 
small, as Middle-Western towns go. The 
population of the place in 1886 was 6000; 
to-day it is about 34,000. 

The inquiry made by Mr. Dennis cMvcred 
manufacturing establishments and wholesale 
houses, as well as retail. For our present 
purposes, however, we shall limit ourselves to 
the consideration of facts about retail busi- 
ness in Waterloo, as a city of that size would 



if7if^i^ri.n^p^ii^aa 



^ f=^mr\^mm^^^fWiFHmm 



•w^ 



EfaHlIIlQja 



MLtnaon O MAccswttii 



CAUSES OF IHE BUSUSSS DEATH 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 219 

not naturally be selected as a typical Jielil stores went out of business within five years 
for study of industrial conditions or business from 1886, 45 per cent of the 511 concerns 
on a large scale. During the thirty-year that were in business in the ten lines at one ' 
period covered by the investigation Waterloo time or another, between 1886 and 1916, 
has grown steadily and may undoubtedly be failed within five years from the time they 
regarded as an average American city in the opened their doors. The detailed figures in 
matter of business mortality. Yet it is the order of apparent hazard are as follows: 
brought out in the article that, of the nine- 
teen retail grocery stores that were doing '""" 
business there thirty years ago, not one ex- ory-g^xl, merchant, in bu.in». S year. *" " 

ists to-day. Not all of these stores failed, or \m 17-6! 

however; some changes were due to removal, JewelerB in buainesg S years or lew 13-SO 

and others to combination and various natu- Shoe dealer, in businew 5 year, or lesi.... 2J-49 

,d d»elopm™,s. Mr Dennis ^ugh, ,o l':^r,'Sl,'^.flZ^r"'j:i--S«'".ZZ 

secure data from which to answer the lol- Grocers in buiineis S yean or less 76-45 

lowing questions: Druggim in busineu 5 years or leis 17-41 

Cigar dealer» in business S years or less. . . 18-39 

(1) Wh«t is the annual death rate among en- Furniture dealers in business S years or less 8-S8 
terprises in business centers? Clothiers in business 5 years or lets 14-3S 

(2) What is the average life of a business? 

(3) Does it in any way correspond with the Neglect to handle colleaions (irmly is as- 
period of bu..peM a«.v.ty «bHA the average ^j j ^ ^^^ ^[^f ^^^ f^^ ^^^ f^j^^^ ^f ^ 
man enjoytr , " . . , , ., 

(4) What cities and section* reflect the highest large majority of the retail grocery stores 
and lowest business death tales? that went out of business during the first five 

(5) Id what lines of business are the death years of the thirty-year period. The next 
rates lowest and highest? most important cause was failure to charge 

(6) Are business death rates increasing or . . "^ , , r l^ 
decreasing? Is increased knowledge and effi- incoming and outgomg goods properly, while 
dency balancing the pressure due to increased the third was failure to establish a good 
coropeiition and rising costs? system of Store management. There were 

(7) What ii the average cost of failure in otj,„ causes, of course: lack of capital, ex- 
bustocM and how i* it distributed over employees, _ , . j c j 
cwisumers. and other enterprises? travagance, speculation, and fraud. 

(8) What business ills cause the greatest mot- In the case of the dry-goods stores the chief 
tality, and what have permanently successful cause of failure was over-buying, or, in other 
concerns done to make themselves immune from ,^ords_ (3;]^,^^ (o determin? what the trade 
ihMe trouble.? required. More than 50 per cent, of the 

These ten leading lines of retail trade were dry-goods stores that failed went under on 

picked as representative: Boots and Shoes, this account. About 30 per cent, of the 

Cigars, Clothing, Drugs, Dry Goods, Furni- dry-goods failures were assigned to unwise 

turc. Groceries, Hardware, Jewelry, and credits. When Waterloo had 6000 people 

Meats. In seven of these ten lines, more there were nine retail dry-goods stores. Now, 

thaii 40 per cent of the total number of with a population of 34,000, there are four. 



220 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

A FRENCH CRITICISM OF ENGLISH 

LEADERSHIP 

UNDER the title, "John Bull, Wake powers of the highest value to the mankind 

Up!" Jean Finot, editor of La Revue of to-morrow. 
(Paris), contributes to the January issue of 

that periodical a searching criticism of the What, finally, can we say of the inestimable 

course pursued by the British Government in »«'T*^«« they have been and are rendering to the 

the war. For the British people he has only ^^j^^J v^t^ f^.n^^^nf d^l^Si^^^^^^^^^^ nv.rcon,., 
, e . 1171 I 1 • I • Ana yet a leeling or aisiUusionment overcomes 

words ot praise. What they need, m his not alone their allies but the English themselves 
view, are more resolute, vigorous leaders in in considering the role played by their govem- 
the present crisis. ment since the outbreak of Ac war. What is the 

The article in its published form is re- ^r^L^C^SSo'errATS^S^sTt '^l.tn'g'la'S 
markable tor the great number of censor s whose diplomacy always astonished the world by 
excisions. In a postscript M. Finot says: its logic and steadfastness, now seems like a 

weathercock exposed to all the winds of heaven, 
Frightfully mutilated by the "diplomatic cen- and particularly to those, of a doubtful nature, 
sorship,'' our study appears in an unwonted form, blowing from Germany and compromising the 
. . . We bow religiously, however, before the sacred interests of our great and noble ally? 
regulations touching our foreign affairs. May One crass fact stands out in the philosophy of 
the sacrifices that we make prove of some value *his war. It is due to Sir Edward Grey and his 
to the diplomacy of the Allies in general, and that hesitating policy. If England had not deferred 
of Quai d'Orsay in particular. by five days its declaration that it would inter- 

vene in a decisive manner should Belgian neu- 

T«^;4.o4-;r.r* «.U^../vV. tV \o «.« ^Xce. ^« ^««,. ««,. trality be violated, Germany would have rclin- 
Irritating though It IS to miss SO many cm- ^^^^^^^ ^ conflict in which a formidable and 

cial words from the text, there is enough of unexpected foe would participate. Sir Edward 
interest in the article, despite its truncated Grey, through his indecision, allowed events to 
form, to furnish absorbing reading. We re- ^*!E!,_J*'«^'" irretrievable course, 
produce below several of M. Finot's chief ,£« ^^fcard'and'w^Vp'-*^^^^^^^ 
contentions; much, of course, had to be cried out treason against those who wished to 
omitted owing to the censored passages. shut them up as in a mouse-trap. England, how- 
Lulled into security, the writer begins, by «v«"", could not act differently. Morally uncon- 

her material prosperity England seemed to S„? we"tn^vi„Td ^f"©' B^^JL 
have really sunk into decadence. Her own His entrance on the scene thwarted their calcu- 
writers pointed out the fissures through which latjons all the more that they could no longer 
a slow, inevitable death was creeping over the Q»»i* ^^^ game. 

most envied nation on earth. Disquieting The >var was inevitable from the point of view 

jj 1^1 \ t ^^ historic necessity. A few more years, and the 

warnings were addressed to the people from «<pax Germanica," which was playing havoc with 

all quarters of the globe. They were ex- Europe, would have made it the slave of Gcr- 
horted, in particular, against the Germaniza- many. The latter, continuing to exploit the 

tion which was transforming Great Britain ^^""^.^ }^ ^" ^^^t'^'l; -""u ^Z'^^" ^"l' T^'J^ 

g^ 1 /-\ J ^L would have seen the nnish of France, England, 

into a mere Cjerman colony. One day the i^aiy, likewise of Russia, for all would have been 

valiant British line deigns to yield. Aban- virtually conquered by their adversary of to-day. 

doning its "splendid isolation," it united with The historian of to-morrow will not forget . . . 

France, and later with Russia, in an entente ^^^ tragic days of the end of July and the be- 

.. •' * ginning of August, 1914. He will gather an 

coratale. ^ ^ additional argument in favor of the influence of 

Thus England saved her position as a individuals upon the march of progress. Just 

great nation, whose destiny promises to be imagine a Pitt or a Beaconsfield at the head of 

more brilliant than ever. ^\ Foreign Office. 

rr>, , J ^ . J 1. And hesitation and uncertainty continue to 

The present war has demonstrated above ^eign in English diplomacy! 

all the vitality of the British people. Pre- M. Delcass^ could with a little will-power 

eminently opposed to militarism, their modest have assumed direction of the diplomatic affairs 

army of 250,000 has, without interior shock «^ j^« Allies But, tired out . . . and laboring 

"^ , ' . ' |_ • J .. -5 AAA under the illusion that Sir Edward Grey was 

or compulsory service, been raised to 3,000,- another Palmerston, he let things go. 

000. A nation of 45,000,000 souls putting And diplomatic blunders without end have 
so great a volunteer force on a war footing been and are, alas! still being perpetrated. The 
is an unusual phenomenon in history. Lovers Balkan campaign, in particular, so unfortunately 

/• r T- T iT • / II ^ ^-r ^1 1 • undertaken, IS a thing to be regretted, 

of the English joyfully testify that here is a 

people endowed with moral and material The writer refers to his former strictures 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 223 

OUR NAVY IN THE EVENT OF WAR 

IN his Manhattan Qub speech in New by its fleet. It would seem that such a force 
York, last November, President Wilson might without difficulty secure a base ex- 
declared that never in our history was the tending twenty-four miles inland, and with 
navy stronger and better prepared than at the aid of the railroads to move men and 
the present moment, and that all we have siege-guns; this force would be able to 
to do is to increase the pace and carry on threaten New York City with destruction 
the policies that have been pursued in the and compel the payment of billions of dol- 
past. Taking issue with this roseate view lars as ransom to the German invaders, 
of our naval preparedness, Mr. George von In Mr. Meyer's opinion, we can at the 
L. Meyer, who was Secretary of the Navy present time place no reliance on the sub- 
under President Taft, points out in the Yale marine fleet to protect our coast. The Ger- 
Review what he regards as serious defects in man submarines, sailing four days in order 
the equipment and personnel of our present to reach the Irish coast, have been able to 
naval organization. patrol for thirteen days before returning to 
In order that his readers may not infer their base, requiring only ten days out of 
that his judgment in these matters is a mere thirty for overhaul. Our best submarines, 
matter of individual opinion, Mr. Meyer re- those of the K class, traversing the same dis- 
minds us that in the hearings before Congress tance as the German submarine, could stay 
less than a year ago, one of our officers testi- but one day on patrol duty and be able to 
fied that it would take five years to develop get back to their base for a ten-day overhaul, 
the organization of the navy department and Mr. Meyer's most serious criticisms of 
the fleet to a high state of efficiency. Another ou/ naval administration are embodied in 
officer high in authority, after calling atten- the following paragraphs from his article: 
tion to the remarkable work of the German 

army's general staflF, announced that Congress Are we to continue the policies which have 

has thus far failed to provide a general staff "-""Jt^^l l^l » submarine flotilla that, according 

«i\\T u -. i. J 1 -.« to the evidence of one of our most enlightened 

in our navy. VV^c have no tested war plans ^g^^^^ j^^j ^„,y ^ f^^ submarines prepared for 

no tested organization for war, no tested sea service when required for the maneuvers 
mobilization scheme ; and, as to gunnery, our with the fleet last May and October, and only 
competitors have accomplished feats greater one At and prepared for sea service this autumn? 
^1 ^1 ^ t ^^ * J »> Are we to go on falhng far behmd the other 

than any that we have ever attempted. countries in the development of aeroplanes and 

Mr. Meyer lays fecial emphasis on the hydroplanes, which have played such an impor- 
shortage of men, — a condition that goes on tant part in locating the armies of the enemy, 
from year to year without any serious attempt J*»« movements of ships, the position of hidden 
-4. —JL-j,, t*. :o ,.,^11 ^.^A^^^t^r^A «.U«* ««■ batteries, and have been mstrumental m driving 
at remedy. It is well understood that, at ^^ ^^^ ;^^^j^^, airships? The arming of air- 

the present time, a ship that has its full com- ships has taken great strides, and yet we have 
plement of men is a rare exception, and it no equipment in that direction worthy of mention, 
is estimated that to provide the necessary Arc ^«,Jo continue the unfortunate and dis- 

crews for all the ships in the navy that would iZll^'Zrl'^iKuZtr. Sto"°o?C*! 
be useful Ml time of war would require grcssman to establish or build up, in his district, 
twenty thousand additional men. Meanwhile, naval stations not required by the navy, without 
it is becoming more difficult, with the in- military or strategic value, and with the addi- 

creased size of our ships, to provide them rippr/tfTb^^^V'arfu^'.'lfav'e^nt'n '^. 
With suffiaent crews when completed. 1 he pended uselessly in this way. Many of the sta- 
torpedo destroyers of the Atlantic fleet are tions that have been built do not meet the re- 
twenty-five per cent, short of their proper quirements of a modern fleet, namely, extensive 

war complements. About a dozen destroyers ^:;?^^'Af.Hnnnc,ii'^ "^^'"^ "' ^ 

, '^ •111/' 1 ^ Aii^ super-areadnougnt. 

arc in reserve with half complements. About xhe great naval powers have seen the neces- 

a dozen more are to be placed in reserve im- sity of concentrating fleets in two or three sta- 

mediately, and only about twenty will be tions, and that it is not advisable or advan- 

left in active service. *^g^«."J '^ l^l^ t ^]f^^JMf, Fn'^Jn/.^n' 

«•,, , . • « r mercial harbor. Realizing this, England, at an 

What could our navy do by way of pro- expense of over $20,000,000, has established a 
tection of our coasts against a foreign in- great naval base at Rosyth. Five years ago, a 
vader? A report of a (Sirman general, pub- naval board of experts recognized the importance 
lished before the war, showed the possibility ?"^ great value of Narragansett Bay as a naval 
J ^ ' . ^ L TT •-. J hase, with its vast anchorage, natural depth of 

of Germany transporting to the United ^3^^^, and two entrances of easy defense. Cap- 
States and landing four army corps, convoyed tains of industry have appreciated that it is 



224 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

cheaper to dismantle plants which arc unprof- Fiske not only has a good opinion of the 

itablc and to concentrate at advantageous construction of American ships of to-day, but 

ocations. considers their equipments of the best, and 

1/1 regards the American battleship as the finest 

Fmally, what he regards as the funda- ^^^ ^^^ powerful vessel of her class in the 

mental defect of the Navy Department is its ^qj-jj 

lack of a competent military organization, ^s to personnel, the American seaman has 

charged with the preparation of the fleets for ^^^^^^ excelled, and so has the American 
war and with their conduct m war. As a ^^^ ^o ships, says Admiral Fiske, have 

consequence our navy is being built and ad- ^^^^ been better handled than the American 

ministered on a peace basis, and not being ^j^jp^j ^^ ^^^^j ^^^^^^^ j„ j^ig^^j^ have been 

efficiently prepaid for war service. Our conducted with more skill and daring than 

leading naval officers have for years advo- ^^^ ^f American ships; no exploits in his- 

cated the organization of a general staff, but ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^f Gushing, Hobson, and 

Congress has always refused to grant it. it Decatur 

should be clearly understood, says Mr. In spite of the excellent account that our 

Meyer, that even though Congress were to ^^„ ^„j ^^^^^ ^ave given of themselves, it 

appropriate for a navy as large and as well ^pp^^^ ^j^^^ j„ ^^e handling of the navy as a 

built as that of Great Britain, and to supply ^^^^^ ^^ ^ave never excelled; though, in 

It with the necessary number of officers and Admiral Fiske^s opinion, no better individual 

men, it could not be used efficiently against a fl^^^ j^^j^^s shine in the pages of all history 

powerful enemy unless it had in time of peace ^^an Farragut and Dewey. Instead of oper- 

been supplied with a directing brain, a gen- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^al and personnel in accord- 

eral staff, to equip it for war, and train it ^^^ ^j^^ carefully laid plans, the matter has 

m war duties. b^^^ j^f^ j^^g^jy ^^ ^^^ inspiration of the 

TT \T7 XT f 'Ti !• •» commander on the spot. Both material and 

Have We a Naval Policy? pe^onnel have suffered from lack of a naval 

A distinguished officer of our navy. Rear- policy, but operation has suffered incompara- 

Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, writing in the bly more. Since the people do not compre- 

North American Review, declares that every hend the supreme importance of being ready 

great naval power in the world except our when war breaks out to operate the material 

own has worked out for itself a definite and personnel skilfully against an active 

policy, having first decided what it ought to enemy in accordance with well - prepared 

do and then how to do it. In the case of strategic plans, they fail to provide the neccs- 

the United States, however, there has been sary administrative machinery, 
no deliberate adoption of a definite naval Admiral Fiske attributes the success of the 

policy. British navy in the present war not so much 

Ever since its beginning, in 1775, the to the individual courage and ability of the 

United States has excelled both in the mate- officers and men, or even to their skill in 

rial and the personnel of its navy. As Ad- handling their ships in squadrons, as to the 

miral Fiske points out, our ships have always fact that a definite naval policy has been fol- 

been good, and in many cases have surpassed lowed. In other words, "the British nation 

those of similar kind in other navies. He has had a perfectly clear realization of what 

attributes this fact to the strong common- it wants the navy to do, and the navy has 

sense of the American people, their engineer- had a perfectly clear realization of how to 

ing skill, and their inventive genius. He re- do it.** 

minds us that the first warship in the world If this country should decide that the 

to move under steam was the American ship navy must be so prepared that, say twenty 

Demologos, sometimes call the Fulton the years hence, it will be able to protect the 

First, constructed in 1813; the first electric country against any enemy, there would be 

torpedoes were American; the first sub- for us the distinct advantage of "having 

marine to do effective work in war was ahead of us a definite, difficult thing to do, 

American ; the first turret ship, the Monitor, which will at once take us out of the region 

was American; the first warship to use a of guesswork and force us into logical 

screw propeller was the Princeton, an Amer- methods. We shall realize the problem in 

lean ; and tfie Admiral adds that the naval its entirety ; we shall realize that the deepest 

telescope sight was an American invention, study of the wisest men must be devoted to 

although he modestly refrains from stating it, as it is in all maritime countries except 

that he himself was the inventor. Admiral our own." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 225 

A PLATTSBURG "ROOKIE" SPEAKS 

THE First Training Regiment, which Even in time of peace, the result would be 

camped and drilled at Plattsburg, N. Y., calamitous." 

last summer, had in its ranks not a few As from the rear rank the "rookie" daily 

scholars and literary men. One of these saw the miracle wrought by the regular of- 

contributes to the Unpopular Review certain ficers in charge of the camp, his admiration 

"Rear-Rank Rcfleaions" on the general sub- grew for them, 
ject of military preparedness which are of 

special interest at this time in connection How American they were, yet how novel. They 

with the country-wide discussion of the sub- ^erc as far from rhe ilacknesB of rural America 

rwT. !■ ( 1. n ' I as iney were trom rhe reatlessness (hat marks 

JCCt. The first of these reflections relates ^^, u/ban efficiency. They were always quick. 

to organization : but never fussed. What they knew, ihey! knew 
perfeclEy. Yet they had one and alt begun just 

Here we were thirteen hundred eager, ud- as so many tlouchy country lads, or snappy city 

\, parodying what bap- lads. How bad they attained such simplicity and 

icB to war. A miracle depend abl eness ? In many ways; some were fresh 

}ught upon us. In two from West Point, others wore the service bars of 

' 1 week we Santiago, Porto Rico, Peking, the Philippines, 



skilled n 




TARGET PRACTISE OF THE "ROOKIES" AT PLATTSBUtC 



pens when our country goes 
of transforrhation was v 
days we had ceased' to be a 
bid got by the first appalling 
fatigue- In a fortnight we had 
developed out of nothing out 
own noncommissioned oMcers. 
We could be scattered in ihin 
lints through brush and thick- 
et, hurled forward or cbecked 
by gestures from an invisible 
oflicer or by whistle calls, and 
reassembled without confusion. 
A still greater achievement 
bad controlled our blinking, 
oSce-tired eyes and our shak- 
ing wrists. Our captains 'bad 
commanded us to shool straight 
for the honor of our compan- 
ies, and we had obeyed. The 
minor mysteries of the shelter 
tent and sleeping bag had been 
more easily mastered. We had 
one and all hardened under 
our fifty pounds of equipment Ound 
into rugged health. 

More remarkable was out 
moral change. From a well-meaning miscel- but they were all like brothers of out forthright 
laneous lot of bankers, engineers, merchants, family. Loyalty to the service, spartan obcdi- 
lawyers, doctors, magistrates, 'professors, and ence, the habit of quick command had made tfaent 
men of letters, unaccustomed to taking orders, out of easy-going men like us rear rankers. Tra- 
we had become a most odd psychological unit, dition had made them. A hundred years of 
We all jumped at the sound of a bugle or a coping with inadequate resources had sharpened 
whistle, we hung on the substance and tone of a them. Their alertness had in it generations of 
command, even though it were that of an under- Indian fighting on the plains. The habit of ac- 
graduate corporal. T^ree weeks had made an cepting disregard, of being paid only by the in- 
effective if ragged regiment of us. Physically ward satisfaction of service well rendered bad 
and morally we bad successfully taken the first simplified them. Wringing success from hopeless 
steps towards preparedness for war, and taken tasks, bearing unreasonable burdens, making 
those steps right. tolerable bricks without straw, had hardened 

and composed them. There was a kind of large 

This "rookie" had no illusions about the directness in them, the like of which I had 

,.,,, . ii_,i ,, glimpsed m certain French oHiccrs in student 

way m which this miracle had been worked, days. I could not wonder that when a gigantic 

It needed little reflection, he says, to see that canal was to be cut, or a fever- stricken island 

the health, order, and spirit of Plattsburg "*» '^ ^^ cl"n"<i, the work went to the army. 

M_ 1.. -jTj jj '<" these company omccrs of ours moved as an 

never be improvised. It depended on embodied conscience and efficiency, 
long-founded experience and intelligence. 

"Imagine what would befall us, if all the Summing up from the "rookie's" point of 
cooks, doctors, officers, and regular privates view what had been demonstrated by the 
were suddenly withdrawn and the Business business men's training camps at Platts- 
Men's Regiment left to its own devices, burg, this writer says: 
Feh.*! 



226 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

We had gone through about a quarter of the duties of the soldier in time of peace. They 
preliminary training of the Swiss infantryman, ^^^i^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j maneuver a 
under similar conditions. It had been shown , ^ j t^i. l j l j i 

that, given superior instruction and the good ^^w hours a day. They had had no long 
will of the taught, the usual drudgery of mili- forced marches, no prolonged maneuvers, 
tary training may be greatly abridged. Our They had been spared the more irksome sen- 
progress in a month had not by any means made ^ outpost and police duties. In this 
us good soldiers, but it had shown us the way. « i • > »» '^ ^ / « 

Doubtless, under similar conditions of instruc- rookies opinion, most of the regiment 
tion, pretty good soldiers could be made, if not in were Still far from fit to stand the physical 
a month, at least in two periods of two months, strain of actual warfare. "Here is a whole 
This was our conviction and we wcr^ glad to ^^^^ ^f preparation for war, about which 
have aided, however little, to show how a free ., • ^u mj -. • ^' t> i 

country may train its citizenry in drms, without ^"^re is the wildest misconception. People 

exacting excessive toll of their young years. We cannot realize that a stalwart, untrained citi- 
had indicated for American use the system in- zen is no more physically fit to fight than a 
augurated by the old democracy of Switzerland s^^^dy, untrained freshman is fit to step into 
and the new democracy of Australia. All this x -.L ii -. l /^ v 'A i i 

was matter of just self-satisfaction. ^ football match. Quite aside from moral 

preparation, which takes a much longer time. 
After all, however, it made for modesty training involves the education of a special 
to recall that these men had nearly per- set of muscles. Especially is this true in 
formed in their month the average lighter soldiering." 



FINDING WORK FOR MEN CRIPPLED 

IN WAR 

EVEN when the great European holo- upon the altar of their country the precious 

caust has finally burnt itself out, there sacrifice of their eyesight, 

will be bitter reminders of its cruelty and But the healing of the wounded, and their 

folly for scores of years in the shape of the preparation for self-support, must be made 

human wreckage left behind. The maimed, eflFective by a third step, that of finding suit- 

the halt, and the blind will remain tragic able employment for them when they are 

reminders for one generation and the next, ready for it. This branch of social service 

Yet it is encouraging to note the noble efforts has been most ably undertaken in Austria, 

already being made in various quarters, and a valuable account of the method pur- 

notably England, France, Germany, and sued has appeared in an article in the Oester- 

Austria, to transform this human wreckage reichische Rundschau (Vienna). In this Dr. 

into' ''human salvage." Rich. Sudek, Deputy Director of the "Offi- 

Surgeons and physicians are daily perform- cial National Employment Bureau for War 

ing miracles in patching up and piecing out Invalids" in Vienna tells us that it was 

the fragmentary humanity that comes under found necessary for effective work to or- 

their care, and when their beneficent work ganize the activities of the various new and 

is finished other kind hands are stretched old humanitarian societies and private indi- 

forth to help the victims to regain a normal viduals who became interested in this poig- 

relation to life by a re-education which shall nantly appealing subject. He writes: 
enable them to become wholly or partiallv 

self-sustaining at some trade or profession In the view that it was the business of the 

•*.u' *.u \. X u .^^,. -.. «o ««-. 1-^* 8tate to care for the further welfare of the in- 

within the scope of such powers as are left ^^,jj^^ ^j,^ Government began, in the summer of 

to them. the present year (1915) to unite and centralize 

Particularly notable are the schools for the labors of all jhese units. After a series of 

injured men installed at Lyons under the conferences to which were invited representatives 

% ' ' J ^ ^i ^u I ^:*..,»« .*««...:^*.v of the military and civil authorines; and of m- 

enthusiastic advocacy of that city s patriotic ^^^^^^^ commerce, trades, and agriculture.-the 

and far-sighted mayor, and the school for Utter including delegates of every shade of party, 

the education of the blind wherein an Ameri- from both capital and labor, — the Ministry of the 

can woman. Miss Winifred Holt, already Interior, in conjunction with the Ministry of War 

1 X u u -. ^1 ^•. «««.:.. ;*:«o ;« ,^^ and the Ministry of National Defence,- created a 

famous for her benevolent activities m con- ^^^^^^, ^^^^^ / ^j^^^^ ^^^j„g ^j^^ J^^^^ ^^ 

nection with The Lighthouse m this city, pUdng war invalids in paying positions. 

has devoted her energy and experience to 

ameliorating the lot of those who have laid This action took place in July and was 



LEADING ARTICLES , OF THE MONTH 227 

shortly followed by formation of similar 
bureaus in Prague, Briinn, Troppau, Salz- 
burg, and Linz. The first step was to seelc 
the proffer of open positions suitable for the 
variously afflicted men. In a few days after 
the opening of the bureau a most generous 
response was made, offers of hundreds of 
positions pouring in. Industry, by which is 
meant in general the larger manufacturing 
plants, was first in the field, but agriculture, 
commerce, and trades did not long lag be- 
hind. "The experience of the bureau was 
that comparatively few of the applicants 

wished to be re-instated in their former oc- PbKogt.pn by Medem pnon) scnice 
cupations, the chief reason for this being teachin 
that men capable of continuing their former 
work made direct application for it instead 
of to the bureau. Even if less capable than As already stated, most of the applicants 
previously, their former employers were o^"" a place m government or municipal 
urged to take them on again by the powerful service, and when this is excluded they are 
motives of duty and patriotism. At the time apt to be much at sea among the multiplicity 
of writing, less than three months after the «' modern trades and crafts. Therefore, 
opening of the bureau, Dr. Duvek estimates they must be guided to choose somethmg 
that the offers of "Jobs" from all over the suited to the nature and degree of their 
country came to about 10,000. But as may mfirmity. 
be imagined the officials found it no easy 
,a.k » fi, ,he m.„ ,o .he job. ""Ar;'.."" i.^S'.o'f'.fc "nvSta 

(omc Bort of work related (o hii former calling, 
The work of employnient bureaus tor war in- ;„ nhich he may make further uie of hi* collected 
validi diff(ri from that of other employment bu- experience and knowledge . . . according to 
reaus chiefly in the proviso that the intereMi of the degree of hia intelligence and education, 
the employee must take precedence of those of Thus, for an invalid lockunith, for example, there 
the employer. Of course, the latiafaction of the may be places ai custodian of materials, clerk or 
Utter cannot be left entirely out of account, else, inspector in a warehouse, foreman, etc., according 
in spite of patriotism and the sens« of duty to- to the degree of his inlcliigcnce and nature of 
ward our heroes, the demand would soon con- y, wound. It roust be carefully noted, also, if 
siderably decrease. Both tasks have their own f,e is able to do much walking, climb stairs, etc 
peculiar difficulties. The war invalid desires An invalid shoemaker, unable to practice bis 
above all a secure position with right of pension; trade, may be able (o work as inspector in 
therefore, at best a government position, or at leather factories, shoe stores or warehouses, etc 
any rate one in the municipal service. When the , . . This careful inspection and guidance natu- 
National Bureau, however, haa such at its dis- rally entails many considerations and much time, 
posal, they are few. Among the invalids one to that the directors of such a bureau must not 
seldom bears the desire eipressed to return to be judged by the percentage of applicants placed, 
the former employment; on the contrary, they 

resolutely refuse it, even when the power oi c • i ^. .• • -i 
earning is injured bit slightly ornot at all. Each Special attention IS paid to securing per- 
one considers himself entitled to lasting care, manencc, or at least durability of position. 

Hence many offers must be rejected, where 
Dr. Sudek observes that however deserv- the employer wants the applicant merely to 
ing the individual through perils undertaken fill a temporary gap. Some men, too, are 
and hardships undergone, there are not merely trying to find a cheap source of labor 
enough such positions to go around, and this and in otTering payment take into considera- 
must be gently and patiently explained. In- tion the pension already received, so as to 
deed a considerable portion of the bureau's cut the wage to the lowest possible figure, 
endeavors is devoted to careful study of the Often, likewise, places are offered which are 
crippled soldiers' needs and capacities and unsuited to invalids in general. In some 
personal advice based thereupon. This is cases where the bureau Is unable to decide 
facilitated by the filling out of a table of on anything suitable recourse is had to tech- 
information upon such items as name, rank, nical medical advice furnished hy a special 
education, trade, previous earning ability, commission composed of experienced physi- 
nature of wound, amount of pension or cash cians and social economists. While the ap- 
indemnity received, personal wishes, etc. plicant is not forced to accept their advice. 



228 THE AMERICAN REVlEfV OF REVIEWS 

he cannot on refusing it claim further aid another commission which places them in a 

from the bureau. hospital, convalescent home, water-cure 

Many applicants are without means of (Bad), or similar institution until recovery 
subsistence and must be supported until work is complete as possible in a given case, 
is found for them, and for this purpose a Others who are to be placed in entirely netp 
government fund has been provided. Some vocations arc given the opportunity to attend 
of the men have taken advantage of this not the Invalid School or take a technical course 
only to claim support from the bureau, but in the craft they desire to enter, 
to request the prospective employer for an The bureau also extends its activities to 
advance, and have then failed to take the the higher categories of employment de- 
offered place, appearing later with various manding intellectual ability and education, 
excuses to attempt a repetition of the same This affords an opportunity for the placing 
maneuver. On this account provision has of retired and disabled officers, and the field 
been made for the support of needy appli- is said to be extraordinarily rich in technical, 
cants in special barracks connected with the executive, and commercial positions. This 
Invalid School until a job is found or until remarkable and successful undertaking rouses 
the first pay-day. the ivish that something of the kind could 

Invalids who apply for positions before be undertaken for the victims of our Indus- 

their health is fully restored are referred to trial warfare. 



THE GERMAN ECONOMIC GENERAL 
STAFF 

THE economic efficiency of Germany Staff. Much has been written about the 

under the severe strain of the Allies' military General Staff, but little is known in 

blockade of her ports has roused admiration this country about the economic General 

even among those who deplore and denounce Staff. Yet the principles of operation of this 

her military efficiency. Both, however, are body are of deep significance and practical 

due to the organizing and executive ability value to Americans, whether for peace or foi 

of a supreme body known as the General war. 




IwUfuiiii bj Cud 

ONE DArS COLLECn(»l OF COPPER ARTICLES IN A GERMAN SCHOOL 
(Uwing to tbc shortaci of copper in Germany, BChooI ctaildien were tequesled to bring to (cliao) ■ 
atiiclet owned bj their familiet) 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



This executive staff was formed by the 
German Government to take over the con- 
sideration and administration of questions of 
domestic economy, particularly the procuring 
and distribution of raw materials. It is com- 
posed of men prominent in the commercial 
and industrial life of Germany. 

It was organized by the Ministry of War 
as a "Division of Raw Materials of War" 
with the special function of making provision 
for the maintenance of those branches of 
business affected by the war. It is endowed 
with extensive powers of seizure and requi- 
sition and with authority to appraise such 
goods according to their market value, as also 
to fix minimum and maximum prices to the 
ultimate consumer, 

Tecknik fiir AUe quotes from the Nord- 
deutsche Allgeme'tne Zeitung an excellent 
summary of its activities. 

The specific problems to whose solution it 
is devoted are thus specified: 

(1) The utmosl poisibU diminution of (he con- 
sumplion of goods cuilomary in timei of peace 
■od the indication of gubiciiuies. 

(2) The reclaiming of old maieriali. 

(3) The testing and applying of subitilulei 
and the recovery of by-producti. 

(4) The creation of artificial raw maieriali 
by the application of the newest technical and 
chemical discoveries. 

(5) The erection and financial support of new 
factories and the enlargement of existing plants. 

(6) Furtherance of every possibility of import. 

(7) The discovery, transport, and distribution 
of seizable goods in hostile territory occupied by 

The distribution of raw materials is gov- 
erned by the stock on hand and the demand 
in any given industry. The valuation of 
confiscated or requisitioned property is ad- 
justed to the state of the market. Too low 
idvisable, because it 
nporting as possible. 
as necessary to fix a 
' raw materials, 
e to form organiza- 
he transport of con- 
enemy's country, its 
s, its valuation and 
ed that there were 
ins to the immediate 
of the various raw 
>n this account the 
IS demanded were 
iples of private con- 



ikjif tKe war, Dr. Rvhraau, ibe head of tha 
■■ eited by the Min- 



El«li . . . , 

iaiet of War to take ch> 
war material. Under his 



For this purpose the form of the AitUiigetell- 
ithaft with its Board of Inspcclioti was consid- 
ered peculiarly fitted. Profits are not distrib- 
uted; governmental control is exerted by means 



QKygcn of Ibe ait by electricity) 

of goveminent commissioners having the power 
of veto. But if an industry is composed of a rel- 
atively small number of concerns already united 
in an organized association, then the place of the 
Akliengiselhchajl is taken by a Bureau of Ac- 
counts which is subject to a supervisory com- 

The Raw Material Commissions have charge 
of all new raw materials within their sphere of 
action, both domestic sI(m:1[i and those of occu- 
pied hostile territory, they pay the requisition 
valuations, complete the stocks by imports from 
neutral countries, distribute the raw materials, 
and make estimates of cost-price for requisitioned 
goods, as also of selling-price, in which case any 
accruing profits must be employed for the public 
benefit on the later dissolution of the company. 

Independent of the Raw Material Commissions, 
but operating as adjuncts, are numerous Ap- 
praisal and Distribution Commissions which act 
as mediators between the patties concerned. It 
is the function of the Appraisal Commissions to fix 
■he price of confiscated gtmds with regard to the 
state of the market in Germany, while the Dis- 
tribution Commissions distribute to the various 
factories ihe raw materials which first go to the 
bureaus of a 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 




THE FATE OF THE ARMENIANS 

ONE of the few good results that may be The same indifference to the fate of the 
looked for from the War of Nations Armenians, dictated by considerations of po- 
is the erection of an autonomous, or partly litical expediency, prevented any attempt to 
autonomous Armenian state in Asia Minor, enforce the article of the Berlin Treaty rc- 
although here, as with Poland, there is little quiring the Turkish Government to reform 
likelihood that all the fractions of this un- the local abuses in Armenia, under the gen- 
happy race can ever be united under a single etal supervision of the powers. As is well 
government, for at present the Armenians are known, this article has always remained a 
divided among three different nations, Rus- dead letter, and not even the impression 
sia, Turkey, and Persia, their political lot caused by the terrible happenings uf 1895 and 
closely resembling that of the Poles in this 1896 could induce the powers to interfere, 
respect. The French Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
Some aspects of the Armenian situation are Bourgeois, replied to an interpellation in the 
presented in an article in Nuova Antohgia Chamber of Deputies, that in view of "the 
(Rome), by a member of the Italian Cham- delicacy of the subject," his answer would 
ber of Deputies, Signor Filippo Meda. At have to be given personally and in writing, 
the outset he notes that but for Disraeli's op- and m the very midst of the massacres, the 
position, the Armenian question might have Czar sent an autograph letter to the Sultaa, 
been settled at the Congress of Berlin, in Abdul Hamid, accompanied by valuable gifts. 
1878, by constituting an Armenian depen- To make the balance between the Allies and 
denc)' under the nominal suzerainty of Tur- the Central Powers even, we are reminded 
key. A petition signed by 200,000 Arme- that about the same time the German Em- 
nians had been presented, and several of the peror sent his photograph, with a friendly 
delegates were inclined to support the project, inscription, to the Sultan. 
but Disraeli and his assistant, Salisbury, op- While this Italian writer is evidently a 
posed it inflexibly. The chief cause of this decided pro-Armenian, the general exactness 
opposition was the fear that the new Arme- of his presentment can scarcely be questioned, 
nian state would follow the example of the The recent revival of the Armenian persecu- 
Balkan states and gravitate toward Russia, lions in the most a^ressive form is matter of 
and would thus render Turkey more vulner- recent history, and wc must feel all the 
able in case of a Russian attack in Asia greater satisfaction that at last some appa- 
Minor. rently effective steps have been taken by a 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



231 



neutral whose power and influence are due, 
not to temporal, but to spiritual force. Of 
this, Signor Meda writes as follows: 

The efforts of Monsignor Dolci, the Aposiolic 
Delegaie at ConttaDiinoplc, through Trhom Bene- 
dict XV has transmitted bis remonstrances and 
solicitude to the Sublime Porte, have been 
crowned nith a considerable measure of auccess. 
In fact, the Turkish Minister of the Interior was 
induced, last September, to send a circular to the 
governors of the Empire, in which it is Mated 
that the object of the measures taken in regard 
to the Armenians was only to check the rebel- 
lious activity of that nationality and its aspira- 
tions for the formation of an autonomous state, 
and not to massacre the Armenians. 

In accordance with this, orders were given to 
suspend their expatriation, to protect those who 
had already been expatriated, on their way to 
the new districts assigned to them, and to pro- 
vide thera with the requisites for the establish- 



ment of new abodes. All who should attack 
them on the way, or who Bhauld commit any acts 
of brigandage, were threatened with heavy pen- 
alties, and', finally, it was ordained that all fait' 
ing to conform to these instructions should be 
denounced. 

It appears that the Turkish authorities did not 
confine themselves to this circular, as information 
secured from the Apostolic Delegate is said to 
confirm the report that certain officials were pun- 
ished, and that in many places the persecution 
had ceased. The warmest thanks were sent to 
the Holy See by the Armenian patriarch, with the 
earnest wish that the Armenian blood that had 
been shed, both of Roman Catholics and Grego- 
rians, might serve to cement a union between the 
two churches. 

Of course, at best, this is only a step in the 
right direction, and any real improvement of 
conditions can only come when the Turks are 
brought under the control either of the Allies or 
of the Central Powers, aa will inevitably happen, 
whatever may be the result of the war. 



THE WAR AND THE RELIGIOUS 
OUTLOOK 



IF the question, What has the war done 
for religion ? could be put to the majority 
of the clergy, or to a majority of the thought- 
ful men of the Christian world, Mr. Harold 
Bcgbie believes that they would all agree in 
answering, that the war has 
taught us the true meaning 
of religion: "Self-sacrifice, 
devotion and service." And 
he goes further and predicts, 
that from these virtues, now 
once more dominant in the 
hearts of men, will surely 
oome the passion of religion, 
the love of beauty and good- 
ness, the yearning desire for 
immortality, and a "divine 
curiosity concerning God." 

Mr. Dennis Crane has 
deftly presented Mr. Beg- 
hic's views on religion and 
the war in an article pub- 
lished in the January issue 
of the Homiletic Review. He bamm.d 

asserts that the views ex- 
pressed in that striking novel, "Twice-Bom 
Men," in which Mr, Begbic shows that new 
birth is a fact of modern experience, give 
him a right to speak on religious problems 
with equal authority with the clergy. 



sands of people thai self-sacrificing service ren- 
dered to humanity is the highest expression of 
the spirit. They find ihcmaelves by loaing their 
selfishness. In all kinda of waya men and women 
of all classes are working for others, giving up 
for others, living for the first time lives of 
real devotion; and they are 
happy, — Bupremely happy." 

Mr. Begbie does not think 
that in the end the lessons 
of the present war will have 
been in vain. Human nature 
may not change in essentials, 
but the smoothing-iron of 
universal education tends to 
render us less liable to cata- 
clysms that are the results 
of inequalities of knowledge. 
He sees the new state emerg- 
ing from the war triumphant 
in ^iritual socialism, and far 
in advance of the present in 
economic socialism. As for 
present-day churches, he ven- 
tures that they will largely 
cease to exist. 

"I am inclined to think that the churches as we 
now know them will cease to exist," he said. . 
"I do not think that any form of ritual known 
at present will satisfy the future realistic reli- 
gioDt feelings of mankind. Huroani^ is being 
born again, and the churches also will have to 
be reborn. Many noble ministers of religion 
will assist at that rebirth. 



232 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

"My view is that the churches, which were I am satisfied that men have seen visions in 
already complaining of declining congregations, France, and also elsewhere. There is conclusive 
will become less and less attended. There will evidence that the visions of the angels at Mons 
naturally always be societies of Christians, were not suggested to the minds of those who 
brought together by identity of taste or circum- saw them by the fanciful story of Arthur Machen ; 
stance, but the day^ of formalism, of great na- my little book, "On the Side of the Angels," 
tional churches with tremendous machinery, is demonstrates that After all, what is it but an 
almost over.'* exemplification of the Biblical doctrine that the 

celestial spirits war on the side of those moral 
It is his opinion that the average clergy- purposes they share? 

man fails to inspire his flock because he has 

nothing to give them from the storehouse of On the whole, Mr. Begbie is very opti- 

his own personal experience. mistic over the religious outlook. His own 

faith in God is absolute, and he does not 
If a man arose like St Paul, or Francis of ^Yixnk that Christianity has failed in the war 
Assist, or Wesley, or William Booth even, who • • IJ . 

had experienced something different from what crisis, lie says: 

the ordinary man experiences but something felt i. • • r i.* 

by the ordinary man to be true, great crowds " >« not fair to say that, in view of this great 
>¥ould gather to hear that man and he might v^ar, Christianity has failed. Christianity, as 
inspire wonderful action, wonderful service. But Chesterton has said, cannot be blamed for failure, 
as it is, few men feel any the better for going because it has never been tried. Had there been 
to church. That explains the Churches failure. any big body of Christians in the belligerent 

countries, war would have been impossible. As 

He has a strong feeling that we are on »t.»» ?««?{« «Pr««J ^^^ K'-^atcst horror of it, 
^i_ r ^ • i_ • J* • -.L -. ^u while overlooking the faci that it is not nearly 

the eve of astonishing discovcnes, that there ^ ^^^jble as our whole commercial system. 

may be signs m heaven, and he writes: The horrors that come from sweating and drink- 

ing and prostitution are infinitely worse; they 
I am sure that science will advance to the not only slay greater numbers, but slay them in 
spiritual frontier; I hope that those on the other a way that is awful to think of. Commercialism 
side may advance to meet her. is a greater enemy of God and man than war. 



WORLD MISSIONS IN THE SECOND 

YEAR OF WAR 

THE main emphasis of the World Out- ary Review of the World. While holding 
look for January is West China's with the bulk of Episcopal laymen and the 
mighty province of Szechuan, the native clergy of the Broad Church wing to the de- 
home of natural gas, artesian wells, and cision of the Board of Missions, it presents 
virile men. Professors E. A. Ross and E. D. also the position of Doctor Manning and his 
Burton strongly pen-picture its interesting party. It quotes the memorial of New 
people and its pregnant future from personal York's leading rectors who urge the Board 
observation and study. But the most inter- to persist in their determination to send rep- 
csting articles have to do with ihe Union rescntatives to Panama for the reasons that 
University, supported by English Baptists it js "wise, far-sighted, and fraternal, that 
and Friends and the Methodists of the it is justifiable upon every ground of right 
United States and Canada. Some of the and expediency, and that the eflfect of it 
Chino-Occidental architecture of the build- cannot fail to be greatly beneficial, not only 
ings is most fascinating; and the joint plans to the cause of missions, but to the unity of 
for education are appealing enough to the the spirit of the Church of Christ." An 
Governor of the Province and to Yuan article upon the "Charms of Burma" and 
Shih-k'ai, China's new Emperor, to have one upon the loss to German missions be- 
clicitcd personal letters of commendation — cause of the war are other contributions of 
here seen in halftones — and checks to aid, value. Dr. Zwemcr's "Future of the Mos- 
the Emperor's being for $4000. lems" is another article related to the war. 

The Latin-American Congress on Chris- 
tian Work, to be held at Ps^ama February ^-os^ES to organized christiakitv 

10-20, which a wag has called the Congress Nowhere else, not even in the Rundschau 

that will make the Episcopal Church famous, section of the Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift, 

is luminously explained from the Church- can be found any such annual summary of 

man's point of view in the January Mission- progress throughout the mission world 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 233 

the editors of the International Review of ward Christianity in India where the 
Missions supply in their January issues. The American Methodists alone baptized nearly 
one for 1915 covers seventy-two of the 174 30,000 in the year 1914-15, while baptism 
pages of the current number. War clouds was refused to 40,000 because no provision 
are characteristic of reports from most of the could be *made for their Christian nurture, 
Aelds, more especially India and Africa, still less for their 150,000 inquirers; a for- 
where both Catholic and Protestant mis- ward movement all along the China lines, 
siens, German and French alike, have lost with special emphasis of the entry into the 
many of their workers, partly through recall field of the China Medical Board of the 
to the French colors, or through repatriation Rockefeller Foundation, which is generously 
or internment of the Germans. Here and cooperating with the medical missionaries; 
in China there has been displayed a most in Korea an addition of 24,000 to the Chris- 
Christian spirit of helpfulness on the part tian ranks during the y«ar, now totaling 
of British and other missions and mission- 76,825 communicants and 196,000 adher- 
aries. On the whole, Christianity seems to ents, the fruitage of thirty years of Prot- 
have suffered: "Bitterness has entered into estant effort; and the recognition in Japan 
the relations of those engaged in the service of Christian Middle Schools as part of the 
of their common Lord. The moral prestige government educational scheme, with their 
of Christendom has suffered a blow from right to give religious instruction, 
which it will take long to recover. ... 

Hundreds of devoted men and women have ™^ Armenians 

seen the work built up by the unselfish la- The American Congregationalists have 

bors of a lifetime apparently swept away in been almost the sole influence in the educa- 

the flood. Many more have had their plans tion of Turkey along modern lines, particu- 

upset and the realization of their hopes in- larly the Armenians, who are suffering so 

definitely postponed." direly these deadly winter months of dead- 
lier war. The Missionary Herald chron- 

PROGRESS AND PROMISE j^j^ ^^c Steps in thc destruction of work 

Yet there are rifts in the clouds, as the laboriously built up for nearly a century. 
Review makes plainly evident. Such are Its January issue quotes Ahmed Riza Bey's 
the courageous attempts of the American "J'Accuse," in an interpellation to the sen- 
churches to deal with American- Japanese re- ate: "I accuse the Government of the Ar- 
lations by sending a Christian embassy to menian massacres and of the persecution of 
Japan through its Federation of Churches, the Christians in general; and even in the 
thc initiation of a comprehensive missionary event of the Central Powers being victo- 
survey of India looking to its more efficient rious — which in my opinion is improbable — 
occupation, the opening of a Christian Col- they would considerably influence our po- 
lege for Women in Madras in which twelve sition as a state and a nation. Ungrateful 
American and British societies are coopera- nations are not the Christians, but we have 
ting, and the completion of a thorough sur- turned against our *friends and protectors.* *' 
vey of the present position of Christian lit- Though such boldness led to the arrest of 
crature in the mission field to form thc thc senator, he was shortly released. The 
basis of a fresh consideration by the societies Turks are tightening the screws a bit, having 
of this important missionary agency. Other an eye to the liberalizing effect of American 
marks of progress are these : A union evan- schools and missionaries ; and with each new 
gelistic campaign in far-away northeastern success of the Central Powers the behavior 
Siam, in which land the Chinese residents of officials becomes more arrogant and the 
are moving toward Christianity; a more position of the missionaries more uncomfort- 
cordial attitude of French officials in Mada- able. Meanwhile they have distributed 
gascar toward Protestant missions, which has some $300,000, and their women workers 
been repressive hitherto; more than 100,000 have accompanied, as far as allowed, Arme- 
baptized Christians and catechumens read- nian women on their way to hopeless exile, 
ing for baptism under the Church Mission- A large percentage of the $3,000,000 capital 
ary Society in Uganda, Equatorial Africa's invested in mission buildings has been utterly 
heart; a new church, built by the famous lost. Some of the stations are still intact, 
Negro Christian and reformer, Chief and the missionaries are holding bravely to 
Khama, out on the fringe of the Kalahari their tasks of teaching, dispensing relief, 
desert, yet with an audience at its dedication safeguarding property and proving their 
of more than 15,000; mass movements to- Christian friendliness. 



234 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

THOUGHTS OF A FIGHTING MAN 

A NOVEL study in the psychology of the men have already resisted the attacks of the 
soldier at the front was recently under- enemy and feel that they can do so again, 
taken by Mr. Hereward Carrington. The As we approach the rear this feeling of con- 
facts for this investigation, the results of fidence wanes until we reach its antithesis in 
which appear in the Forum, were obtained at the "civil zone," where the feeling of per- 
first hand from soldiers on the field or in sonal fearlessness and confidence is almost 
the trenches, or from wounded men who had entirely lacking. This fact, of course, is 
just returned from the front. The soldiers one of the chief reasons why a prolonged 
who were questioned for this purpose had system of military training is needed to fit 
fought in the fii^t battles in Belgium, on the soldier for war. The effects of such 
the Meuse, the Marne, and the Aisne; in training are mental and moral, no less than 
the Argonne and Champagne. Practically physical and psychological, 
all of the material seems to have come from From his study of life in the cantonment 
the allied troops on the western front. The Mr. Carrington concludes that the mind of 
questions to which Mr. Carrington sought the average soldier undergoes a temporary 
to obtain answers are thus stated by him: degeneration, due to the fact that it acts in 
"During those long, weary weeks of waiting vacancy instead of attaching itself to things; 
and watching, in the trenches, what occu- the mind becomes simple and vacuous, 
pies the soldier's mind? What feelings ani- In the trenches the soldier approaches 
mate him when he attacks, — when he fires, actual warfare, and here Mr. Carrington 
charges, or runs his bayonet into the quiver- pauses to inquire about the psychology of 
ing flesh of an antagonist?" fear in the present war: 

In his attempt to answer these questions . . u . , ... 

M/-I • ^ ^ .1 J 1 -. •*• Mtn assert that they rarely experience this 

r. Carrington traces the gradual transition fecling,-Ieast of all while on the firing-line, 

that takes place m a man s mind during the Sometimes they will run into extreme danger at 

transformation from a "civilian" to a "sol- night, and at dawn are astonished at having 

dier," and traces the sudden change from the c^caPfd al"»o»t certain death. Then, sometimes, 

* 'I* .. ..u ij* A sniver oi remmiscent apprehension runs 

civihan-consciousness to the soldier-con^ious- ,^^^^^^ ^^em! But nearly every soldier feels a 

ness. He finds that with the marked change sort of inner conviction that he will not be killed, 

in the environment from civil life to military — that he will escape by some miraculous good 

life there comes a distinct psychological forjunc- Some, it is true, do not experience this 

change. Everyone the soldier meets thinks rf!f'i"S;rJ.nr."5/* '"^ "^ ""' '*"* '"''^''"'^ 

as he does about the same subjects m the 

same way. All are dressed alike and every It seems that men at the front think little 
one's thought runs in the same groove, of war in the abstract, or even of the enemy ; 
"There is no longer the clash of opinion, the they think rather of themselves, when they 
interchange of rival thoughts. Gradually, are not actively engaged in observing the en- 
imperceptibly, the images and thoughts of emy's movements. All the men questioned 
ordinary civil life begin to fade; thoughts of agree upon these three essential points: (1) 
home, wife, friends even, begin to grow That they do not speak of the enemy or 
dim and recede from memory. The present, think of him except when an alarm is given ; 
the vital present, occupies and grips the mind. (2) or after an attack; or (3) when the- 
Intellect gives way to sense impressions. The patrols return ; that is, each time his presence 
mind of the civilian has given place to that of is vividly recalled to consciousness. When 
the combatant. Henceforth we must study the trenches are under fire from the enemy 
the mind of the soldier as a thing apart, — as the soldier's mind centers upon one thing, — 
separate and distinct from that of any other how to defend the trench and resist the ad- 
human being. He both thinks and acts dif- versary. The men fire to protect themselves 
ferently from any other man on the face of as much as to kill, 
the earth." In the advance positions, the isolated 

The workings of the soldier's mind are trenches, the men are swayed more readily 

first studied in the rest-camps or so-called by one impulse, by a single word or gesture, 

cantonments, then in the general trenches, The example of the commanding officer is 

then in the isolated trenches, and finally in here of the supremest importance, 
the actual attack on the enemy. In the direct attack on the enemy all tes- 

It is found that the men at the very front timony seems to agree that the instinct of 

have the greatest confidence. Many of these self-preservation becomes uppermost. The 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 235 

'soldier's mind is monopolized by this single «« centered upon one idea— of dominating the 

idea, and he soon comes to feel that he has ««'»>'• Aspirations regrets, ideas, all find their 

' , „ , A t. . ^ place taken by bodily sensations and activities, 

mastered aU danger. As to the true nature y^e soldier stands ready to execute his orders 

of heroism, while Mr. Carrington admits that at the right moment, without reflection. In 

in some cases it may be conscious valor, he whatever he does his acts and thoughts become 

is convinced that in the majority of instances ^Z*^-. The most primitive of all our instincts,- 
. . * ^ ^ . 1 ^ #T«i 1 the instinct or self-preservation, — that which we 

It IS almost certainly not so. The man who 3^^^^ ^q^,^„y ^j^^ everything that lives,-comes 

performs some heroic feat is unaware at the to the fore, and becomes a vital, a dominating 
time that he is doing anything extraordinary, position. All the centuries of intervening civili- 
zation are swept away in an instant; and we see 
The influence of the officer is all-important at before us, not the cultured gentlenaan of yester- 
die moment of attack. He determines the menta^ day, but a primitive brute-beast, fighting for his 
and moral tone of his soldiers. The soldier, for existence and his life in precisely the same way 
his part, seeks only to perform those acts which that his ancestors fought, — and with no other, 
seem to him most suited to gain the desired end. higher ideals in mind! That, perhaps, is the 

most instructive item of all. It shows us at 
The psychology of the combatant may once and graphically the effects upon the mind 

therefore be summed up as follows: f^ '^Y^'^l^i P/''!!? ^"^ "'^^^.^^ *^ '"i"*"' T """'^ 

^ to material destruction, and to mental and moral 

Life in the trenches tends to make the mind deterioration, but also to the very extinction of 

childish, simple, vacuous; the senses are stimu- the spirit of man itself, — in the almost instant 

lated; the will rendered intense; the thoughts reversion of civilized man to savagery. 



MECCA AND INDIAN REVOLTS 

THAT the annual pilgrimage of Mo- "At the beginning of the war," declares 
hammedans to Mecca will be a most the Dutch periodical, "Turkey abrogated 
serious matter in 1916 is the opinion of the the so-called 'capitulates', — according to 
Dutch East Indian officials, and steps are which subjects of other powers could obtain 
now being taken to discourage all prospect- legal assistance and court trials in their own 
ivc pilgrims from going to Mecca in the language at their own consul's office. Since 
present year. The number of pilgrims from last year the Turkish language alone is used 
the Dutch East Indies to Mecca in 1914-15 and all law cases are brought before a Turk- 
amounted to 28,427, and the government of ish Kadi (judge). As Mohammedans in 
the Dutch Asiatic Islands has always given the Dutch East Indies do not acknowledge 
the pilgrims all the assistance in its power, the Sultan of Turkey as their lord and 
In November, 1915, however, the Dutch au- master, this order is nothing but an attempt 
thorities decided to issue a general warning to further extend *Pan-Islamism.' But the 
to all their Mohammedan subjects, which is time for religious wars is past, — nowadays 
given in full in the Vfagen des Tijds, read- tt's only race-hatred and envy which drive 
ing, in part, as follows: men to slaughter each other." 

Conditions in the Hedjas (the coast of Arabia, In June of last year Turkey issued an official 

surrounding Mecca) since the entry of Turkey "irage" in which the subjects of the Dutch East 

in the war, have become very unfavorable. The Indies were released from their "obligation to 

country itself produces not nearly enough food fight a holy war," the Turkish Government de- 

to suppb' its own inhabitants, and the British siring to remain on friendly terms with Holland, 

have closed the sea to them. Hadjis (Mecca • • . But the declaration of a ''Holy War" 

pilgrims) who started on the trip before the under the green flag of the prophet was not, a 

warning, and those who had reached Mecca religious step, — it was a political step of the 

after Turkey's entry into the war, are in great Young Turks. Should Germany and its allies 

trouble, being unable to continue their trip or to come out rvictorious in this war, all Mohamme- 

return after having reached their goal. Dutch dans would be filled with a much greater degree 

•hips from the East Indies will take no more pf self-reliance and self-respect, — so much so that 

passengers for Mecca. it may become a matter of surpassing interest to 

our East Indian authorities. But this is a prob- 

The Dutch consider it not improbable that '•'Ke''fctf^rrC::''l,^r;..'^ t^\^.^ 

this mtnngement of the religious rights of year is being used to preach "'Pan-Islamism.'» 

Mohanunedans may have serious consequences -^"^ every returning Hadji is a possible emissary 

throughout the Mohammedan population of llr'^IhTev!Je"n;.^i7.'h:i^'d7fil'^^^^^^^^ 

'^*** Britain. It behooves us to be careful. 



236 THE AMERICAN REVIEIV OF REVIEWS 

THE BALKAN RAILWAY LINES 

A RECENT issue of the Revue desDeax liant stroke in facilitating the substitution of 
Mondes contains an elaborate article Bulgarian for Austrian interests. The Rus- 
by Henri Lorin, giving the history of rail- sians were not the only ones to ignore for a 
road construction in the Balkan Peninsula, long time that they were only a two-sided 
The writer speaks of the great difficulties German interest. 

encountered by the engineers, owing to the In 1912, 1913, Turkey's defeats resulted 
conformation of the land; of the economic in notable territorial aggrandizement for 
condition of the various states, and other Serbia and Greece; with the accession of 
points of timely interest. We reproduce, in Novibazar and upper Macedonia, Serbia fol- 
part, the concluding section, much of the lowed Bulgaria's example and took posses- 
preceding portion containing details which sion, without waiting for peace, of the rail- 
would hardly interest the general reader. way lines in its new domains. This appro- 
The two Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913, priation evidently justified claims on part of 
which remodeled the political map of the the dispossessed ; the Serbian Government has 
peninsula, likewise radically modified the never denied it. But the financial conference 
condition of the railway lines of the old at Paris, charged with the settlement of those 

complicated Balkan ac- 
I counts, had not yet adjusted 
I them when Austria and 
I Germany made Serbia the 
pretext for a European war. 
The Oriental Railways 
will, consequently, form 
one of the numerous ques- 
tions to be discussed in set- 
tling the terms of peace; 
Serbia will, no doubt, have 
to make due restitution. 

* All (he Balkan railway line* 
are at the preient writing in- 
tirumcnti of war. On (he eve 
of (he Bulgarian and Germtn 
tnvation of Serbia, in Oct<^r 

ElAILROAD LINES IN THE BALKANS ''*'• '''* e'"K''le"» "l«> had 
constructed the Serbian rail- 
ways tnarked out the worki to 
Ottoman Empire; the great conflict now be destroyed in order to hinder (he enemy's ad- 
in progress, in which Serbia, Turkey, and "".?,"■ When the sword shall be finally iheathed it 
finally Bulgaria have succssi.rfy talc.n r.'?b^E';: lirir.'Jtr^i'.h"; "^i™"?.''.'; 
part, has, with still greater reason, pro- muM not be forgotien. The various Balkan in- 
duced similar results. The Oriental Rail- tiont, modeled ancvr by (be conflict, will each 
ways Company has suffered amputations "'»*» to have its own network of railways; noih- 
exactly corresponding to those of the Turk- :fde^or"c.S''"r!gl;(.rrn''etui;aMr;:!lfu.|! 
ish Empire itself; organized under the re- ment of the difierent interests will no doubt be 
gime of the suzerainty of the Sultan (more reached. 

or less formal) over the entire Balkan region, Nor ii the financial questisn the chief prob- 

it was dismembered simultaneously with the '™' ••"= ^5"="? «"ei, while they ihould be in- 

dis™„b„™„, of .h..|u.e„i„,y Th= fi„. 'ZZ'Z^f^'i "ta/fhTX-r-.S 

blow was dealt in 1908, when Bulgaria de- ewemal relations. We know now thai their toil 

clared its independence ; the government at has a reserve fund of riches for exportation — 

Sofia took possession of certain railroad sec- "'"rali, wood, fruit, grain, livestock. It would 

tions in eastern Rumelia. Bulgaria was in ^Al^tf*^^ Z "'=\''"* " '■^''* a P"f«:tly 
i [ I , • I ■ , ■, , independent access to the open sea — a thing par- 
need ot funds in order to indemnify the ticularly important for the Serbians, whose valor 
Turkish Government and the Oriental Rail- has aroused such rancor that they would be 
ways Company ; Russia accommodated her •'""'"'d to destruction by their neighbors should 
wi'rli rl<>m TTi- nA„U.-^^ «( *k- n.,^, ""' ™ Allies, to whom they have been ao iplen- 
with them The advisers of the Czar jid,,, f^j^hful. defend them in their turn. The 
thought, no doubt, they were making a bnl- obsudes to aggressive Germanism, whose mur- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 



237 



derous ambitions the war must have revealed to 
the most prejudiced, must be multiplied: freedom 
of the straits, a Danube-Adriatic railway line, 
in the interest of Russia, Rumania, Serbia, Italy — 
such are the things that will stop it at once. 
Let it be noted, moreover, that the highways 



from Central Europe to the Bosporus are like- 
wise those that unite the Occident with Asia; 
that to the Asiatic limits of the Turkish Empire, 
which Germany succeeded in converting almost 
to a colony, these historic highways should here* 
after be largely international. 



FROM THE BLACK FOREST TO THE 
BLACK SEA— THE DANUBE'S COURSE 



FROM an economic viewpoint, a very 
important question to be settled at a 
future peace conference will be that of the 
control of the Danube. As this great com- 
mercial waterway traverses the territory of 
nine different states, between its rise in the 
Black Forest and its outlet into the Black 
Sea, the fact has long been recognized that 
the only means of avoiding an oppressive or 
injurious use of it by one country at the ex- 
pense of another consists in its neutralization. 
The various aspects of this question are 
treated by Signor Leonardo F. Borelli in 
Rassegna Nazionale (Rome). The writer 
notes that the Danube, second only to the 
Volga in length among European rivers, is 
navigable for about 1600 miles, or about 
nine-tenths of its total length. Throughout 
its course, with the exception of the deep and 
narrow part at the Iron Gate, its current is 
slow and uniform, offering every facility for 
river traffic. However, when we consider 
that the Danube, rising in Baden, passes suc- 
cessively through Wiirtemberg, Bavaria, 
Austria, and Hungary, between Serbia and 
Bulgaria, and finally through Rumania and 
a short stretch of Russian territory, we can 



better understand how hard it will be to 
reconcile the conflicting interests. 

The international status of the stream at 
the outbreak of the war may be stated as fol- 
lows: 

(1) The Upper Danube, — German and 
Austro-Hungarian, — is governed by regula- 
tions enacted by Austria-Hungary between 
1851 and 1855. Through navigation is free 
for all, but the local coasting trade is reserved 
for the flag of the respective country the river 
traverses. Serbia was not a party to the 
treaties of 1851-55, but concluded a separate 
convention with Austria-Hungary, by the 
terms of which the Serbian flag was assured 
the treatment of the most favored nation, in 
exchange for the facilities accorded Austria 
for work in the channel at the Iron Gate, 
even within the limits of Serbian territory. 

(2) Navigation from the Iron Gate to 
Galatz had no definite international regula- 
tion. Rumania refused adherence to the con- 
clusions of the London Conference of 1871, 
but Austria, by virtue of the treaty of Berlin, 
in 1 878, was authorized to levy a provisional 
tax on traffic to cover the expenses incurred 
in clearing or improving the waterway at the 



V C E R M AJ^jr> 



RUSSIA 




THE DANUBE RIVER 



238 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

Iron Gate, and she exercised sovereign rights, trian Government has encountered the ^eatett 

favoring her flag by special tariffs. How- ^.TT rfpre'lt^!;?. o'f S"' °""'^""''" 

ever the declaration of neutrality as detined j^ ^^ however, our conviction that the eco- 

by the Berlin Treaty remained in force. nomic, industrial and agricultural development 

(3) Finally, the Lower Danube, from of Central Europe is too vast to warrant any 

Galatz to the Black Sea. was entirely under /•",„^„V''„'f fhTkaTarin^dSi^teraTf 
the control of the International European ^ver diminish in volumej however great may be 
Commission instituted by the Treaty of Paris the progress in improvmg the internal water- 
in 1856, and by the London Conference of ways; indeed, these will rather serve to stimu- 
yony late and encourage the growth of commerce. 

{}: , , , r 1 ir For the Balkan states, the. Danube is of espe- 

Of the character and sources ot the tranic ^\^\ importance. 

on this great river the writer says : Serbia has here her single ^ means of commu- 
nication with the sea and with Russia, and of 

The commercial importance of the Danube the Rumanian exports of cereals, about 80 

rt-ults from the fact that it constitutes the only Per ^^^ oihcr total exports, nearly half goes to 

natural route between Central Europe and the Belgium and the remamder to England and Aus- 

Levant. The numerous canals constructed with- tria. A great part of these products follow the 

in the past fifty years in Austria and in Ger- "ver route, and Austna and Germany use thit 

many, to connect the basin of the Danube with waterway almost exclusively for their c^Ports to 

those of the Rhine, the Elbe and the Oder, have Rumania, which constitute 40 per cent, of the 

given it an added importance. From the Black "nports of that land. 

Sea to Holland and ^^\^'^^.^^^^^^^ The following table shows the extent of 

intense flux and reflux of agricultural products . ^i-k l / i_ irm 

from the East and of industrial products from the traffic on the Danube for the years 1911- 

the West. 1914, and proves the check it received dur- 

The enormous network of canals that inter- ing the Balkan wars, and during the early 

teas Central Europe in every direction has ^^ ^f ^^^ present world-wide conflict? 

t^WeTf^theT^at '^^ 0^%" ti Statistics for 1915 wiU undoubtedly make t 

Salonica would be threatened, so that the Aus- far worse showing: 



V 



1911 1912 1913 1914 

Nation AUTY Ships Tonnage Ships Tonnage Ships Tonnage Ships Tonnage 

England 535 1,183,000 242 548,000 278 670,000 187 467,000 

Greece 364 643,000 249 559,000 112 247,000 157 333,000 

Austria 200 403,000 143 311,000 158 313,000 82 162,000 

Totals 1099 2,229.000 634 1,418,000 548 1,230,000 426 962,000 



IS HOLLAND IMPERIALISTIC? 

BY far the most important development Indies carries with it, without any semblance 
in Dutch foreign policies, due to the of doubt, the sacred duty of the defense of 
great war of the European powers, is the those islands against attacks." 
unquestioned leaning towards that state of For this reason, the Dutch fleet is to be 
governmental preparedness, generally stig- strengthened by the addition of dread- 
matized as "imperialism," Dutch Social noughts, battle-cruisers, and submarines to 
Democrats have hurled at the government such an extent as to make it a powerful 
the accusation of imperialism and the ma- factor to be reckoned with by any nation 
jorit>* of the Dutdi press has taken up the having designs upon the rich islands of Java, 
cr>% pro and contra imperialism, until this Sumatra, and Bomea For this reason, — 
subject has come to crowd other discussions the defense of an ideal, of a duty imposed 
from the magazines. by possession, — strenuous eflForts arc to be 

In a comprehensive article the leading made immediately to provide against possible 
Dutch magazine, Vra^cn J<s TijJs, takes up "surprises** from Japan, — the Empire of 
the duties of Holland towards its colonies Japan being frankly mentioned in the dis- 
in Asia, coming to the conclusion that "talk cussion as the only power cooccmed! "Shall 
aKnit accompli<hments in India should only we permit," asks the arride in the Fraftm 
he^in after Social Democrats and the whole Jes TijJs, "that the long-continued efforts 
Dutch nation have come to realize that of the Dutch colonial forces, which have 
Netherlarki's possessfcn of the Dutch East proven a blessing for the East India islands. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 239 

shall be surrendered or abandoned to a derstanding in the East Asiatic question, 
greedy and imperious people, whose intru- under which either would give instant as- 
sion may become a curse to the inhabitants?'' sistance to the other, should Japan attack 

The action of the United States, in in- the Philippines or the Dutch East Indies, 
creasing its naval program, is also cited in In this manner the strength of the effective 
defense of the enlarged naval appropriations fleet could be doubled and Holland would 
of Holland. "The dreadnought plans of consider it a good bargain. No one could 
our government," continues the article, "have object to such an alliance, — except, perhaps, 
been influenced to a large degree by the Japan, — and the United States would gain 
United States, which is even now arming a protecting friend in the Far East, who 
against a possible invasion by Japan, and we would jealously watch for signs of aggres- 
are going to have a big fleet of large battle- sion on the part of the Japanese in the Phil- 
ships, — parliamentary and public opinion ippines. No one could possibly imagine that 
being decided on this object!" with the newly acquired battleships Holland 

The article then suggests frankly that the would attempt to conquer Japan or Aus- 
United States and Holland come to an un- tralia. 



KENTUCKY'S "MOONLIGHT SCHOOLS" 

WHEN the public school teachers of them down with a sigh. Knowing the scarcity 

Rowan County, Kentucky, agreed on ^^ i°^"."I?.°« T*?*"^ ^rT^^ ^^"^ ^''T^'^'J 

yn i-fc mil/ i-i_ii- proffered him the loan of these two books. He 

Labor Day, 1911, to open the schoolhouses ^^^^ ^ns head, and said: "No, I cannot read or 

to grown-up men and women on moonlight write." And then the tears came into the eyes 

evenings, the country folk came 1200 o^ ^^^^ stalwart man, and he added: "I would 

strong. The teachers had expected that per- 8^^* twenty years of my life if I could." 
, ^e^ ., ,^ *^,jA few evenmgs later I attended an entertam- 

haps no persons m the entire county would ment in a rural district school. A stalwart lad 

respond, and they were so enthused and of twenty sang a beautiful ballad, mostly origi- 

heartened by the first enrollment that they "»!, but partly borrowed from his English ances- 

undertook the work with great zeal and the L^^'iau^r^'/nt t^r'a„r<;ongT^'n.la'.'f £1"^ 

joy of real service in their hearts. "Dennis, that was a beautiful ballad— it is wor- 

Cora Wilson Stewart, president of the thy of publication. Will you write it down for 

Kentucky Illiteracy Commission and founder ™«''" \\'^ w,?"'^ \^ ^ ^«"><* !!f"^«'" he replied, 

^r -u "n/r ^ r^u*..c k i »>^ ii -.u * crestfallen, "but I cannot rve thought of a 

of the Moonlight Schools, tells the story hundred of 'em better'n that, but I'd forget 'em 

of their beginnings and their progress in the before anybody came along to set 'em down." 

Survey of New York January 7. When The first three letters written after the estab- 

Miss Stewart served as superintendent of the '"^'"g ^^ *]»« "Moonlight Schools" came in this 

_i 1 r T> r^ 1, u x^ order: the first from a mother who had children 

schools of Rowan County, she was often ^^sent in the West; the second from the man 

called upon to act as secretary for illiterate ^ho said he would give twenty years of his life 

people. She became interested in their prob- if he could read and write, and the third from 

lems and started the "no illiteracy" move- **»« ^^V "^^^ ^o"^^ ^«''g«t ^^^ Ballads before 

ment in Kentucky, by resolutely setting ^"^^^^^ ^^'"^ ^^^'^S to set them down, 

about to wipe out illiteracy in RoWan Educators were very skeptical of the plan 

^ii!?^* 1 .11. ^* ^^^^' ^"^ ^^^ record of the second year 

Three classes enlisted her sympathy: lUit- eclipsed that of the first; 1600 were enrolled, 

erate mothers separated from their children;^ ^^^ p^pii ^ man of eighty-seveh years. The 

middle-aged men shut from the knowledge teachers became enthusiastic, and with the 

of the world and unable to cast a ballot exception of a very few straggling individu- 

secretly or intelligently ; young peop e with ^k, mostly defectives, they had by the end 

undeveloped talents, who needed only eda- of the third session of the schools extermi- 

cation to enable them to contribute to the ^^ted illiteracy in Rowan County, 
world of art, science and invention. 

Meanwhile, the "Moonlight Schools" had been 

There came into my office one morning a extended to twenty-five other counties in the 

middle-aged man^ handsome and intelligent in State, and whether it was in distillery section or 

appearance. While waiting for me to dispatch among the tenant class, or in mining region or 

the business in hand, I ^ave him two books. He among the farmers, it was ever the same results, 

fingered the leaves hurriedly, like a child, turned Men and women thronged to the schools, striving 

the books over and looked at the backs, and laid to make up for the time they bad lost, and they 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



HUNCIty FOR KNOWLEDGE 

(A maanlighi-icbool danroom. the pupils ranging in age from cighttcn to iighly-iiii} 

pled for R longer term when the lettion doted. It will lave mv wagon. 

The Governor of Kentucky, neing . ihe deler- The good road it my friend, 

mined warfare which'wat being waged againw I will work for the good road, 
illiteracy, urged in hit message to the legislature 

■m,'„'."J'f ''^■Tt.'^cTT'" x",,^' ""'"' '" ■*"" The N^ript lesson follow,: "I will work for the 

hi. ;t^i ™ " State. The measure creating ^ „ad," which pledge the «u<Ient nrhei Icd 

th.s commission passed the legLUiure of 1914 ,- ^^j ;( ,j,, ,^„ %f .uggestion work., be 

:;V'"^U?J'~r"aVin'Ke"n'tiiSy '"a's fra'n".! tX" ""'^ " '""" "«• ^~ "' «-> 
ferred from the courthouse in the county seat of 

Rowan to the State Capitol at Frankfort. The _- , , , . „ , . , 

commission is directing the State-wide campaign ^ •>« gWw work begun in Kcntuclcy IS fast 
to remove illiteracy from Kentucky by the time spreading over the United States. TTie 
the census of 19Z0 is taken. statistics of the federal census of 1910, in 

_, 1- . ■ , ■ . . ^ . regard to our national illiteracy reveals the 

The moonlight school curriculum is fitted deplorable fact that in that year there 
to the needs of the illiterate. It employs a ^ere 5,516,163 illiterates in this country, 
special method for teaching the pupils to ^^^e than the entire population of Denmark, 
write. A tablet with indented letters to 

quickly facilitate acquiring the form, and .- i, j, .,Se privilege of American public school 
ruled sheets with wide spaces are used for teachers to wipe out America's illiteracy. Back 
the adult pupils. Arithmetic, geography, "• *= schoolhouse twenty to twenty-four ere- 
history, civics, agriculture, horticulture, home "'"8» "'*• ""'' P'OP" o'8ani«"on. the deed i. 
". J J L -11- i_ done; for experience ha* proved that all but 

economics and road building are among the abnormal adults can e«:ape from illileracy in a 
subjects. month's time, and some in even lest. 

Moonlight schools are conducted in seventeen 
Readers have been prepared for beginners. States, Oklahoma, Alabama, and North Carolina 
dealing with roads, silos, seed-icsling, crop rota- following closely Kentucky's lead. These schools 
tion, piping water into the house, value of the minisicr equally to illiterate Indians in Okla- 
daily bath, extermination of the fly, ways of homa, illiterate negroes in Alabama, and iltit- 
cooking, and such problems as the people are erate whites in North Carolina and other States- 
facing every day. For example, a lesson on California and New Mexico, the last Slates to 
roads reads: adopt the institution, are finding it useful in the 

education of the immigrant population of the one. 
This is a road. and the large Mexican population of the other. 

It h a good road. Could there be more valiant and heroic serVice 

It will save my time. to humanity than the stamping out of illiteracy. 

It will save my team. the most insidious foe of the nation? 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH 241 

OUR TREATMENT OF ALIENS 

• 

IN the Atlantic Monthly for January, children in several cities, notably New York, 
Miss Frances A. Kellor arraigns Ameri- Barren Island, the scene of New York City's 
cans for the violation of our ancient tradi- garbage disposal, has three hundred children 
tions of hospitality in our treatment of who have had no care whatsoever ; they "are 
inunigrants. She emphasizes the fact, — now immigrants and nobody cares." Yet the im- 
widely called to national attention through migrant is more docile to our school-attend- 
many newspapers and magazines, — that we ance laws than any other element of our 
have been neglecting our opportunities to population. Dr. Claxton, Federal Commis- 
make these immigrants good American citi- sioner of Education, wrote in a recent report 
zcns ; that we have substituted for intelligent that "the least illiterate element of our 
treatment and hospitality, a "system of heart- population is the native-born children of 
less exploitation and of neglect, urbane or foreign-born parents." That these children 
resentful according to the occasion." have the patience and fortitude that char- 

Thc immigrant comes to this country, acterized our sternly virtuous ancestors is 
comes to a land of liberty where he is freed evidenced by the sacrifices they make to gain 
from control and surveillance and plunges an education ; the work in "stuffy tenements 
into new customs, institutions and laws. at night making artificial flowers and pidc- 

ing nuts in order that they may have nourish- 

Does America make the slightest effort to teach ment to carry them to the schools ; or they 

him the differeoce between liberty and license? work long hot days in canneries, taken out 

^i^catata^Wr. t:r;i„„^Vre^;re.'': f schools early in the spring and renaming 

man, the banker who exchanges his money, the late m the fall, so that they have but a limited 

steamship agent, and the hotel-keeper. His first portion of these blessings." 
lesson in "property rights" in America is often There is much to be written of the forti- 

the loss of his own small possessions. He is ^ i^ ^„ i • j,,^*.^, ^i -.u- ««..-.^*^ :- -k- x^^- 

held in bondage by the hotel-keeper, who takes ^^^ ^"<* *"^"^^7^^\^9^ P^^5"l^ !" the face 

up his "through railroad ticket" and keeps it oi astounding difficulties, of their patience 

until he has secured a fair return in board bill, and perseverance. 
The padrone gets him a job, and for the priv- 
ilege of housing and feeding him at a price and When will the prevalent belief that t)ie aver* 

under conditions about which the immigrant has age immigrant has nothing but what we give 

nothing to say, keeps him in a job. If he rebels, him to commend himself to American civilization 

he is promptly blacklisted. The employment be abolished by more careful knowledge of the 

agent gets him into debt with a prospective em- immigrants? "The immigrant frequently brings 

ployer, and peonage results. In times of scarcity his contribution to enrich our civilization," says 

of labor, contingents of immigrant workmen have an associate superintendent of the New York City 

been made drunk, shut up in boxcars, and landed public schools. "The things of the higher kin<^ 

in labor camps from which there is no return — the spirituality, the reverence for authority, 

until spring. the love of art and music, — are valuable to 

After a year or two, or less, of "American" soften the materialism that has accompanied our 

experience of this kind, suppose the immigrant great advance in prosperity, and they should not 

chances some noon-day to hear an agitator of be crushed in our attempt to remake the immi- 

the Industrial Workers of the World. This agi- grant." 

tator is often the first person to listen sympa- It is difficult, in the face of the sins of omis- 
thetically to the immigrant's troubles. He repre- sion by the American and the sins of commission 
sents America, he speaks of new liberty and new by the immigrant, to fix the responsibility for our 
opportunity, and it is easy to convince the trust- failure to-day to have evolved one nation out 
ing, ignorant alien that his way is the way out. of the many peoples in this country. We shall 
No other way has been indicated. It is not that probably, in the absence of that information 
"lawlessness and violence are the weapons he which makes sound judgments, be fair if we 
understands" ; it is that they are the only weapons place the blame on both sides eoually. But, 
given to the immigrant. Moreover the agitator regardless of this, I am convinced tnat we shall 
addresses the immigrant in his own language, never have a strong nation until the strong peo- 
We forget the power of this appeal. In short, pie cease exploiting the weak; until the people 
the I. W. W. has come to the immigrant, and intrenched in position, power, and prosperity as- 
the labor union has for years ignored him. sume the burden and responsibility of the weld- 
There are aristocracies among labor unions as ing of that nation; until the Americans define 
among Pilgrims. And the immigrant, ignorant what they want that nation to be, and then set 
of English and with no facilities for learning it, in motion every resource and agency to achieve 
listens and follows the only "American" message this result intelligently, 
brought him in a language he can understand. 

Miss Kellor shows that the ill-treated 

Miss Kellor reminds the public that while immigrant can hardly be suddenly changed 

we are now doing splendid work for the into a loyal American citizen. 

Feb.— 8 



THE NEW BOOKS 

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 



THE most important and limely of ihe book* 
of the month ii Prof, Alb«r( Buibnell Harl'a 
▼olume entitled "The Monroe Doctrine; An In- 
terpretation."' FrofetMr Han made his reputa- 
tion long ago as a student and writer in the field 
of American history and politics- 
He hai been growing in recent 
years at a studeat of international 
policies and affairs, from the 
standptnnt of American statesman- 
ship. T^ere is « quality of rohust 
Americanism in Professor Hart's 
ema personality that helps him to 
grasp and interpret the q>irit of 
the United States. 

There has never been a time 
when there was »o great need of a 
•tudy by intelligent citizens of the 
real position of (he United Slates 
among nations, and the extent and 
meaning of its relationships with 
the rest of the world, and particu- 
larly with its Western Hemisphere 
neighbors. Professor Hart has 
provided at this opportune moment 
the essenrial book for such a p^op ^^be! 
■tudy. Id a hundred pages we are 
SJven an account of the original 
Monroe Doctrine and all the conditions and cir- 
cumstances of North America, South America, 
and Europe in the period following the Napole- 
onic Wars. The second part of the book, in a 
•erie* of chapters, gives ua the variations of the 
Monroe Doctrine up to the period immediately fol- 
lowing our Civil War. In Part III the "American 
Doctrine" is presented with all the incidents and 
illustrations dtat belong in the period from lg£9 to 
the present time. 

In the fourth part of the book, Dr. Hart deals 
with the subject from the South American stand- 
paint, and also from the angles of Germany and 
other countries, while the remaining sections of the 
Tolume are devoted to a discussion of present 
world conditions and their bearing upon the per- 
manent interests of die United States and the other 
American republics. The author is not afraid to 
express opinions at all points, and he moves boldly 
towards conclusions. We may quote hit final par- 
agraphs, which are as follows: 

"Briefly put, the so-called Monroe Doctrine is 
a formula which expreites a fact and not a pol- 
icy. The fact it inherent in the political geo^ 
raphy of the Americas and in the condition of 
nwdem warfare. Even •» peaceful a country as 
the United States, which desires no war and ii 
bound to Bufier heavily from any war in which 
■he engages, whether victorious or defeated, may 
not have the choice. Peace can be maintained 
only by convincing Germany and Japan, which 
are the two powers- most likely to be moved by 



an ambition to possess American territory. But 
the United States will defend her interests evea 
though they teera at first to be only indirecdf 
affected. If we are not prepared to take (hat 
ground, the Monroe Doctrine is dead. 

"If we are willing to go to that 
limit, it mutt be proved by intelli- 
gent preparation. That meant a 
kind of organization through pow- 
erful general staffs and ceotraliu- 
tion of the War Department and 
Navy Department, which Congre* 
has never been willing to audiot- 
ize. It meant an enlargement of 
the military and naval forces, and 
ultimately some form of militaty 
training of the Swiss type. It 
meant a willingness to face (he 
world at it is, and no longer (a 
live in the delusion that we are 
protected by a paper Doctrine of 
Permanent Interest." 

In view of the presence ia 
this country of delegate* to the 
Pan-American Scientific Congren, 
tT B. HART ""'' *^' attempts at WashingtM 
last month to extend and re- 
formulate the principles of Pan* 
American policy. Professor Hart's book is offered 
to the public at exactly the right moment Its 
value, however, is far more than transient; and 
it will undoubtedly exercise a permanent influ- 
ence upon American opinion and action. 

The World'a D«mocnid(* 

Another book that will be of value to dtitens 
in their study of public questions is entitled "Con- 
parative Free GovemmenL"* It is written by 
Prof. Jesse Macy, of Grinnell College, with At 
collaboration of Prof. John W. Gannaway, of 
the same institution. Professor Macy has here- 
tofore written much upon American politics and 
government, as well at upon txinstitutionalisni 
and democracy in Great Britain and Wcsttra 
Europe. The present volume gives large space 
to an account of the form and function of gov- 
ernment in the United Stales and England, wilh 
smaller portions devoted to France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and other European and American 
countries. With its excellent index, the book will 
be found of great service to those who would 
understand how democratic government works in 
different countries, and the comparative extent of 
its development. Never has there been a time 
when the problems of government under popular 
control have been so pressing as now. 



little, Bto' 



ot Doctrine. B* Albert Biuhnell Ha 
41£ pp. fl.Tt. 

^BrJeueMMra 



THE NEW BOOKS 243 

A, Manual of German Government ness and system of Professor Kriiger's study of 

Since the outbreak of the war nnany books have German government and politics, 
been written about Germany, and some of these 

have dealt -with the German system of govern- P^^ia and Turkeetan 

roent. But most of them have either condemned One of the effects of the war is to develop an 
or praised Germany while failing to give pre- intense interest in the geography and the ra- 
cise or impartial data regarding the actual insti- cial, social, and political conditions of regions 
tutions of government in the empire. The need about which the average man has had no knowl- 
of a book telling American readers just what the edge at all. Thus Prof. Talcott Williams' arti- 
government of Germany is, how its powers are cle in the Review last n^onth, on the Bagdad rail- 
distributed and exercised, and how its functions road, found a host of readers who were eager to 
are administered, has been felt by many candid know all about Mesopotamia. Beyond Bagdad 
inquirers. At last such a book is available.^ It lies Teheran; and the future of Persia, as well 
is small and modest in appearance, but it is re- as that of Arabia and Turkey-in-Asia, is to be 
plete with knowledge and intelligence. It is the determined by the outcome of the present great 
first in a series of handbooks on modem govern- war. A new American book tells of a recent 
ment, edited by Dr. David P. Barrows and Prof, journey from Moscow across the Russian steppes 
T. H. Reed, both of the University of California, and parts of Turkestan, through Persia and its 
The author of the volume is Prof. Fritz-Konrad capital, to the Persian Gulf. The author is Mr. 
Kruger, also of the University of California. Benjamin Burges Moore, of New York, and the 
Every well-informed reader in the field of gov- title of the book is "From Moscow to the Persian 
emment will be delighted with this little volume Gulf."* The book is the more valuable for taking 
as he reads from page to page, because of its un- the form of a daily record of observations and 
flinching thoroughness in giving information that impressions. The reader comes the better to un- 
is nowhere else available in the English Ian- derstand the nature of the problems that are in- 
guage. Professor Mac/s book, mentioned above, volved in the relationship of Occidental to Ori- 
which is full in its treatment of the United States, ental peoples. The general decadence of Persia 
does not pretend to take up the government of and Turkestan, and the delicacy and difficulty of 
Germany except in a brief general chapter. No the tasks of rehabilitation that belong to the next 
one would be more ready than writers like Pro- century or two, are plainly set forth in the opin- 
fessor Hart and Professor Macy to recognize ions expressed by Mr. Moore, as also in the facts 
with grateful surprise the remarkable complete- that he records. 



Social Progress: Applied Economics 



The Hearing Case. By Lightner Witmer. he studies intensively about five hundred juvenile 

B. W. Huebsch. 123 pp. 50 cents. delinquents as they come before the Juvenile 

UA u ' £ £ £ ^ J •• »» ju Court of Cook County. The personal histories 

"A brief of facts and opmions," prepared by „i^,_j • .i,- ^^lume with acientific aauracv 

the Professor of Psychology at the University of "*^**** ,}" ^^^^ volume with scientihc accuracy 

i>^»«..,K. ....:. i^»: 4, zL ^ -1 r *i. TT • have all come under Dr. Healy s observation 

Pennsylvania, relative to the refusal of the Uni- . . j j «^ . :. i ^r _ «* ^ _ 

iJ * . ' ^ '^^ n X c *-. vT and may be regarded as typical or great num- 

versity trustees to reappoint Professor Scott Near- . of cases in actual life 

ing. This case has been widely discussed as a *"*" ""^ ^""^^^ '" *^"^* *'*^- 

limitation of academic freedom but recent offi- American Ideals. By Clayton Sedgwick 

cial action of the University authorities has made ^ r\ ui ^ n ttt <>« 

impossible any repetition of the incident. ^""P"- Doubleday, Page. 373 pp. $1. 

The author of this book, a lifelong student of 

Aristocracy and Justice. By Paul Elmer More, education and an experienced traveler and lec- 

Houghton, Mifflin. 243 pp. $1.25. turer, sent these two questions to a hundred 

This volume, the ninth series of "Shelburne feP'^"entative Americans: "What are the lead- 
Essays," deals with "The Philosophy of the War." '"K 'f »'» °^*'„?*1.,rJ''' !I^*"" y°" ""T T 
"The New Morality," "Property and Law," 'Jus- I"*""'' associate?' "What do you consider the 
tice," and offers constructive programs in the chief pomts of weakness in our contemporary 
chapters entitled, "Natural Aristocracy," "Aca- Amtneao life?' Many of the answers received 
demic Leadership," "The Paradox of Oxford," *° »•"»« questions are here reproduced, and the 
and "Disraeli and Conservatism." »""•»'■ acknowledges his indebtedness to these 

correspondents for the view of our modern life 

Pathological Lying, Accusation, and Swind- ^^^^ ^« presents in this little volume. 

ling. By William Healy and Mary Tenney Practical Exporting. By B. Olney Hough. 

Healy. Little, Brown. 286 pp. $2.50. Johnston Export Publishing Co. 623 pp. $4. 

This is the first of a series of "Criminal Science This is a handbook for manufacturers and 
Monograpl s,'* published under the auspices of merchants and represents the result of fifteen 
the American Institute of Criniinal Law and years of actual experience by the author in ex- 
Criminology. Dr. Healy, of Chicago, is one of porting, as salesman, manufacturer, and com- 
thc best-known investigators in the field of juve- mission merchant, followed by eight years as 
pile delinquency in the United States. Each ye ar editor of the American Exporter, It is the pur- 

* Government and Politics of the German Empire. Bv * From Moscow to the Persian Gulf. By Benjamin 
Fritz-Konrad Kruger. World Book Co. 840 pp. $1.20. Burges Moore. Putnam. 450 pp., ill. $8. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



pow of the book to explain logicall; and com- 
pletely ever)' uep neccHary in telling and 
handling goodt for export, from the solicitation 
of orders to the prepincion of ihipmenta. 

Glimpws of the CoBmoi. By Letter P. 
Ward. Putnam. Vol. IV. 3Sg pp. $2.50. 

The text of ihi* fourth volunie of Dr. Ward's 
writing* hai had the advantage of final reviiion 
by the author and ■■ in the form in which he wai 
prepared to present it to his readers. It is an- 
nounced thai the publication will be completed 
in eight volumet. 

Finance, Butineu and the Btuinen of Life. 
By B. C. Forbes. 1S9 pp. 

Epigrammatic chapters of advice to the public 
from the business and financial editor of the New 
York American. Mr. Forbes' work is endorsed 
by iuch representative American financiers as 
Judge E. H. Gtry, F, A, Vanderlip, Geo. M. 
Reynolds, and James Speycr. 

The Boycott in American Trade Unions, 
By Leo Wolntao. Baltimore: The Johns Hop- 
kins Press. 148 pp. (paper). 

The author of dus monograph hat tupple- 
mentcd by personal interviews with trade-union 



officials and employers his documentary Madics. 
The Operation of the Initiative, Refereo- 
dum, and Recall in Oregon. By Jamc* D. 
Baroett. Macmillan. 295 pp. $2. 

Oregon is the State of longest experience with 
the'ioiliative, referendum, and recalL A larse 
body of material ba* been accumulated there in 
the form of eonititutional and statutory pnvit- 
ions and court decisions, and Professor Baroett, 
wbo holds the chair of Political Science in the 
State University, has made s careful study of 
this material. His book ii the most compile 
statement yet made of die workings of dieae 
political devices in an American ooaunonwealth. 
Many of his deductions and conclusion* apply 
to conditions in other States- 
Capital To-day. By Herman Cahn. Putnam. 
311 pp. $1.50. 

In diis volume the author considers the money 
system of the country rather than the general 
subject of capital, although he discutte* capital- 
ism under the separate beads of concentration o( 
industrial capital, and concentration of money 
capital. In the author's view the money prtib* 
lem overshadows all else in economics, and to 
the analysis of this problem he devotes his ener- 
gies. 



A GREAT CANADIAN 

ON the death of Canada's most eminent per- a more fascinating subject for a man of Mr. 

tonality. Lord Strathcona, this Review pub- Becklet Willton's rare qualification! than the 

lished an extended sketch of his life and career, portrayal of the life of Donald A. Smith in 

from the pen of Agnes C. Laut (see Review of connection with the development of the great 

Rintw* for March, 1914), Donald Alexander NonfavresL 

Smith was a poor Scotch boy, borti in ISZt), who The appearance of this biography is the more 

came to serve the Hudson's Bay Company in La- interesting and impressive because of die marvel- 



brador when he was eightee 
•Id. He became the greai personal- 
ity of that company, the economic 
and political organizer of the Cana- 
dian North west, the builder of the 
Canadian Pacifi» Railroad, and for 
many years of hit later life the 
Canadian High Committiaoer at 
London. In Iggi be was knighted 
as Sir Donald Smith, and eleven 
years later be was raised to the 
"Baron Stratbcoaa and 



Royal, in the Province of Quebec 
and Dominion of Canada." 

We have i»w the authorized 
bSography of Lord Strathcona, in 
two worthy volumes, from the 
pen of Mr. Becklet Willson.^ Mr. 
Willson hat spent a number of 
year* in Canada at a historian and journalist, from official 



LORD 



ous tpectade presented a 
of gallantly and devotion npoa 
(he part of hundreds of tliousaiMis 
of people living in a region that 
was ungoveroed and unexplored 
when Donald Smith first lived in 
it as a representative of the great 
fur company. Perhaps in propor- 
tion to the population no part of 
the British Empire has been con- 
tributing more thoroughly to the 
cause of Great Britain at the pres* 
cnt time than the country whose 
development was due to the leader- 
ship of Lord Strathcona. 

The author has gone about his 
task of biography and history not 
only with experienced judgment 
and literary akill, but with all 
available material in the way «f 
letters, papers, and assistance 
private sources. American 



following earlier experiences of the same kind readers will find i 
in England. His important work on the history portrayal of die long-time intimacy between 
of the Hndaon's Bay Company and his life of Donald Smith and James J. Hill, and in the ac- 
Wolfe have establbhed his reputation as his- count of Donald Smith's general interest in Wett- 
toriao and biographer. There could hardly be ern railroadt and transportation. It is very 
~ ~ — ; — ~ agreeable to make note of so valuable a oootriba- 

i ^^1^ ^^ loan to Ae history of Nordi America as Mr. 
Beckles Willsoa has given us in this work. 



THE NEW BOOKS 245 

THREE NOVELS OF THE NEW YEAR 

••'TpHE Real Adventure,"* by Henry Kitchell own sphere. If the incidents were placed in this 
X Webster, is a brilliant novel, one far above country, where class barriers are not sharply de- 
the average in conception, power, and originality fined, where young wemen are more plastic to 
of thought The "adventure" is the pursuit of the forces of culture, the story would be fantasti- 
friendship in marriage. Rose Aldrich has been cal. As a picture of English class differences, it 
everything to her young husband save his friend, is an absorbing and exceedingly well-written 
She wants to be a dependable friend, not a rare work, 
and expensive possession to be taken care of. 

"Love's got to be free," she tells him. "The only "Wood and Stone,"' an exceptional novel by 
way to make it free is to have friendship grow- John Cowper Powys, the essayist and lecturer, 
ing alongside it." So she leaves him and goes offers a study of two types of persons, the one 
out into the world to learn the world's wisdom, who might be regarded as born to be ruled over, 
And in her absence Rodney Aldrich understands and the one who might be regarded as born to 
at last what she wants and offers her friendship rule. A secondary theme postulates that the 
and respect as well as love, and they begin to- hearts of slaves. Pariahs and cowards may be as 
gether the "real adventure" of life, which is — a interesting as the hearts of the bravest and the 
happy marriage. best among us, and that "interest, after all, is the 

supreme exigency •of the esthetic sense." The 
American readers may puzzle a little over W. novel is a brilliant intellectual piece of work, 
L. George's novel, "The Strangers' Wedding."' but a sense of predestination, of intentional play- 
Roger Huncote, a settlement worker, marries be- acting, dulls the fine glow of Mr. Powys' artistry. 
Death his class. Despite his strenuous efforts to There are delightful descriptive passages and in- 
educate his wife to a proper appreciation of what teresting pages of character analysis. The pref- 
it really means to be a "lady," she reverts to her ace offers salutation to Thomas Hardy. 



FOREIGN FICTION 

READERS who enjoy fiction often find them- Three volumes of Russian stories that will 

selves surfeited with American and British initiate the reader into Russian states of mind 

novels, and search in vain for books that are are: "The Little Angel and Other Stories," from 

unusual, which strike a new note, or are of suffi- the Russian of L. N. Andreyev; "Chelkask and 

cient artistry and depth to command attention. Other Stories," by Maxim Gorky, and "The Sig- 

To such readers one may suggest a small group nal and Other Stories," from the Russian of 

of foreign novels, Dutch, ^andanavian, and W. M. Garshin. They are published by Alfred 

Russian, which preserve in the translation the A. Knopf. 

beauty, virility, and power of their originals. ^. , . • . r .1. « • t- • 

Edmund Gosse has written in praise of modern The si eepmg giant of the Russian Empire cries 

Russian fiction: "In Russia alone, among the jl?H_^ »P \ wakmg dream through the genius of 

countries of central and eastern Europe, the Michael Artzibashef. This novelist has been 

novel has developed with a radical originality. ™"f^ praised and much criticised by the public 

. . . That the Russians have indicated a path J"^ /.*>« critics for his violent realism. "The 

to new fields in the somewhat outworn province ^"*^'9« JT^'"** ^* greatest nove, is now pub- 

of novel-writing is abundantly manifest." ^^^^^^ »". English translation. It will undoubtedly 

Prince Kropotkin's authoritative survey of ""^^^ J^".^ ^^« .»*">« divergence of opinion as 

Russian literature is offered in a new edition, regards its merits as its predecessors. No one 

It is an excellent informative book to read before "T^lY ,« ^^^IF, ^1 Ijtcrary instinct can truthfully 

dipping into Russian fiction. Under the title, ^«''«^« Artzibashef, however; for if there is a 

"Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature,"* the ^"8"?" renaissance, he is its prophet Generally 

content introduces the reader to the beauty and speaking, Russian novels are not good reading 

pliability of the Russian language, to Russian ^9^ «!?*^«?^ children. This is particularly true of 

folk-lore, folk-literature, religious feeling, litera- Artzibashef's works. But for mature men and 

ture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; S?™^" ,,^^5''? 'I *"T^l "'^^'''' .*" . ^** °'?''^^*- 

the time of Catherine, to the Decembrists, Push- ^" method is that of the impressionistic pamter, 

kin, Urmontoff. Golgol, Turgueneff, Tolstoy, 5"^ K" character delineations are delicate as 

Gontcharoff, Dostoyevsky, Nekrasoff; "The djy-point etchings. His philosophy is the philoso- 

Drama," "Folk-Novelists," "Art Criticism," and P^y o^ the miserable. "Breaking Point" has been 

"Contemporary Novelists." The material was ^^"«t ^*>e . «>™«iic humame of a garrison 

originaHy presented in the form of lectures be- ^^^^1; J" 'f «"« ^"^» ^^^ FV"^ ?P'",!"?^ ^""K" 

fore the Lowell Institute at Boston, in 1901. The °^ the Russian race. And Artzibashef tells us 

first edition has long been out of print. ^?*^ .^^" YtMn^tT is life. When we do not feel 

. the inner aching vacuum, we are dead. We 

>The Real Adventure. By Henry Kitchell Webster, may be physically alive, but we are actually 

» Th'.^5t««3. wltiJ?L ^i^^w T r T v*i <Jea<* a" the same. And we must set this life- 

■ me stranger's Wedding. By W. L. George. Little. t._^^i. jru^ ^ • £ 

Brown. 442 pp. $1.86. " ^ b . t hunger to the sound of flutes; we must pipe for 

» Wood and Stone. By John Cowper Powys. G. our misery. This is life triumphant. 

Arnold Shaw. 722 pp. $1.60. - 

* Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature. By Prince • Breaking Point. By Michael Artzibashef. B. W. 

Kropotkin. Alfred A. Knopf. 341 pp. $1.50. Huebsch. 416 pp. $1.40. 



246 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

"The Insulted and the Injured,''^ by Fyodor world. It stands alone in Russian literature, 

Dostoevsky, is now obtainable in the excellent apart from the regular stream, unique and un- 

translation rendered by Constance Garnett This approachable . . . one tremendous shout of joy 

novel is not the strong meat of "Crime and . . . commemorating the immortal Cossack 

Punishment"' and "The House of the Dead,'' but heart." 

it is notably human and sympathetic. , .. « , ,. . ^ . . 

A volume of Anatole France's delightful tales^ 

"Oblomov,"* by Ivan Goncharov, appeared in "Crainquebille, Putois, Riquet"* and others, has 
Russia in the year 1859. It made a sensation, been skilfully translated into EnglUh by Winifred 
and practically all educated Russians read the Stephens. They are characterized by the delicate 
book. It was a warning to the landed proprietors jrony* the naive sophistication, and the intel- 
of the disease that had come upon them through l«ct«;al subtlety that have given the novelist hit 
the conditions of serfdom. Oblomov is a Rus- worldv^ide fame, 
sian nobleman. He lives in a spacious estate . ^ . ... .. 

on the banks of the Volga. For generations his As yet, Selma Lagerlof, the Swedish novelist, 
family has vegetated, served by hundreds of "« ^^e only woman winner of the Nobel Prize for 
serfs, until mental and physical inertia is in- Literature. The Swedish Academy recognized 
bred in their bonej. Oblomov is given a fine her . . . "for reason of the noble idealism, the 
education; he goes forth into the world equipped wealth of imagination, the soulful quality of style 
for achievement and usefulness. But the habitual which characterize her works," and in 1914 she 
sloth of mind and heart overtakes him; he loses was elected into fellowship. Her second master- 
Olga, the girl he loves, and forfeits the respect P>cc«» "Jerusalem,'"* a novel of Dalecarlia, the au- 
of his fellow men. The disease grows worse as t^or's home province in Sweden, has been recently 
the years pass, and he sinks down to a loathsome translated by Mrs. Velma Swanston Howard, her- 
death. the victim of "Oblomovka," the disease self a personal friend of Miss Lagerlof. It is the 
of inertia. Prince Kropotkin writes: "At the story of a religious pilgrimage from Dalecarlia 
time of the appearance of this novel *Oblomov- to the Holy Land in the last century. The love 
dom' became a current word to designate the stories of two generations of Ingmars are curi- 
state of Russian life,— the right to laziness pro- ously interwoven with the subjective impulses 
claimed as a virtue," — that was one of the sad that impelled the peasants to sell all their pos- 
results of serfdom. sessions and fare forth to Jerusalem. The power 

of Selma Lagerlof's work lies first in the roman- 

The Russian romantic novelist, Golgol, was tic beauty of her style, and secondly in her con- 
born in a Ukrainian nobleman's family in the tinual insistence that the state of one's soul is the 
year 1809. With the advent of his first books, matter of supreme importance, 
small novels of village life in Little Russia, 

there began a new period in Russian literature "Sanpriel" is a rare novel by the Scandi- 
called the "Golgol period." His work won fame navian novelist, Alvide Prydz. It depicts the 
immediately. His novels are romantic, witty, slow growth of ideal love in a man and womao 
spirited, humorous narratives, distinguished not who have not had the courage in their youth 
so much by deep thinking as by impeccable lit- to follow the highest and the best that was io 
erary art. "Taras Bulba,"* his masterpiece, is a their natures. Finally, when both have been 
slashing talc of the life of the free Cossacks chastened by life, when they are no longer young, 
who lived in free communities in the Little Rus- the obstacles to their union are swept away 
sia of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. an<* they enter "the Promised Land" of ideal 
Ukrainia, or Little Russia, began somewhere love. 

about two or three hundred miles south of Mos- u^i^i. r. T»r»Tur*/^ i. 

cow. Over this rich agricultural territory, of ^ 7^« ^* f*" ^'^f • ^J ,J^"» f °"P^,'H»» ^^^ 
which Kiev was the center, roving bands of ^"^^*' 'iS''^^'^^ ** r^'u". ""^ ?"?*" Souls," is now 
Cossacks (Kazaks) held dominion. The word obtainable m English translation. It is the story 
Kazak, which originally meant a lightly armed <>J * m»mated couple involved in the petty affairs 
warrior, was used in Russia to designate a fugi- ?^ * purposeless life. They have only one thing 
tive serf. The old Cossack farmer, Taras Bulba, "> common, love for their pnlv son. In the 
and his two sons are drawn into the wars oi ^^^^ ?/ ^"^ ^PP'J'^^.*',!? ™''*'*7 i«?' *'"**»^ 
the Kazaks. After many romantic and des- 5"** ^'^^ S'\™P»« ^^^ fulfilment of their youthfu 
perate adventures the younger son goes over to ^''"'"» '° . '°^^*!f' " ^^■^ P*^^™'** congenial 
the enemy for love of a beautiful Polish girl. !"T« *"^ P«^^«^ happiness. But their ton 
His fierce old father captures him and exeoitet " ^^« obstacle; they cannot, either of them, en- 
him with his own hand. Later the elder son '*"5* f*'?"*^^ ^^^™ ^^'^ 5^^4»« >'^« ^^ *»*• 
dies under torture, and Taras Bulba meets death ^°*n"*!i ^"^ ^*'^'"-.. .J^^ ""«". themselves to 
at the stake. A tragical and horrible tale in conttnued incompatibility, comforting their hearu 
the mere incidents, but so magical is the art of "V^^ the illusion. the/;dream-flpwer' of life that 
Golgol one is swept away by the wild, reckless »?°"« ^^^^" ^^^'' V?l^° * brief space of time, 
spirit of these men into feeling the identical dis- Couperus shows us Life as a sculptor, modeling 

regard of life and the scorn of suffering that °"^ 'P""^^ '»\^» ^^'^ *r JT'J* ^^ ^"T "i 
glorifies their lives and deaths. Professor «^P««cnce until the perfected ideals of truth 
William Lyon Phelps writes of "Taras Bulba": emerge from the common clay. 

"It is one of the great prose romances of the ,^ . ~ ~ ' ~~ ' ; 

* Crainquebule. By Anatole France. John Lane. 8S8 
pp. $1.76. 
»The Insulted and The Injured. By Fyodor Dosto- * Jerusalem. By Selma Lagerlof. Translated by 
evsky. Ifacmillan. S45 pp. $1.60. Velma Howard. Uoubleday, Page. 848 pp. $1.86. 

s Oblomov. By Ivan Goncharov. Macmillan. Trans. • Sanpriel. By Alvide Prydz. R. G. Badger Co. 81ft 
C. J. Hogarth. 817 pp. $1.60. pp. $1.86. 

•Taras Bulba. By N. V. Golgol. Trans. Isabel »The Later Ufe. By Louis Coupenas. Dodd. ICead. 
Hapgood. Alfred Knopf. 884 pp. $1.86. 388 pp. $1.85. 



THE NEW BOOKS 247 

Stories of American and English Life 

The Bachelors. By William Dana Orcutt. The Co-Citizens. By Cora Harris. Double- 
Harper. 428 pp. $1.35. day, Page. 111. 220 pp. $1. 

A strong story of American life, showing how A wealthy old lady dies, leaving her richef to 

various t3rpes of men are affected by college ideals her conununity to advance the cause of woman 

when they go out to meet the world as we know suffrage. The incidents that follow upon the use 

it to-day. of the bequest unfold a story that is rich with 

humor and genuine fun. 

The Song of the Lark. By Willa Sibert 

Gather. Houghton, Mifflin. 489 pp. $1.40. The Trail of the Hawk. By Smclair Lewis. 

A novel that carries the reader through the Harper. 409 pp. $1.35. 

shifting scenes of the West. Thea Kronberg ^ splendid novel of youth and adventure, 
emerges from the struggles and hardship of her 

early life as a great American opera singer. The ^, , -^ i«u-.i « t>j oi^mi .. %^ 

tide of the book was suggested by Jules Breton's P^^ DeUbole. By Eden Phillpotts. Mac- 

famous picture, which is reproduced on the cover, ©illan. 428 pp. $1.50. 

A story of the Cornish coast that mingles the 

Persnasive Peggy. By Maravene Thompson, simplicity of the country folk of the Delabole 

Stokes. 308 pp. $1.25. "'ate quarries with the mystery and passion of 

The story of a pretty, wilful girl who succeeds ?"*« ^^*^J^ ^«''"K for life. A tale of rare art- 

in getting her own way against all obstacles. "^^ *"^ th^rm. 
Peggy's marriage succeeds because it is built on 

love and understanding. Lot and Company. By Will Levington 

•^ ^ . . w...^ .... ^ . Comfort G. H. Doran. 341 pp. $1.25: 

The Prame Wife. By Arthur Strmger. ^ j^^.^j^^^ „^^^, ^^ j^^^ ^^^ adventure. High- 

Bobbs, Merrill. 317 pp. $1.25. ly dramatic, and full of vitality and sheer physi- 

A love story of the West cal energy. 



CURRENT POETRY 



LOVERS of poetry are indebted to Miss Amy It is an agreeable task to praise Mr. W. S. 
Lowell for her contribution to the literature Braithwaite's "Anthology of Magazine Verse for 
of poesy, "Six French Poets."* This book is the 1915."* Its content gives ample evidence that 
fruit of a whole-hearted endeavor on Miss Low- American poetry during the last twelve months 
ell's part to introduce to the appreciation of has become permeated with a new spirit of free- 
the general public the finest of the poets of dom. According to Mr. Braithwaite, this is the 
the era that is closing. She has chosen Emile spirit of spring, of the "April of our years." 
Verhaeren, Albert Samain, Remy de Gourmont, And this April spirit, he writes, means not so 
Henri de Regnier, Francis Jammes, and Paul much resurrection as recurrence. After many 
Fort. Appendix A gives the translations of the excellent advices concerning poetry, he asks poets 
selections quoted from these poets, and Appen- to cease troubling about "kinds" of poetry. One 
dix B gives the bibliography. She has not been man may be inspired by the old Greek ideals or 
too critical, nor wearisomely technical. The por- the Roman myths, another by the movement of 
traits are sketched with skill and insight; they modern democracy, and yet another, as in the 
glow with spiritual understanding. It would be case of John Neihardt, may find his metier in 
disagreeably obvious to call Miss Lowell's prose adventurous tales of the life of our pioneer days, 
"poetic." Its style conceals style; its sculptural There are 183 poems in the anthology. Mr. 
simplicity has the regnant beauty of "line." Al- Braithwaite thinks the two greatest successes 
ways she aims at the presentation of the domi- of the year are Robert Frost and Edgar Lee Mas- 
nant attitude of each of her poets. To do this ters. He praises many others, Lincoln Colcord, 
she artfully associates the man with the outer Witter Bynner, James Oppenheim, Sara Teasdale, 
symbols of his soul. With de Regnier it is the Wallace Stevens, and a newcomer, Ruth Comfort 
"onyx pillars"; with Jammes, the scent of newly Mitchell. Out of the entire gamut of the an- 
roown hay and the sentimental "little flower- thology, one may safely select Dana Burnet's 
box"; with de Gourmont, the profaned rose, the "Gayheart: A Story of Defeat," "The Chinese 
art of sacrilege, — "Fleur hypocrite, Fleur du Nightingale," by Vachel Lindsay, and "Peter 
silence^'; with Samain, the "velvet of steel-col- Quince at the Clavier," by Wallace Stevens, as 
ored gray," the ceiling with the design, Renais- among the best poetry offered the past year. Of 
sance, in old silver; with Verhaeren, — after all the three, Wallace Stevens' poem is perhaps the 
other symbols, — the terror of the night wind rarest, the one most sure to please poets; "Gay- 
sweeping over the great plains of Flanders. She heart," a modern story of englamoured youth, 
achieves chiseled imagery, the reflection in the the one that will appeal to the largest public; 
mirror of words, of the clear, bright flame of while "The Chinese Nightingale," with its haunt- 
immortal genius. ing refrain that "Spring comes on forever," is 

1 Six French PocU. By Amy Lowell. Macmillao. * Anthology of Magazine Verte for 1915. By W. S. 

488 pp. 111. $2.50. Braithwaite. Gomme & Marshall. 890 pp. $1.50. 



248 THE AMERICAN 'REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

nearer the edge of magical fantasy than any the soul of England lett it forget the tacred idealt 
other. A bibliography of each poet's work in of righteousness, 
the year's magaiinel and brief reviews of im- 
portant books of verse are given in appendix. The poems of Rupert Brooke' are now gathered 
The anthology is invaluable to those who are into a book and published, together with an in* 
desirous of keeping pace with modern poetry. troduction by George Edward Woodberry, and a 

biographical note by Margaret Lavington. The 

Houghton, Mifflin issue in The New Poetry collection contains eighty-two poems, of which 

Series Grace Hazard Conklin's book of verse, seventeen were written before the poet was 

"Afternoons of April."* The poem "TotheMex- twenty-one. Professor Gilbert Murray writes in 

ican Nightingale" might well describe the flash- the Cambridge Magazine that Rupert Brooke 

ing vestments of her poesy. There are nature- typified the ideal radiance of youth and poetry, 

notes, aerial echoes, bird song and faery music: Mention of his work has been made in a pre- 

"Golden drops that fell in showers, Shaken down vious number of the Review of Reviews, but it is 

as out of flowers." A volume of lavish beauty good to call attention once more to his genius 

that will satisfy the most captious critic of song, and the pathos of his death. Professor Wood- 
berry writes: "There is a grave in Scyros amid 

There is hardly another American woman- the white and pinkish marble of the isle, the wild 

poet whose poetry is generally known and loved thyme and the poppies, near the green and blue 

like that of Sara Teasdale. "Rivers to the Sea,"' waters. There Rupert Brooke was buried, 

her latest volume of lyrics, possesses the delicacy Thither have gone the hearts of his countrsrmen, 

of imagery, the inward illumination, the high and the hearts of the young especially. It will 

vision that characterizes the poetry that will en- long be so. For a new star shines in the English 

dure the test of time. heaven." 

Other interesting books of verse include "The The poems of Irene Rutherford McLeod, "Songs 

House That Was and Other Poems," by Benja- to Save a Soul,"* ran through three editions in 

min R. Low (John Lane); "The Pilgrim Kings; London in a few months. Her poems are melo- 

Greco and Goya and Other Poems of Spain," by dies for the young in heart. They fling the hot 

Thomas Walsh (Macmillan) ; "The Poets' Lm- rebellion of rampant, daring youth into the bal- 

coln," a collection of tributes by the poets of ance against the garnered wisdom of age, and 

the world to Abraham Lincoln; "Dreams of out of the dust of crumbled dreams fashion the 

Dust," bv Don Afflr^iifi (Harper Bros.) and "The flower of undefeated faith. A rare little book 

Spirit of the American Revolution," as revealed that at times brings us the spirit of Francis 

in the poetry of the period, by Samuel White Thompson and a measure of his matchless music 
Patterson (Badger). 

..« ... . ^.,. ^. . . 1- * Alfred P. Graves and Guy Pertwee have com- 
"Poems,"* by Gilbert Chesterton is a book of pjied and edited "The Reciter's Treasury of Irish 
delightful unpretentious verse,— the easy, keen, Verse and Prose.'" to meet the increasing demand 
sportsman-hke poesy of intellectual lavishness. f^,^ unhackneyed Irish selections. It contains ex- 
It overflows with wit, satire, philosophy, a kind tracts from Irish writers of the eighteenth, nine- 
of holy mockery, and truth, as Chesterton sees it, tcenth, and twentieth centuries. An excellent 
which IS a good way to sec truth. He rates hypo- preface and short biographical notes on the au- 
crites, puling cowards, and pessimisu; listens for thors give the volume additional value. The 
the laughter in English lanes, and calls upon the lovcr of Irish literature could scarcely conceive 
earth to bear witness to "the strange, strong cry ^f a more delightful collection. It contains prac- 
m the darkness, of one man praising God. The tj^ally all the old favorites and all the new. 
poems are divided into groups: War, love, reli- 

*'°"ir'mr '''^"** °* ** '*""' ""** "'•*•"•"*■ The poems' of Adelaide Crapsey, the highly 
ous poe s. talented daughter of Dr. Algernon Crapsey, are 

now given to the public, one year after her tragic 
"The Lord of Misrule,"* by Alfred Noyes, con- death. They are beautiful, noble lyrics, written 
tains everything that this gifted poet has written during the last year of her life, at Saranac Lake, 
since the publication of his "Collected Poems," in them she challenges death to still the ardor 
in 1913, with the exception of "The Wine Press" of her immortal spirit. Miss Crapsey was in- 
and "A Belgian Christmas Eve." Many of these structor in Poetics at Smith College, 
poems have the familiar lilting refrains that re- 
call "In Lilac Time," but there is a preponder- Anna M. Ncis oflFers an attractive booklet, 
ance of serious verse, that endeavors to lift men's which extols the memory of Abraham Lincoln.* 
vision beyond the horrors of war and the general it is illustrated with a portrait and cuts of the 
unrest of the age, to perceive our ultimate recov- Lincoln log cabin, his old home in Springfield, 
ery in the future of certain values of civilization and the White House, 
that now seem irreparably lost "The Sacred .^._^_^______^^_^_^_^__^^^^__ 

Oak," a song of Britain, is a stirring appeal to exhe Collected Poems of Rupert Brooke. John 
— ^— ^-^— ^— — ^—— ^— ^^-^— ^— Lane. 168 pp. $1.25. 

'Afternoons of April. By Grace Hazard Conkling. * Sonn to Save a Soul. By Irene Rutherford McLeod. 
Houghton. Mifflin. 01 pp. 76 cents. B. W. Huebsch. 103 pp. $1. 

•Rivers to the Sea. By Sara Teasdale. Macmillan. 'The Reciter's Treasury of Irish Verse and Prose. 
148 pp. $1.26. Edited by Graves and Pertwee. Dutton. 612 pp. $1.50. 

» Poems. By Gilbert Chesterton. John Lane. 166 • Verses. By Adelaide Crapsey. The Manas Press, 
pp. $1.26. Rochester. 98 pp. $1. 

*Thc Lord of Misrule. By Alfred Noves. With 'Lincoln. By Anna M. Ncis. Privately printed, 
frontispiece in color. Stokes. 184 pp. $1.60. Everett, Mass. 



THE NEIf BOOKS 



BOOKS OF THEOLOGY AND RELIGION 







Hares Ward, 
who for nearly half a 
century, in his capacity 
as a journalist, has 
fol toned and inier- 
preted the world's 
thought, should now 
tell us clearly and 
frankly just how the 
basic truths of life 
now present them- 
selves to his mind. 
This he does with 
convincing candor in 
"What I Believe and 
Why.'" It appears 
from this book that 
the foundations of Dr. 
Ward's religious be- 



liefs have never beeo shaken by the results of 
scientific research, although in his lifetime the 
controversies that followed the general accept- 
ance of the principle of evolution began and 
culminated. He has always been a keenly inter- 
ested observer of the so-called conflict between 
tcience and religion. In his advanced years 
(tike Dr. Lyman Abbott, to whom reference was 
made in these pages last month, he is now 
counted among the octogenarians), it is interest- 
ing to note the reactions upon his personal faith. 
The nietsage that he has for the present genera- 
tion is summed up in these words: "The best 
human reason, — I think I do not err, — whether it 
looks outward or inward, finds God. He Is in 
nature about us; He is in the reason within us; 
it is not limply that we wish to find God, but we 
find Him whether we wish it or not." 

Three generations of Dr. Ward's ancestors 
were represented in the New England pulpit. 
He himself read the Bible through in Hebrew 
during the years from six to nine, later he read 
it in Greek and Latin. He has long been recog- 
nized as one of the leading Orientalists of 
AiDericM. His activities as editor-in-chief of the 
New York Indeftndent for almost fifty years 
were never permuted to prevent (he graiilicatioQ 
of bis scholarly tastes. 

One of the most influentiat of American writers 
on philosophical themes is Professor George 
Trumbull Lidd, of Yale, nho faai recently, in 
■ series of four comparatively small volumes, 
attempted to answer these questions: "What 
Can I Know?" "What Am I To Do?" "What 
Should 1 Believe?" "WTiat Maj- I Hope?"' The 
I ait-mentioned book is an inquiry into the 
"sources and reasonableness of the hopes of hu- 
manity, especially social and religious." As im- 
plied in the title itself the conclusions of this 
inquiry are consistently optimistic. Clearness 
and simplicity of style, qualities that stand out 
in all of Dr. Ladd's writings, are especially 
marked in this latest volume. 

It happens that within a few months there 

■ What 1 Believe and Wh/. By William Haye, Ward. 
Scribncr. SSS pp. )1.(>0. 

■What Hay I Hope? By George Trumbull Udd, 
I.L.n. Longmani, Green, 310 pp. Il.sn, 



have appeared several noteworthy restatements 
of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. 
Among these are: "Some Christian Convictions,"* 
hy the Rev. Henry Sloanc CoSin, of the Madison 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City, an 
Associate Professor in the Union Theological 
Seminary; "A Voice from the Crowd,"' by George 
Wharton Pepper, being the first series of Yale 
Lectures on Preaching to be delivered by a lay- 
man; "What la a Christian?"' by the Rev. John 
Walker Powell, of Minneapolis; and "Founda- 
tions of Christian Belief,"' by Francis L. Strick- 
land, who holds the Professorship of Philosophy 
in the University of West Virginia. 

Two British scholars have lately made im- 
portant contributions to the philosophy of re- 
ligion. One of these is no less a personage than 
the Right Hon. Arthur James Balfour, whose 
work entitled "The Foundations of Belief," ap- 
pearing about twenty years ago, placed its author 
at once in the front rank among contemporary 
theologians. Allhthigh Mr. Balfour has since 
that time been Pre- 
of Great Britain, 



the present 
moment First Lord of 
the British Admiralty, 
the occupations of his 
public life have never 
interfered with his 
philosophical pursuits. 
The present volume, 
"Theism and Human- 
stance of (he Gifford 
Lectures delivered at 
the University of 
Glasgow in January 
and February, 1914. 

Id "Religion and 
Reality,"' Mr. James 
Henry Tuckwell de- 
scribes and defines 
what is known as "re- 
ligious experience" and 
indicates what seems 
to him the only sure 
way to reconcile rea- 
This is a book that makes a 



War and Christianitr from the Riissian 
Point of View, By Vladimir Solovyof. Put- 
nam, nt pp. $1.50. 

This argument by the greatest of Russian phil- 
osophers was published in 1900, a year before his 

■ Some Christian Conviclioni. By Rev. H»nry Sloane 
Coffin, Yale Univeriity Press, Bsi pp. |1. 

•A Voice from Iht Crowd. By George Wharton 
Pepper. Vale University Preu. tM pp. tl.60. 

'What I«a Chri.tian? By John Walker Powell. Mac 
millan. iOl pp. (1. 

•Foundations of Chrii 



n Italtour. Lieorge ti. Doran. XTi pp. (i.Ja. 
teligion and Reality. By J. H, Tuckwell. Dul 



250 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

death. In his lifetime Solovyof was recognized covered in one year of private reading and study^ 

as one of the leading exponents of Russian mysti- in one year's college work (three hours a week), 

cism. He was a poet as well as philosopher, and or in classes in one year of fifty-two weeks (two 

Mr. Stephen Graham, who writes the introduc- assignments a week). 

tion to this translation, cites as representative this _. _ . _ _ ., _ 

line from one of Solovyof 's poems: "All ego is The Story of Our Bible. By Harold R 

powerless, man is forever, and God is with us!'' Hunting. Scribner. 290 pp. 111. $1.50. 

In this volume he combats Tolstoyism and posi- An attractively written and illustrated account 

tivism. Qf xht men who actually wrote the Bible. 

The Church in the City. By Frederick de L. Old Testament History. By I«nar J. Peritt. 

Leete. Abingdon Press. 317 pp. $1. Abingdon Press. 336 pp. $1.50. 

rwi"'' %"'•• .K* t\ ,^'*'?'!'« Episcopal j ^ ; „, 3.^,, gmdy Text Books, this 

^^Zt ..T.^ tl """ ^ ' ''"'°'"'' "■ volume deal, with the histobr of the Hebrew 

perience as a city pastor. p^^p,^ j^^^ ,^ ,^^ Christian era. It is based on 

The Community Survey in Relation to k^^lnyjIlTa.^IutarSireHeiTr&l^^^^^^^^^ 
Church Efficiency. By Charles £. Carroll. 

Abingdon Press. 128 pp. 111. $1. The Meaning of Christianity. By William 

A useful little manual for workers in city and H. Cobb. Crowell. 244 pp. $1.25. 

country church fields. A careful study of this book The author's method in this book is synthetic 

by ministers and laymen would surely promote rather than analytic or deductive. He gathers 

church efficiency. and correlates the facts that have a bearing on 

A . «.!_! « . . ^T. ^T. . A ^^^ problem of Christian unity. 

American Bible Society Ninety-Ninth An- 
nual Report, 1915. American Bible Society. Christianity and Politics. By William Cun- 
631pp. ningham, D.D. Houghton, Mifflin. 271 pp. $1.50. 

Apropos of the Congress of Christian Work in This series of Lowell Lectures delivered in the 

Latin America, to be held this month at Panama, autumn of 1914 was concerned chiefly with the 

the account of the revision of the Spanish New bearing of Christian teaching on the internal 

Testament^ given by the Rev. C. W. Drees, and government of communities, but in revising the 

presented m this Annual Report of the American lectures for publication the author has taken ac- 

Bible Society, has special timeliness. count of national life in all its aspects, while an 

appendix discusses *'The Attitude of the Church 

Teacher-Training Essentials (Part II). By Toward War." 

H. E. Tralle. Boston: American Baptist Pub. So- _, ^, , . • ^, . . . 

ciety. 117 pp. $0.25. ^^* Malang of ChnsUanity. By Dr. John 

_ ^ i. , *. . . C. C. Clarke. Associated Authors and Compil- 

In the twenty-five lessons of this course, the ^.. ^^« ^^ ti ^c 

Bible is considered in its relation to the Sunday- *"• ^^\^^' ^ . . 

school teacher. ^^ exhibit of Hebrew and Christian Messianic 

apocalyptical philosophy and literature. 

Jerusalem to Rome. By Charles Fremont ^ , « ,. . 

Sitterly. Abingdon Press. 293 pp. 111. $1.50. Personal Rehgion. By Charles H. Rust. 

A new translation of the Acts of the Apostles, ^°f^"^ '^'f.**"? ^- ^^«^^- ^l^ PP- *^f ' , 

with a commentary by Professor Sitterly, of the ^n applicauon of progressive thought and 

Drew Theological Seminary. Maps and ilustra- methods in evangelism. 

tions accompany the text. _ ^ . 

Jesus the Chnst. By James E. Talmage. 

The Bible for Home and School: Mark. Salt Lake City: The Deseret News. 804 pp. $1.50. 

A Commentary by Melancthon W. Jacobus, D.D. A commentary published under the auspices of 

Macmillan. 259 pp. $0.75. ^^^ Mormon Church. The author is one of the 

A 1 -. r *!. II .. • £ Twelve Apostles of the church. 

A new volume of the excellent series of com- *^ 

mentaries known as "The Bible for Home and -p^is-i^M. i7^„^a4.;^,« a««^ r^- «.k^ u^«i;«« 

School." These little books place at the disposal , Rehgious EducaUon and for the Healmg 

of the general reader the results of the best mod- O' "^ Church. By W. A. Lambert. Boston : 

ern biblical scholars. Gorham Press. 39 pp. $.75. 

xy o J 1. ^ J Religious education in the public schools dis- 

How to Study the Old Testament By cussed from the Protestant standpoint. 

Frank Knight Sanders and Henry A. Sherman. 

Scribner. 64 pp. 50 cents. • Faith, the Greatest Power in the World. 

A course of study which divides the year's ^X ^^'^' Samuel McComb. Harper. 83 pp. $.50. 

work into one hundred and four definite assign- A presentation of the rewards of faith in both 

ments so that the entire Old Testament may be the spiritual and physiological aspects. 



THE NEW BOOKS 251 

PHILOSOPHY 

MR. MIL£S M£NAND£R DAWSON has pre- the way of attainment In "Healing Currents,"' 
pared a volume of the sayings of the Chi- Mr. Walter DeVoe tells one how to incorporate 
nese sage, "K'ung Fu-Tsze," better known to the the positive thought and feeling of Truth into 
world by the name Confucius.^ It consists of mind and body. Mr. DeVoe's metaphysical doc- 
passages quoted from the Confucian classics, trine is that of the "Positive and Negative Mind 
arranged by topics, in accordance with a plan of God, and of the Lord Jesus Christ as the 
laid down by Confucius Himself in "The Great Mediator between the two states of Being; re- 
Learning," abd connected with a sprightly run- vealing how the Truth awakens the soul to 
niog narrative by Mr. Dawson. He explains in its natural inheritance as an immortal co-worker 
the introduction that this book has been prepared with God, giving it dominion over sin, sickness, 
in a spirit of helpfulness, in order to afford others poverty, and death." 
the opportunity of gaining an understanding of 

the true nature of the Confucian conception of Professor Douglas Clyde Macintosh, Assistant 
good conduct It must be remembered that Con- Professor of Systematic Theology in Yale Uni- 
fuaus outlined in the "Li Ki" a plan for universal vcrsity, publishes "The Problem of Knowledge,"* 
peace, the promulgation of the Great Principle, or a philosophical work that is a model of conden- 
the Great Similarity, which will make the whole sation and concise definition. It might be char- 
world a republic and bring about the long- acterized as an exploring expedition iAto philo- 
Tisioned Golden Age. The foreword is by Wu sophical doctrine to discover what, after all. 
Ting Fang. we really do know, and what will endure the 

scientific method of proof. Part I covers "The 

The power to heal the body and the mind Problem of Immediate Knowledge," with all 

comes with mental labor and spiritual realiza- the intricate sub-divisions of the subject; Part II, 

tion. Many people who want to understand "The Problem of Mediate Knowledge," with "A," 

mental healing and practise it find themselves "The Problem of Truth," and "B," "The Prob- 

unable to gain dominion over the physical or- lem of Proof" (Methodology). An excellent 

ganism because of their lack of knowledge of analytical table of contents prefaces the text. 



HISTORY. ANCIENT AND MODERN 

WITH the armies of the warring nations en- of the rivers extends the land about ninety feet 
camped before the ancient city of Bagdad, per year. In the days of the ancient dviliza- 
the eyes of the world are turned once more to tion an elaborate canal system received the over- 
the Euphrates Valley, where 3500. years before flow from the rivers and carried the water out 
the Christian era there flourished a redundant over the land. The neglect of this system, aod 
dvilization. Professor Morris Jastrow, authority the decadence of the art of agriculture was one 
on Oriental Languages in the University of Penn- of the factors that doomed this rich cirilization 
sylvania, and president of the American Oriental to destruction. Now that there is prospect of 
Society, gives the ample results of his continued this arid land receiving the advantages of mod- 
research in Babylonia and Assyria to the public ern methods of irrigation, it is interesting to 
in a remarkably fine and profusely illustrated read its history and speculate upon its probable 
volume. "The Civilization of Babylonia and As- future development 
Syria." The life of the ancient peoples of these 

lands, their language, history, religion, commerce, There is no romance more fascinating to Amer- 

art, law, and literature have been skilfully resur- leans than the historical romance of the early de- 

rected from the remains that have come to light velopment of the Oregon country. As the settle- 

during excavations in recent years. ment of this territory by agriculturists followed 

Professor Jastrow's description of the agricul- upon the decline of the fur trade, there came de- 

ture of the Euphrates Valley during the years of mands for wagon communication between the 

the Babylonian civilization is of mterest The "Inland Empire" east of the Cascade Range, and 

soil is astonishingly rich. Herodotus wrote that the rich Willamette Valley, Puget Sound, and the 

in Southern Babylonia "grain yielded a return lower Columbia basin. The first wagon road on 

of two hundred-fold and even up to three hun- the Oregon side of the river was completed in 

dred-fold," and described the blade of wheat 1856. On July 6th, 1915, the great Columbia River 

and barley as often four fingers in breadth; Highway through the Cascade Mountains to the 

and the sulks of the millet and sesame as sur- aea was opened to the public between Hood River 

prismgly tall. Professor Jastrow calls the coun- and Portland. A wonderful and beautiful book 

tnr the "original home of cereals." The soil is, on this great scenic road has been prepared by 

of course, alluvial ; the deposit from the overflow SamGel Lancaster, the man who was engineer of 

»The Ethics of Confucius. By Miles M. Dawson. ^^? Highway.* It consists of alternate pages of 

Putnam. 82S pp. $1.50. printed matter and four-color reproductions of 

'Healing Currents. By Walter DeVoe. Viu Pub- scenic photographs and portraits. The story of 

lishing Co. 248 pp. $1.60. • the Highway relates the experiences of the ex- 

into]?.* MiclSfflan. ^M *^*$25o.^''"*^" ^^^^"^ ^^' P'o^grBt »>nd the early pioneers; describes the life 

. ♦The Civilisation of Babylon and Assyria. By Mor- BThe Columbia: America's Great Highway. By 

ns Jastrow, Jr. Lippmcott, 16i illustrauons. 616 pp. $6. Samuel C. Lancaster, Pub. 140 pp. lU. $2.60. 



252 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

of the IndiaoR, the UruKgles of the miitionariel^ ter has gtimpied the fact that eveiy hlitorical 

the lighi for the laad, the problems of transporta- road is a kind of epic poem. He haa given ni <iiK 

tioo, and follows the evolution of the famoui epic of an old Oregon road in "The Columbia — 

Highway from the old Indian trail to ibe splen- America's Great Highway Through the Cascade 

did paved road of the present day. Mr. Lancas- Mountains to the Sea," 



LITERATURE AND LITERARY 
PROBLEMS 

AN excellent popular "History of Latin Liters- Follet.* The work is "a short study of Conrad'a 
lure"' hat been prepared for the average intellectual and emotional attitude toward his 
reader and for classroom use by Marcus Dims- work and of the chief characteristics of his 
dale, Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. It is novels." The exceptionally fine analysis of the 
delightfully written, the work of a scholar whose intricacies of Conrad'a literary method and the 
literary skill brings us fresh and vivid impres- clear appraisement of his genius found in Mr. 
Noni of Latin literature from its beginnings on Follei's discussion of Conrad's great novel, "Vic- 
through its stimulating and varied history to tory," is typical of the general exixllence of 
the African Laiiniiy and the end of the national this agreeable essay. 

literature. It is issued in "The Literature of , , ,, . ... 

the World" Series, edited by Edmund Gosse. We ate pleased to call readers attention to the 

New Hudson Shakespeare. Nine plays have been 
Mr. Fred Uwii Pattee, Professor of English published and the remaining volumes will be 
at the Pennsylvania State College, has prepared "sufd at short imervals. It is the belief of the 
an admirable "History of American Literature puh'whers that the scholarship embodied in the 
Since lg70."' He writes that, while American editing of the volumes, together with the inclu- 



n the larger " 



authentic material, will make (bis 



1 sense of ihc term be- edition especially pleasing to the public. The 

gan with Irving, and volumes are attractively bound in flexible blue 

that American literary "vers and are listed at the low pnce of ihirty 

historv falls naturally cenls. Those now ready are: Hamlet, King Lear, 

into three sub-divi- Midsummer Night's Dream, The Tempest, Mac- 

■ions, "the Knicker- beth. Twelfth Night, Merchant of Venice, Aa You 

bockcr Period, ( h e Like It, and Julius Cesar. 

^'a .fc "^n "r ^V'f' Apropos of the Shakespeare tercentenary there 

and Ihe National Pe- j^ / „Vi^,, „e iat„est^n the problem of the 

r.» Z.L\a.Za ,h. authorship of the plays. One of the ablest 

!a«' th^ k was no •P"""™"' »* "''" '"«' ^'"^^ "^ "'"'"'» "■' 

un"l .t«r".he Civa S^'JJIdilil 'V,l'''th""'act'" Shak^ra'^'o^f 

War that our wriiera tradition that the actor bbakcspcarc or 

J .. . _ :_■.,.: Stratford was the author of the works known bv 

Md inauMrawd "he '''• »-"'* " «■ ^- Greenwood, M. P., the author 
beginning of a truly "^ "T»» Shakespeare Problem Kesta.ed^ who 
naTional type of liter- »n™P" '" '^' P"«.?S ™''""<' '* P"=". ." 
ature Professor Pal- Shakespeare Problem?"' a reply to the criti- 
tee devotes several <='""• of his former work by Mr. . J. M. Rob- 
chapters to the Weal- e"**" »"<■ Mr. Andrew Lang. Mr. Green- 
ern humorists dis- ""*"!'• book should not be confused with the 
citMrn ihr Nrw Fno argument* advanced by ihe "Baconians." He 
PBOF. FRED LEWIS PATTEE j^nj ^up ,he „riler8 "'"her upholds the Baconian theory of author- 
of dialect'' and local *^>P ."<>' does he try to arrive at any positive 
color, the New Romance of Cable and Page and «''"*"'" of the problem. His -aim in this, as m 
others, the Hoosier School, the Southern Novelists, '"< *°^" '«»'', is to meet the indignant refuta- 
and "The Triumph of the Short Story." The vol- »"">• »» '*•« »o-c""ed Stratford school, 
ume is characterized by authoritative judgment, .„ .„.„„. , „.^ .k . ■„ .,„ „ „^ 
taste, and a spacious critical faculty, pfed Lewii ,k^"i. ^ ^ } ■ l "K"™'."" 
Patt« was b^rn in New Hampshire, and studied ""' *"."■* ^'l "dvanced against the B.coman 
at Dartmouth and various foreign universities, ^"'horship of the plays is made by James Phinne^j 
He is the author of "A Hi«or? of American ?."'" '"J^' Greatest of Literary Problems."' 
Literature," "The Foundations of English Lit- I^",'"'A^ '""""^'K""^^ "^ '^"^ '^'■""it ^"l""^. 
.,-..,r." 1. ...1 „„ .1- ,„-! . ~i.,™ Z.( .^.v.. hy Mr. Greenwood, but the standpoint thraugbout 
eralure, several novels, ana a volume ot poems. - i ■, — ■ 

' *^ is frankly Baconian. 

Doubleday, Page & Ca have published for ■ Jowph Conr.d. By Wilmn Follet. Doubled.r, Paie. 

free distribution, as long as the printing lasts, \\?''. u',7„ "'/h.u™ ' 

an attractive essay on Joseph Conrad, hy Wilson , ,,"(,"" Ishrtwp™ 

■ Latin Liierature. By Marcus Mmidale. Appleions. wood. M. P. John Lane Cornpsny 

6l» pp. |». • The nrialMI of Lilefiry Prsblems, t) 

' A History of American Literature. By Ficd Lewis of the Shakespeare Works. By Tames Ph 

Pattee. Century, its pp. ft. Houghton, Mifflin Co. OSS pp., ill. tS. 



THE NEW BOOKS 253 

OTHER BOOKS OF SPECIAL INTEREST 

A Useful Life George F. Kunz, is by far the most comprehensive 

XKF tj. xxi^^u \iTUii^'i TH.-. T u^ ^t Tu->^ volume devoted solely to the curious lore of pre- 
Was It Worth While? The Life of Theo- ^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^ J ^^^ published. A great 

dore Storrs Lee. With a foreword by Justice deal of unique information gleaned from ancient 

Charles E. Hughes. Association Press. 173 pp. sources relative to the magical power supposed 

111. SOc ^^ reside in certain jewels is given, together with 

'^i-* I'^i u 1 • * 'u * * A-~ • legends and events of past ages. The book is 

This little book IS a tribute to a young Amer,. f.^^idly illustrated in color, doubletone and 

can who gave seven years of his life to naissio^ ^r^^ j/.^ ^^.^^^^ ^.^^ Dr. Kunz's previous 

aiy service in India and died in this country ^^^^ .^j^ ^^^. ^o of Precious Stones." 

while on his nrst furlough, at the early age of ' 

thirty-eight. As Justice Hughes remarks in his — ,. % w x 

foreword, young Lee "brought to the twentieth Imteiy infomtation 

century the zeal of the first." He freely gave The Human Interest Library. Editors: 

of his best for the advancement of an alien peo- r^ r^^ Samuel Fallows and Henry W. Ruo£F, 

pic. So deep an ^J^Press did he make on jlie Chicago: The Midland Press. 1673 pp. 

communities where he lived that in one munici- v,o v^ . * * i^t^i.t^. « «V99. *w#^ pp. 

pality, a center of the Brahmin cult, the public H'- ^ Vol. $13.80. 

schools were closed on receipt of the news of his The basic principle on which this work is 
death, and officials of the British Government in planned is simply. that every important fact has 
lodia bore testimony to his influence on the na- its "story,'' and the chief editorial task has been 
tives for the betterment of political and social to bring out the "human interest" of the many 
conditions. Mr. Lee was a graduate of Amherst stories into which are woven the mass of infor- 
aod of the Union Theological Seminary, a mem- mation covered by the scheme of the work, 
ber of a well-known New England family (his Bishop Fallows and Dr. Henry W. Ruoff are the 
elder brocher is Gerald Stanley Lee, the writer), responsible editors, and among the contributors 
and on taking up his work in India he married and revisers are Admiral Peary, Professor Fred- 
a daughter of Dr. Robert A. Hume, the dis- erick Starr, Professor Charles A. McMurry, and 
tiDguished missionary leader at Ahmednagar. Mrs. Dorothy Canfield Fisher. This work differs 

from the ordinary encyclopedia in that it is 
Art and iA.agic planned not merely as a work of reference, but 

Medieval Church Vaulting. By Clarence »• »oraething to be read for its intrinsic interest 
„. . _ . ,_ . . „ ' « *^ The plan of the work admits of indefinite ex- 

Ward. Pnnceton University Press. 192 pp. $4. p^n.ion and the editors promise the addition 

"Medieval Church Vaulting,'' by Clarence from time to time of supplementary volumes, 

Ward, classifies and discusses in a systematic each complete in itself, 
manner the problems of substituting for the 

wooden roof of the Early Christian Basilica a ^^ g^ ^ ^ Progress. Albert A. Hopkins, 

covering of solid masonry. Attention is called ,. ... ...». r 'n 

to th€ intimate relation of the problems of vault- Editor. New York: Cncke Publishing Corpora- 

ieg and lighting. The contents cover "Nave and tion. 1021 pp. 3 Vol. 111. $9. 

Aisle Vaults; Transept and Crossing Vaulu; We have more than once had occasion to 

Apse Vaults and "Ambulatory Vaults. The refer to the excellent work done by Mr. Albert 

author IS Associate Professor of Architecture in a. Hopkins as editor of the "Scientific American 

Rotgers College and le^urer on architecture at Reference Book." In the three volumes that 

Princeton University. The book is splendidly ^^i^e up "The Book of Progress" Mr. Hopkins 

Illustrated and prmted with wide margins. It h., .„ enlarged opportunity to acquaint the 

IS published m the Princeton series of monographs ^^^^age reader through concise and attractively 

m art and archaeology. ^rj^^^^j ^Ti\c\t% with the kind of information 

The Flower Art of Japan, By Mary Averill. ""^Z^ Ti''"" inventions that almost eveiycne is 
Auv c-mvwvE r^\ ^^M, ju^^xu «jr iT»«ijr x^tcihi. continually Seeking and in many cases fails to 

John Lane. 216 pp. $1.50. find available in the usual books of reference. 

In Japan there are many schools of flower In these three volumes Mr. Hopkins has com- 

arrangement. The two schools which follow na- piled a vast amount of up-to-date information 

ture most closely are the Ikenobu and the Ko- from varied sources. 
Shin-Rtu, Mainly from these schools Mary 

Averill has drawn inspiration for an exquisite Free Homestead Lands of Colorado De- 
book, "Japanese Flower Arrangement," and a scribed. By George S. Clason. Denver: The 
later volume, "The Flower Art of Japan." The ri^^^ \4<.^ n^^^^^^ «!«.... ^9 
later book has 129 illustrations that show the ^^"^ '^^P Company. 318 pp. |2. 
beautiful effects that can be obtained by the This is a handbook for settlers compiled by a 
artistic grouping of flowers, branches, and ™*"> ^^^ *>as had extensive experience on the 
grasses. undeveloped lands of Colorado. 

The Magic of Jewels and Charms. By Bankrupting a Great City (The Story of 
George F. Kunz. Lippincott. 422 pp. $S. New York). By Henry H. Kline. Published by 

"The Magic of Jewels and Charms," by Dr. the author. 188 pp., ill. 75 cents. 



FINANCIAL NEWS 

I.— GUARANTEED AND SERIAL REAI^ESTATE 

MORTGAGES 

DURING the first half of 1915 there trust companies. These amounts represent 

was a 10 per cent, decrease in the loans entirely on New York City property, 

value of building permits in the leading cities The net return to the investor in such guar- 

of the United States. Then came an ab- anteed loans is 4^ per cent, on Manhattan 

rupt change. In the September quarter realty and ^ of 1 per cent, more on real 

there was a gain of 6 per cent., with a fur- estate in the other boroughs of Greater New 

ther increase over 1914 in the December York. 

quarter of 53 per cent. In the month of There are two methods available to the 

December alone 101 cities, according to prospective investor in guaranteed real-estate 

Bradstreet's, showed an expansion of 81 per mortgages. One is to buy direct and become 

cent, over the previous year and were even the holder of the mortgage which the seller 

in excess of the high mark madfe in 1913. (usually a title and mortgage company) has 

Real estate, which has seen a three to five- guaranteed as to principal and interest at a 

year depression according to locality, now commission generally of ^ per cent., or to 

gives greater promise than in a long while, participate in a mortgage through a ccrtifi- 

One New York authority writes as of Janu- cate of ownership giving the same security 

ary 1 1 : "At the present time the outlook as in the original instance. It may be said 

for the future is more encouraging than it that the former method is most commonly 

has been in three years." Another of about followed as opportunity is given for invest- 

the same date says: "The enormous sales ment ranging from a few thousand up to scv- 

to Europe at high prices of food, supplies, eral hundred thousand dollars. The second 

manufacturing articles, munitions, etc., have plan was created to meet the requirenlcnts 

revived many lines of business in New York of investors with $1000 or less who have been 

City, with consequent effects in raising land able to obtain in pieces of $50, $100, $200, 

values and rentals. It would appear probable $500 and $1000 participation in what may 

that from now on there will be fewer fore- be frankly rated as the choicest investment 

closures and a stronger market for mort- available next to government bonds. In some 

gage investments." instances payments have been permitted in 

On these texts may be based some discus- monthly installments, 
sion this month of the real-estate mortgage Differences of method have also obtained 
of the city, as against that of the farm, as an where the broad idea of a guaranteed real- 
investment for the individual with from $50 estate investment is the same. For instance, 
up to sums expressed in six figures, to place one investor may wish to have his investment 
at a fair return in income and security as to represent a specific piece of property. Say 
prindpal and interest. the entire mortgage is for $100,000. He 

The magnitude of the guaranteed mort- may be one of ten each holding a $10,000 

gage business is scarcely realized by one who participation which is guairanteed against 

has not taken pains to investigate it. The loss in any form, or one of 100 whose unit 

latest records of two New York companies of investment is $1000. This may even be 

which specialize in this form of investment divided into smaller units. Or he may be 

indicate that the one, since 1892, has guar- of the opinion that it is wiser to distribute 

anteed mortgages in the aggregate of $560,- his fund without complicating his invest- 

000,000, and now has $250,000,000 out- ment, in which case he becomes a sharer in a 

standing, and the other, since 1894, has guar- mortgage series which may embody a dozen 

anteed $316,000,000, representing 17,335 in- different loans on equally good property, but 

dividual loans, and to-day has $144,000,000 in which the depreciation in one direction, 

in the hands of 44 savings banks, 1341 trus- due to changes in commercial or residence 

tees, 3734 private investors, 208 charitable currents, common to Manhattan Island, will 

institutions, 14 insurance companies and 30 be offset by the appreciation in one or more 

254 



FINANCIAL NEWS 255 

others on property in more favored sections, or Syi per cent, income. A man in New 

There is little choice between the two forms. York City prefers Manhattan Island loans 

Owners of these guaranteed mortgages netting 4^ to 5 per cent, because he can be 
have the double equity contained in the orig- in daily reach of his investment expressed in 
inal loan ranging from a minimum of 40 the loan. Just so the Chicagoan prefers his 
per cent, to a maximum of 75 per cent, of neighborhood property and can prove that 
the appraised value of the property covered it is intrinsically as valuable as that on Broad- 
in the mortgage and the guaranty of the issu- way. When it comes to earning capacity 
ing company. So conservatively has the busi- and stability he undoubtedly has the better 
ness been carried on that the concern hav- of the argument; for office buildings in New 
ing written guarantees of over half a billion York that yield 4 to 4^ per cent, will re- 
dollars in twenty-three years has lost only turn 8 per cent, on leased land in Chicago 
$82,000, and the* other, in twenty-one years, and often 10 and 12 per cent., while in the 
has lost less than half a mill for every dollar Western dty there are no such radical shift- 
of loans put out. Even this infinitesimal ings in wholesale and retail centers as there 
amount did not affect the holder of the guar- have been in New York in the past two dec- 
anteed mortgage or certificate who is insured ades. Furthermore, the general interest rate 
against all loss. in the East is about 1 per cent, less than in 

Not every one is satisfied with a 4 J^ or 5 Chicago and other cities. The situation has 

per cent, return on his capital, though one been well put in the following phrases: ''In 

may still insist on safety as the prime requi- New York the volume of money available 

site of the investment in prospect. To realize for investment exceeds the supply of real- 

a higher yield it will be necessary, however, estate loans. In Chicago the supply exceeds 

to waive the factor of guarantee and to ap- the demand and the interest rate naturally is 

praise the certificate or bond on the conserv- higher." Whereas, the statutes of New 

atism of property appraisal, the proportion of York State permit bank loans up to 60 per 

the loan to appraised value and the earning cent, of the value of the security, the serial 

capacity of the property mortgaged These 6 per cent, bonds being sold in constantly 

are indeed the fundamental considerations increasing amounts by a Chicago banking 

even where guarantees follow. In the last house are never in excess of 50 per cent, of 

analysis, it may be said, a guarantee would the appraised property valuations, 

be of only nominal value if the risk in itself Of bonds of this type the establishment 

were not a worthy one. referred to has sold nearly $65,000,000 

To meet sudi requirements there are sev- worth, and makes the proud claim that, in 
eral investment opportunities offered. One thirty years, no one of its investors has lost 
is a 5 per cent, bond listed on the New York a dollar. Another business involving the in- 
Stock Exchange and secured by the deposit vestment of $100,000,000 in sixty years has 
of an equal amount of first mortgages with a still to show the slightest misfortune among 
trust company as trustee. A series now be- its clients. Loans against which these series 
ing offered returns 5^ per cent. Support- 6 per cent, bonds are issued are on office 
ing such bonds is the principle advocated in buildings, department stores, hotels, apart- 
this department in the December issue of ment buildings in the best residence sections 
geographical distribution of investment risk and on newly improved real estate in manu- 
for the mortgages are on property in sixteen facturing districts where land values are 
different cities of the West and South, and heavy and the equity in the loan reflects the 
the loans are made at less than 40 per cent, land rather than the building. These loans 
of the appraised valuations compared with an are not confined to Chicago, though a major- 
average in New York City said to be about ity are made there. Some even have been 
66 per cent. The bulk of these bonds are made recently in the East, 
held by fire and life-insurance companies, by The strong feature of such real-estate 
trust companies, colleges and universities, bonds is the amortization of the loan. By 
The average size of the mortgage loans is this process the equity of the bondholder is 
only $3000, and in a majority of cases the constantly increasing independent of the pre- 
obligation is placed on the mortgagee of re- sumed appreciation in land values and earn- 
ducing his principal by annual payments, ing capacity of buildings. The bonds usually 
This is always an ideal in real-estate invest- have a life of ten years. This is also true 
ment to be capitalized to its fullest extent, of most of the guaranteed mortgages earlier 

Real-estate investment possibilities do not, described, though there are three- and fivc- 

howcvcr, stop when we have reached the 5 year maturities, too. Annual payments to 



256 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS 

reduce the principal by the end of ten years new year. Its best tendency is that of chedc- 
will bring the sum of the mortgage down to ing speculative building from which so many 
40 per cent, of the property appraisal figure, cities suffer and out of which comes collapse, 
making renewal, if desired, a simple matter. One objection to real-estate mortgages of 
These bonds are issued to meet the wants of the guaranteed certificate bond or serial bond 
small investors as well as large and can be type which may be in the mind of the in- 
had in denominations as low as $100. vestor is that of marketability. They arc 
It is a very gratifying feature of the real- not listed on any exchange, save in the one 
estate investment market that amortization case mentioned. For the issuing companies, 
is becoming a recognized element in stabiliz- however, it may be said that they have always 
ing this market. The practise introduced been willing to buy back from the investor at 
by the Chicago firm with such great success a small discount for expense of the operation 
is spreading throughout the East and has bonds offered in emergencies before date ot 
been observed in various announcements of maturity. As collateral in loans they are 
real-estate securities since the first of the highly regarded. 



II.— INVESTORS' QUERIES AND ANSWERS 

No. 700. INFORMATION ABOUT SOME LOW- suggests itself in the absence of more specific 

PRICED "RAILS" questions, or information regarding the reasons 

Will you please give me what information you may underlying your inquiry, 

have regarding the present condition of the following ^ «» ^ 

railroads: Wheeling & L^ke Erie. Toledo St. U)uw No. 701. BUYING INTO A RBCBIVBRSHIP 

Western, Chicago Great Western and Kansas City _ ,.-. .*^i. r 

Southern. ' ^^ contemplating the purchase of a few shares of 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas preferred stock. Although 

In general, these roads have been showing, I have been told that this road is in the hands of re- 

HiirlncT fVim liiQf it^AJo mnntVim vorv mark^^H itnnrnv^. ce»vers, I am inclined to believe the value of the stock 

during the last tew months, ve^^ marked improve- i„ question will increase. Would you advise me to buy 

ment m earnmgs over those of the correspondmg it? What do you think of the partial-payment plan of 

period of the previous year. This improvement, buying stocks? 

moreover, has been not only in gross, but also in We have no information that would tend to 

net earnings, thus reflecting favorably, of course, confirm the belief you entertain that the market 

on the status of the outstanding bonds and stocks value of M. K. k T. is going to advance. Nor 

of these corporations. are we' able to discuss the advisability of the 

With particular reference to Chicago Great purchase of the stock at this time, because in the 

Western, it may be pointed out that during the circumstances, the transaction would be a purely 

fiscal year ended June 30 last, the road showed speculative one, and as such entirely outside the 

the equivalent of about 1.95 per cent, earned on province of this department. We can say in a 

the outstanding preferred stock. The initial divi- general way, however, that we think there are 

dend was declared on these shares, and paid as very few circumstances, indeed, in which it is 

you may probably know, only last December. It advisable for the average investor to buy into a 

IS felt in many quarters that the showing of receivership and assume the added liability of 

earnings hardly justified placing the stock on a having to pay the substantial cash assessments 

dividend basis at this time, especially in view of that are usually levied against the shareholders 

the results of previous years, although it is in reorganization. 

pretty generally admitted that the property itself Thus far little, if any, definite progress seems 

is in fine condition, and that its outlook, in com- to have been made in working out a plan for the 

mon with that of practically all the railroads of capital readjustment of the Missouri, Kansas & 

the country, is now encouraging. Texas. It is reasonably certain, however, that 

Kansas City Southern, during its last fiscal any plan that is put into effect must call for stock 

year, earned the equivalent of a little less than assessments as one of the principal means of 

SYi per cent, on the preferred stock, comparing raising the new capital of which the road stands 

with about %% per cent during the previous in need, 

year. As for the partial-payment plan of buying 

Toledo, St Louis k Western, during the last stocks, we are strongly opposed to its employment 
fiscal year, showed a deficit of more than $500,000 in transactions of the kind we have been discuss- 
after the payment of interest and fixed charges of ing. In fact, the more conservative brokerage 
all kinds. For the year ended June 30, 1914, the houses do not grant the privileges of the plan in 
road earned a surplus which was the equivalent connection with such transactions. However, if 
of a little bit more than 1 per cent on the pre- standard, well-established dividend paying stocks 
ferred stock. ^ are purchased in this way with the idea of hold- 

The situation of the Wheeling k Lake Erie is ing them for income purposes, rather than for the 

similar to that of the Toledo, St Louis k Western, purpose of trading in and out of the market with 

Last year there was a deficit of about $730,000, a view to the realization of possible speculative 

comparing with a surplus for 1914 which was profits, we do not hesitate to give our approval 

the equivalent of 9.40 per cent on the first pre- to the plan. In short, we think it a good way in 

ferred shares, and about 2V4 per cent on the sec- which to combine saving with investment in 

ond preferred shares. cases where surplus funds accumulate in rela« 

This kind of brief summary is the one which tively small amounts from time to time. 



The American Review of Reviews 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



CONTENTS FOR MARCH, 1916 

The City of Erzerum Frontispiece " Bankrupt Diplomacy " 298 

Tlie Pro^rew of the World- An Address bv Elihu Root 

Complex Machinery 259 The Aeroplane of Today 304 

"Politici" Postponed in Canada 259 By Waloemar Kaempffert 

Benefits of the Great Truce 259 W^'»"» illustrations 

National Military Service 260 Campaigns as Spring Opens. 311 

No EU^ion ,n England. ^ 260 By Frank H. Simonds 

"Conscription' —the New Patriotism.... 260 With maps and <m Ulustration 

Our Short-Term Legislators 261 

Our District System 262 Uncle Sam as Weigher, Tester, and Measurer. 321 

"Pork-Barrer Localism 262 By Herbert T. Wade 

Mr. Garrison and the System 263 **"*** « portrait and other illustrations 

The Other Plan Had Friends. 264 Farming A ppalachia 329 

Millions m Sa arics Were At Stake.... 264 ^y T. Russel